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Encyclopedia > Russo Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
Date: 1904-1905
Location: Manchuria, Yellow Sea
Result: Japanese Victory
Combatants
Imperial Russia Empire of Japan
Strength
500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers
Casualties
25,331 Killed
146,032 Wounded
47,387 Killed
173,425 Wounded
Russo-Japanese War
Port Arthur (naval)Yalu RiverDairenYellow SeaJapanese SeaPort Arthur (siege)Liaoyang – Sha-ho – SandepuMukdenTsushima
Greater Manchuria, Russian (outer) Manchuria is region to upper right in lighter Red; Liaodong Peninsula is the wedge extending into the Yellow Sea

The Russo-Japanese War (19041905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of Russia and Japan in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of the war were Port Arthur, known also as Lushun and Ryojun, and the Liaodong Peninsula, plus up the railway from the port to Harbin. The Russians were in constant pursuit of a warm water port. The Japanese were driven to war through geostrategic concerns to secure their interior lines by stemming Russian interest in Korea. 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 2 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 3 (dark red + medium red + light red) Northeast China Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: Mǎnzhōu) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... ... // Radical revolutionary parties During the 1890s, Russias industrial development led to a significant increase in the size of the urban bourgeoisie and the working class, setting the stage for a more dynamic political atmosphere and the development of radical parties. ... The flag of Imperial Japan is still used as the flag of Japan. ... The Battle of Port Arthur (February 9, 1904) was the opening battle of the Russo-Japanese War. ... The Battle of Yalu River took place from April 30 to May 1, 1904, and was the first major land battle during the Russo-Japanese War. ... The battle of Dalian took place on May 30, 1904, during the Japanese forces under the command of general Hikato. ... The Battle of the Yellow Sea was the first main naval engagement of the Russo-Japanese War, being fought on August 10, 1904. ... The Battle of the Japanese Sea was a minor naval enagement during the Russo-Japanese War. ... The Siege of Port Arthur (1 August 1904-2 January 1905), the Russian deepwater port and naval base at the tip of the Liaotung Peninsula (See Map below the Battlebox) in Manchuria was one of the longest and most vicious battles during the Russo-Japanese War. ... The Battle of Liaoyang (August 24, 1904 - September 4, 1904) was one of the major battles of the Russo-Japanese War. ... Battle of Sha-ho River Conflict Russo-Japanese War Date February 20 to March 10, 1905 Place Near Sha-ho River Result Draw The Battle of Sha-ho River was a battle of the Russo-Japanese War fought along a 37-mile front centered at Sha-ho on the Mukden... Battle of Sandepu Conflict Russo-Japanese War Date January 25 and January 26, 1905 Place Near Mukden in Manchuria Result Draw The Battle of Sandepu, (also known as the Battle of Heikoutai) was a major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War. ... The Battle of Mukden was the last major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, fought from February 20 to March 10, Japan and Russia near Mukden in Manchuria. ... Combatants Japan Russia Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships, 27 cruisers, in addition to destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships, 3 coastal battleships, 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead, 583 injured, 3 torpedo boats sunk 4380 dead, 5917 injured 21 ships sunk, 7 captured, 6 disarmed The... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 2 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 3 (dark red + medium red + light red) Northeast China Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: Mǎnzhōu) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima (on August 6) immediately killed between 100,000 and 200,000 people and are the only known instances nuclear weapons have ever been used in war. ... Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; Pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ... A warm water port is a port where the water does not freeze (rendering it unusable) in the winter. ...

Contents


Origins of the war

In the late 19th century and early 20th century, various Western countries were competing for influence, trade, and territory in East Asia as Japan strove to form itself into a modern great power. Great power status rested on access to colonies which provided raw materials, and these, in turn, rested on naval power, which required bases for the increasingly large battleships of the era, and a chain of coal stations for warships to restock the fuel for their boilers. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... HMS Victory in 1884 given to the most powerfully gun-armed and most heavily armored classes of warships built between the 15th and 20th centuries. ... Coal (previously referred to as pitcoal or seacoal) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... A steam engine is an external combustion heat engine that makes use of the thermal energy that exists in steam, converting it to mechanical work. ...


