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Encyclopedia > Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Ruth Bader Ginsburg


Incumbent
Assumed office 
August 10, 1993
Nominated by Bill Clinton
Preceded by Byron White

Born March 15, 1933 (1933-03-15) (age 75)
Brooklyn, New York
Spouse Martin D. Ginsburg
Religion Jewish

Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg (born March 15, 1933, Brooklyn, New York) is an Associate Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. Appointed by Democratic President Bill Clinton, she is considered to be one of the Court's two most liberal justices. Image File history File linksMetadata Ruth_Bader_Ginsburg,_SCOTUS_photo_portrait. ... Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are the members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States. ... Open seat redirects here. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Byron Raymond White (June 8, 1917 – April 15, 2002) won fame both as a football running back and as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... Associate Justice or Puisne (pronounced puny) Justice is the title for a member of a judicial panel who is not the Chief Justice. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Having spent 13 years as a federal judge, but not being a career jurist, she is unusual as a Supreme Court justice for having spent the majority of her career as an advocate for specific causes, as a lawyer for the National Organization for Women (NOW) and an in-house counsel for the American Civil Liberties Union. She served as a professor at Rutgers University School of Law and Columbia Law School and a federal judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. She is the second woman and the first Jewish woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. In 2007, Forbes magazine rated her as the 20th most powerful woman in the world, and as the most powerful female lawyer in the world. The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an American feminist group, founded in 1966, claiming a membership of 500,000 people and 550 chapters in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. ... The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ... Rutgers School of Law-Newark is one of two law schools of Rutgers University. ... Columbia Law School, located in the New York City borough of Manhattan, is one of the professional schools of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League, and one of the leading law schools in the United States. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, known informally as the D.C. Circuit, is the federal appellate court for the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. ...

Contents

Early life

Ginsburg was born Ruth Joan Bader in Brooklyn, New York, the second daughter of Nathan and Celia Bader. Ginsburg's family called her "Kiki".[1] Her mother took an active role in her education, taking her to the library often. Ginsburg attended James Madison High School, whose law program later dedicated a courtroom in her honor. Her older sister died when she was very young. Her mother struggled with cancer throughout Ginsburg's high school years and died the day before her graduation. For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... James Madison High School is a public high school located at 3787 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn, New York, and educates grades 9 through 12. ...


Ruth Bader married Martin D. Ginsburg, later a professor of law at Georgetown University Law Center and an internationally prominent tax lawyer, in 1954. Their daughter Jane is Professor of Literary and Artistic Property Law at the Columbia Law School, and their son James is founder and president of Cedille Records, a classical music recording company based in Chicago. Georgetown University Law Center (Georgetown Law), is Georgetown Universitys law school, located in Washington, D.C., United States. ... Jane C. Ginsburg (born 1955) is the Morton L. Janklow Professor of Literary and Artistic Property Law at the Columbia Law School. ... Columbia Law School, located in the New York City borough of Manhattan, is one of the professional schools of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League, and one of the leading law schools in the United States. ... Cedille Records Cedille Records is the independent record label of The Chicago Classical Recording Foundation — a foundation dedicated to preserving Chicago’s rich musical heritage by documenting the work of its finest musicians, ensembles, and composers. ...


Ginsburg received her B.A. from Cornell University, where Vladimir Nabokov was among her professors. In 1954 she enrolled at Harvard Law School. When her husband took a job in New York City she transferred to Columbia Law School and became the first woman to be on both the Harvard and Columbia law reviews. She earned her LL.B. degree at Columbia, tied for first in her class.[2] A Bachelor of Arts (B.A. or A.B.) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or program in the arts and/or sciences. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ... Harvard Law School (colloquially, Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Columbia Law School, located in the New York City borough of Manhattan, is one of the professional schools of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League, and one of the leading law schools in the United States. ... The Harvard Law Review is a journal of legal scholarship published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School. ... The degree of Bachelor of Laws is the principal academic degree in law in most common law countries. ...


In 1959 Ginsburg became a partner to Judge Edmund L. Palmieri of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. From 1961 to 1963 she was a research associate and then associate director of the Columbia Law School Project on International Procedure, learning Swedish to co-author a book on judicial procedure in Sweden. Ginsburg conducted extensive research for her book in Sweden at the University of Lund.[3] Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... Lund University Lund University (Swedish: Lunds universitet) is a university in Lund in southernmost Sweden. ...


She was a Professor of Law at Rutgers School of Law-Newark from 1963 to 1972, and at Columbia from 1972 to 1980, where she became the first tenured woman and co-authored the first law school case book on sex discrimination. Rutgers School of Law-Newark is one of two law schools of Rutgers University. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sexism. ...


In 1977 she became a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. As the chief litigator of the ACLU's women's rights project, she argued several cases in front of the Supreme Court and attained a reputation as a skilled oral advocate. Stanford redirects here. ... The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ...


Judicial career

Ruth Bader Ginsburg officially accepts the nomination from President Bill Clinton.

Ginsburg was appointed a Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit by President Carter in 1980. Image File history File links Ginsburgandclinton. ... Image File history File links Ginsburgandclinton. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, known informally as the D.C. Circuit, is the federal appellate court for the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


President Bill Clinton nominated her as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court on June 14, 1993. During her subsequent confirmation hearings in the U.S. Senate, she refused to answer questions regarding her personal views on most issues or how she would adjudicate certain hypothetical situations as a Supreme Court Justice. A number of Senators on the committee came away frustrated, with unanswered questions about how Ginsburg planned to make the transition from an advocate for causes she personally held dear, to a Justice on the highest court in America. Despite this, Ginsburg refused to discuss her beliefs about the limits and proper role of jurisprudence, saying "Were I to rehearse here what I would say and how I would reason on such questions, I would act injudiciously". William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ...


At the same time, Ginsburg did answer questions relating to some potentially controversial issues. For instance, she affirmed her belief in a constitutional right to privacy, and explicated at some length on her personal judicial philosophy and thoughts regarding gender equality.[4] The U.S. Senate confirmed her by a 96 to 3 vote[5] and she took her seat on August 10, 1993. is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Ginsburg characterizes her performance on the court as a cautious approach to adjudication, and argued in a speech shortly before her nomination to the Supreme Court that "[m]easured motions seem to me right, in the main, for constitutional as well as common law adjudication. Doctrinal limbs too swiftly shaped, experience teaches, may prove unstable."[6] Ginsburg has urged that the Supreme Court allow for dialogue with elected branches, while others argue that would inevitably lead to politicizing the court.


Though Ginsburg has consistently supported abortion rights and joined in the Supreme Court's opinion striking down Nebraska's partial-birth abortion law in Stenberg v. Carhart (2000), she has criticized the court's ruling in Roe v. Wade as terminating a nascent, democratic movement to liberalize abortion laws which might have built a more durable consensus in support of abortion rights. She has also been an advocate for using foreign law and norms to shape U.S. law in judicial opinions, in contrast to the textualist views of her colleagues Chief Justice John Roberts, Justice Antonin Scalia, Justice Clarence Thomas and Justice Samuel Alito. Despite their fundamental differences, Ginsburg considers Scalia her closest colleague in the Court, often dining and attending operas together. The morality and legality of abortion are controversial topics. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Partial-birth abortion (PBA) is a non-medical term used to refer to some late-term abortion procedures. ... Holding Laws banning partial-birth abortion are unconstitutional if they do not make an exception for the womans health, or if they cannot be reasonably construed to apply only to the partial-birth abortion (intact D&X) procedure and not to other abortion methods. ... Holding Texas law making it a crime to assist a woman to get an abortion violated her due process rights. ... Textualism is a formalist theory of statutory interpretation which holds that a statutes ordinary meaning should govern its interpretation, as opposed to inquiries into non-textual sources such as the intention of the legislature in passing the law, the problem it was intended to remedy, or substantive questions of... John G. Roberts, Jr. ... Antonin Gregory Scalia (born March 11, 1936[1]) is an American jurist and the second most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American jurist and has been an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States since 1991. ... Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr. ...


Ginsburg was diagnosed with colo-rectal cancer in 1999 and underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation treatments. The condition appears to be arrested. Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ...


Ginsburg is part of the "liberal wing" in the current court and has a Segal-Cover score of 0.680 placing her as the most liberal (by that measure, which takes no account of judicial actions post-confirmation) of current justices, although more moderate than those of many other post-War justices. In a 2003 statistical analysis of Supreme Court voting patterns, Ginsburg emerged the second most liberal member of the Court (behind Justice Stevens).[7][8] Modern liberalism in the United States is a form of liberalism that began in the United States in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ... Segal-Cover scores attempt to measure the relative liberalism or conservatism of United States Supreme Court justices. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... John Paul Stevens (born April 20, 1920) is currently the most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ...