Japan's location encouraged it to focus on the Choson Dynasty in Korea and the Qing Dynasty in northern China, putting it in competition with its neighbor, Russia. The Japanese effort to occupy Korea led to the Sino-Japanese War. Japan's subsequent defeat of China led to the Treaty of Shimonoseki (April 17, 1895) by which China abandoned its own claims to Korea, as well as ceding Taiwan and Lüshunkou (often called Port Arthur). However, three Western powers (Russia, the German Empire and the French Third Republic) by the Triple Intervention of April 23, 1895 applied pressure on Japan to give up Port Arthur, and the Russians later (in 1898) negotiated a 25-year lease of the naval base with China. Meanwhile, Japanese forces were trying to take over Korea, which had a protection pact with Russia. Russian forces consequently occupied most of Manchuria and parts of Korea. The Joseon Dynasty (alternatively, Choson or Chosun) is usually preceded with the title Great. The House of the Junju Yi-Shi, The Royal Family of the Joseon Dynasty, or Ishi Wangjo, was the final ruling Imperial dynasty of Korea, lasting from 1392 until 1910. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Japan and Qing China fought the First Sino-Japanese War (or the Qing-Japanese War) during 1894 and 1895, primarily over control of Korea. ... The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed The Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japanese: 下関条約, Shimonoseki Jōyaku), known as the Treaty of Maguan (T. Chinese: 馬關條約, S. Chinese: 马关条约;) in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895 between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; Pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Flag of the German Empire, 1871–1918: black-white-red The German Empire is the name conventionally given in English to the German state from the time of the proclamation of Wilhelm I of Prussia as German Emperor (January 18, 1871) to the abdication of Wilhelm II (November 9, 1918). ... A map of France under the Third Republic, featuring colonies. ... After the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed between Japan and China on April 17, 1895 to conclude the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) three European Powers (Russia, Germany and France) intervened on April 23 with so-called friendly advice to Japan to retrocede the Liaotung peninsula including Lushun (Port... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Japan, after failing to negotiate a favorable agreement with Russia, sent an ultimatum on December 31st, 1903, broke off diplomatic relations on February 6, but began attacking the Russian Navy at Port Arthur three hours prior to the ultimatum being received by the Russian Government. Both sides issued a declaration of war on February 10. Under international law, Japan's attack was not considered a sneak attack, because of the ultimatum. However, it was commonly mentioned as an example of Japan's preference for surprise attack, after the attack on Pearl Harbor. An ultimatum is a final demand, with a threat, made without intent of negotiation, for example before war, before killing hostages, etc. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Combatants United States of America Imperial Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN) Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 8 tankers, 23 fleet submarines, 5 midget submarines, 441 planes...


War

Campaign of 1904

Admiral Togo at the age of 58, at the time of the Russo-Japanese War.
Admiral Togo at the age of 58, at the time of the Russo-Japanese War.

Port Arthur, on the Liaodong Peninsula in the south of Manchuria, had been fortified into a major naval base by the Russians. The Japanese needed to control the sea in order to fight a war on the Asian mainland, so their first military objective was to neutralize the Russian fleet at Port Arthur. On the night of February 8, the Japanese fleet under Admiral Heihachiro Togo opened the war with a surprise torpedo attack on the Russian ships at Port Arthur, badly damaging two Russian battleships. The attacks developed into the Battle of Port Arthur the next morning. A series of indecisive naval engagements followed, in which the Japanese were unable to attack the Russian fleet successfully under the land guns of the harbor and the Russians declined to leave the harbor for the open seas, especially after the death of Admiral Stepan Osipovich Makarov on April 13. These engagements provided cover for a Japanese landing near Incheon in Korea, from which they occupied Seoul and then the rest of Korea. By the end of April, the Japanese army under Kuroki Itei was prepared to cross the Yalu river into Russian-occupied Manchuria. 1903 photograph of Heihachiro Togo. ... 1903 photograph of Heihachiro Togo. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Admiral Togo at the age of 58, at the time of the Russo-Japanese War. ... A torpedo in Rail terminology refers to a small explosive device strapped to the top of the rail to alert an approaching train of immediate danger ahead. ... The Battle of Port Arthur (February 9, 1904) was the opening battle of the Russo-Japanese War. ... Stepan Osipovich Makarov (Russian: Степа́н О́сипович Мака́ров) (January 8, 1848/1849 — March 31, 1904) was a famous Russian vice-admiral, a highly accomplished and decorated commander of the Russian Navy, and a distingushed oceanographer, awarded by the Russian Academy of Sciences, an author of several books. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... Incheon Metropolitan City is a metropolitan city and major seaport on the west coast of South Korea, near Seoul. ... Seoul (Sŏul|서울) ) is the capital and largest city of South Korea (Republic of Korea). ... Kuroki Tamemoto (黒木為楨 Kuroki Tamemoto; 1844-?) was a Japanese general. ... The Yalu (Amnok) River is a river on the border between China and North Korea. ...


In counterpoint to the Japanese strategy of gaining rapid victories to control Manchuria, Russian strategy focused on fighting delaying actions to gain time for reinforcements to arrive via the long Trans-Siberian railway. On May 1, the Battle of the Yalu River, in which Japanese troops stormed a Russian position after an unopposed crossing of the river, was the first major land battle of the war. Japanese troops proceeded to land at several points on the Manchurian coast, and fought a number of engagements driving the Russians back on Port Arthur. These battles, including the Battle of Nanshan on May 25, were marked by heavy Japanese losses attacking entrenched Russian positions, but the Russians remained passive and failed to counterattack. Trans-Siberian line in red; Baikal Amur Mainline in green. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... The Battle of Yalu River took place from April 30 to May 1, 1904, and was the first major land battle during the Russo-Japanese War. ... The Battle of Nanshan was one of many vicious land battles of the Russo-Japanese War. ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ...