Some notable cases in which Ginsburg wrote an opinion:

Holding State of Virginias exclusion of women from the Virginia Military Institute violated Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. ... Holding The Court held that plaintiff residents in the area of South Carolinas North Tyger River had standing to sue an industrial polluter,(the towns people thought he was a dick head) against whom various deterrent civil penalties were being pursued. ... Holding In the circumstances of this case, any manual recount of votes seeking to meet the December 12 “safe harbor” deadline would be unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. ... Holding 20-year retroactive extension of existing copyright terms did not violate the Copyright Clause or the First Amendment of the United States Constitution. ... Holding The Rooker-Feldman doctrine applies only where a federal court litigant seeks to review or overturn state court judgments in federal district court. ...

Dispute over relevance of international law

On March 1, 2005, in the case of Roper v. Simmons, the Supreme Court (in an opinion written by Justice Anthony Kennedy) ruled in a 5-4 decision that the Constitution forbids executing convicts who committed their crimes before turning 18. In addition to the fact that most states now prohibit executions in such cases, the majority opinion reasoned that the United States was increasingly out of step with the world by allowing minors to be executed, saying "the United States now stands alone in a world that has turned its face against the juvenile death penalty." is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Holding The Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments forbid imposition of the death penalty on offenders who were under the age of 18 when their crimes were committed. ... This article is about the Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. ...


Justice Antonin Scalia rejected that approach with strident criticism, saying that the justices' personal opinions and the opinions of "like-minded foreigners" should not be given a role in helping interpret the Constitution. Antonin Gregory Scalia (born March 11, 1936[1]) is an American jurist and the second most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ...


Ginsburg rejected that argument in a speech given about one month after Roper. "Judges in the United States are free to consult all manner of commentary," she said to several hundred lawyers, scholars, and other members of the American Society of International Law.[2] If a law review article by a professor is a suitable citation, she asked, why not a well reasoned opinion by foreign jurist? Fears about relying too heavily on world opinion "should not lead us to abandon the effort to learn what we can from the experience and good thinking foreign sources may convey," Ginsburg told the audience.


In response to Roper and other recent decisions, several Republicans in the U.S. House of Representatives introduced a resolution declaring that the "meaning of the Constitution of the United States should not be based on judgments, laws, or pronouncements of foreign institutions unless such foreign judgments, laws or pronouncements inform an understanding of the original meaning of the Constitution of the United States." A similar resolution was introduced in the U.S. Senate. In her speech, Ginsburg criticized the resolutions. "Although I doubt the resolutions will pass this Congress, it is disquieting that they have attracted sizable support," she said. "The notion that it is improper to look beyond the borders of the United States in grappling with hard questions has a certain kinship to the view that the U.S. Constitution is a document essentially frozen in time as of the date of its ratification," Ginsburg asserted. "Even more so today, the United States is subject to the scrutiny of a candid world," she said. "What the United States does, for good or for ill, continues to be watched by the international community, in particular by organizations concerned with the advancement of the rule of law and respect for human dignity."[3] On 19th November 2007 Justice Ginsburg gave an extensive interview to Irish journalist Aine Lawlor on RTÉ in which she answered questions on many topics, including questions on the relevance of International Law in the American justice system. [4] GOP redirects here. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ...


"Ginsburg Precedent"

More than a decade passed between the time Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer were appointed and the time another justice left the court. In that time, both Congress and the White House had switched to Republican control. When Sandra Day O'Connor announced her retirement in the summer of 2005 (with William Rehnquist's death a few months later), both sides began to squabble about just how many questions President George W. Bush's nominees would be expected to answer. The debate heated up when hearings for John Roberts began in September 2005. Republicans used an argument that they called the "Ginsburg Precedent", which centered on Ginsburg's confirmation hearings. [9] In those hearings, she did not answer some questions involving matters such as abortion, gay rights, separation of church and state, rights of the disabled, and so on. Only one witness was allowed to testify "against" Ginsburg at her confirmation hearings, and the hearings lasted only four days. [10] Stephen Gerald Breyer (born August 15, 1938) is an American attorney, political figure, and jurist. ... Sandra Day OConnor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist who was the first woman to serve as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... John G. Roberts, Jr. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ...


In a September 28, 2005, speech at Wake Forest University, Ginsburg said that Chief Justice Roberts refusing to answer questions on some cases was "unquestionably right." [11] However, as the following sentence in the speech made clear, this statement did not affirm the existence of a "precedent" which the Judiciary Committee was obliged to follow; it was merely a statement the nominee could, at his discretion, refuse to answer questions about how he might rule. is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wake Forest University is a private, coeducational university located in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. ...


Democrats had argued against Roberts' refusal to answer certain questions, saying that Ginsburg had made her views very clear, even if she did not comment on all specific matters, and that due to her lengthy tenure as a judge, many of her legal opinions were already available for review. Democrats also pointed out that Republican Senator Orrin Hatch had recommended Ginsburg to then-President Clinton, which suggested Clinton worked in a bipartisan manner. Hatch also recommended Roberts. Orrin Grant Hatch (born March 22, 1934) is a Republican United States Senator from Utah, serving since 1977. ...


During the John Roberts confirmation hearings, Biden, Hatch, and Roberts himself brought up Ginsburg's hearings several times as they argued over how many questions she answered and how many Roberts was expected to answer. The "precedent" was again cited several times during the confirmation hearings for Justice Samuel Alito. John G. Roberts, Jr. ... Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr. ...


References

  1. ^ Oyez bio
  2. ^ Oyez bio
  3. ^ Linda, Bayer "Ruth Bader Ginsburg"(Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2000), 46.
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ The three negative votes came from conservative Republicans Don Nickles (OK), Robert C. Smith (NH), and Jesse Helms (NC).
  6. ^ DLC: Judge Not by William A. Galston
  7. ^ See http://pooleandrosenthal.com/the_unidimensional_supreme_court.htm
  8. ^ Lawrence Sirovich, "A Pattern Analysis of the Second Rehnquist Court", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100 (24 June 2003)
  9. ^ PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Jun., 1994), pp. 224-227
  10. ^ PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Jun., 1994), pp. 224-227
  11. ^ http://www.the-dispatch.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050928/APN/509281240&cachetime=5

Image:Don Nickles. ... For other persons named Robert Smith, see Robert Smith (disambiguation). ... Jesse Alexander Helms, Jr. ...

Bibliography

  • Clinton, Bill (2005). My Life. Vintage. ISBN 1-4000-3003-X.
  • Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Foreword to Garner on Language and Writing (West Group 2008). ISBN-10: 159031588X.

External links

  • Supreme court official bio (PDF)
Legal offices
Preceded by
Harold Leventhal
Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit
1980-1993
Succeeded by
David S. Tatel
Preceded by
Byron White
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
1993-present
Incumbent
Order of precedence in the United States of America
Preceded by
Clarence Thomas
United States order of precedence
as of 2008
Succeeded by
Stephen Breyer
Persondata
NAME Ginsburg, Ruth Joan Bader
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION U.S. Supreme Court justice
DATE OF BIRTH March 15, 1933
PLACE OF BIRTH Brooklyn, New York
DATE OF DEATH living
PLACE OF DEATH
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... Justice Harry Blackmun Harry Andrew Blackmun (November 12, 1908 – March 4, 1999) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1970 to 1994. ... John Paul Stevens (born April 20, 1920) is currently the most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Sandra Day OConnor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist who was the first woman to serve as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Antonin Gregory Scalia (born March 11, 1936[1]) is an American jurist and the second most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... This article is about the Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. ... David Hackett Souter (born September 17, 1939) has been an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States since 1990. ... Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American jurist and has been an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States since 1991. ... John Paul Stevens (born April 20, 1920) is currently the most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Sandra Day OConnor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist who was the first woman to serve as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Antonin Gregory Scalia (born March 11, 1936[1]) is an American jurist and the second most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... This article is about the Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. ... David Hackett Souter (born September 17, 1939) has been an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States since 1990. ... Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American jurist and has been an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States since 1991. ... Stephen Gerald Breyer (born August 15, 1938) is an American attorney, political figure, and jurist. ... John G. Roberts, Jr. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... John Paul Stevens (born April 20, 1920) is currently the most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Sandra Day OConnor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist who was the first woman to serve as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Antonin Gregory Scalia (born March 11, 1936[1]) is an American jurist and the second most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... This article is about the Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. ... David Hackett Souter (born September 17, 1939) has been an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States since 1990. ... Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American jurist and has been an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States since 1991. ... Stephen Gerald Breyer (born August 15, 1938) is an American attorney, political figure, and jurist. ... John Paul Stevens (born April 20, 1920) is currently the most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Antonin Gregory Scalia (born March 11, 1936[1]) is an American jurist and the second most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... This article is about the Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. ... David Hackett Souter (born September 17, 1939) has been an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States since 1990. ... Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American jurist and has been an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States since 1991. ... Stephen Gerald Breyer (born August 15, 1938) is an American attorney, political figure, and jurist. ... Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ...

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Ginsburg that it is the duty of Supreme Court justices to disregard the plain words and intentions of the Constitution, it is particularly important that her personal opinions be closely scrutinized.
Ginsburg's performance as a judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals in the District of Columbia stands in clear contrast with her role as advocate when she was in private practice and when she functioned as general counsel of the American Civil Liberties Union.
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