At sea, the war was just as brutal. After the February 8 attack on Port Arthur, the Japanese attempted to deny the Russians use of the port. During the night of February 13–14, the Japanese attempted to block the entrance to Port Arthur by sinking several cement-filled steamers in the deep water channel to the port. But the steamers sank too deep into the water for it to be effective. Another attempt to block the harbor entrance on the night of May 3–4 with blockships also failed. In March, the energetic Vice Admiral Makarov took command of the First Russian Pacific Squadron with the intention of making plans to break out of the Port Arthur blockade. By then, both sides began a policy of tactical offensive mine-laying by laying mines in each others ports. This was the first time in warfare that mines were used for offensive purposes. In the past, mines were used as purely defensive purposes by keeping harbors safe from invading warships. The Japanese mine-laying policy was effective at restricting the Russian movement of its ships outside Port Arthur when on April 12, 1904, two Russian battleships, the flagship Petropavlovsk and the Pobeda ran into a Japanese minefield off Port Arthur, both striking mines. The Petropavlosk sank within an hour, while the Pobeda had to be towed back to Port Arthur for extensive repairs. Makarov died on the Petropavlovsk by choosing to go down with his ship. But the Russians soon learned the Japanese policy of offensive minelaying and decided to play the strategy too. On May 15, 1904, two Japanese battleships, the Yashima and the Hatsuse, were both lured into a recently laid Russian minefield off Port Arthur, both striking at least two mines. The Yashima sank within minutes taking 450 sailors with her, while the Hatsuse sank under tow a few hours later. On June 23, a breakout attempt by the Russian squadron, now under the command of Admiral Vitgeft failed. By the end of the month, Japanese artillery were already putting shells into the harbor. February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Petropavlovsk can refer to: Petropavlovsk (or Petropavl) in Kazakhstan Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Pobeda or Pobedy (Russian: побе́да, for victory) can refer to: Peak Pobeda or Pik Pobedy (7,439 m), in the Tian Shan mountain range. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Japanese battleship Yashima (12,330 tons) was built for the Imperial Japanese Navy by Armstrong Whitworth at the Elswick Yard. ... The Japanese battleship Hatsuse (14,967 tons) was built by Armstrong Whitworth at the Elswick Yard. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ...

Russian 500 pound shell bursting near the Japanese siege guns, near Port Arthur
Russian 500 pound shell bursting near the Japanese siege guns, near Port Arthur

Japan began a long siege of Port Arthur, which had been heavily fortified by the Russians. On August 10, 1904, the Russian fleet attempted to break out from Port Arthur and proceed to Vladivostok, but they were intercepted and defeated at the Battle of the Yellow Sea. The remnant of the Russian fleet remained in Port Arthur, where they were slowly sunk by the artillery of the besieging army. Attempts to relieve the city from the land also failed, and after the Battle of Liaoyang in late August, the Russians retreated to Mukden (Shenyang). Port Arthur finally fell on January 2, 1905, after a series of brutal, high-casualty assaults. Russo-Japanese War view, scanned from a Stereoscope card, published in 1905. ... Russo-Japanese War view, scanned from a Stereoscope card, published in 1905. ... The Siege of Port Arthur (1 August 1904-2 January 1905), the Russian deepwater port and naval base at the tip of the Liaotung Peninsula (See Map below the Battlebox) in Manchuria was one of the longest and most vicious battles during the Russo-Japanese War. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... City and harbor of Vladivostok with the Statue to the fighters for Soviet power in the Far East (bottom right) Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Chinese border and North Korea. ... The Battle of the Yellow Sea was the first main naval engagement of the Russo-Japanese War, being fought on August 10, 1904. ... The Battle of Liaoyang (August 24, 1904 - September 4, 1904) was one of the major battles of the Russo-Japanese War. ... Location within China Major districts of Shenyang. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Campaign of 1905

The Japanese army was now able to attack northward. To finalize the war, Japan needed to crush the Russian army in Manchuria. The Battle of Mukden opened in the end of February. Japanese forces progressed step by step with damage and tried to encircle General Kuropatkin Headquarters at Mukden (Shenyang). Russian forces resisted but on March 10, 1905, they decided to retreat. The heavily damaged Japanese could not pursue the Russians. Because strategically the possession of the city meant little, the final victory was dependent on the navy. Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 2 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 3 (dark red + medium red + light red) Northeast China Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: Mǎnzhōu) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... The Battle of Mukden was the last major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, fought from February 20 to March 10, Japan and Russia near Mukden in Manchuria. ... Alexei Nikolayevich Kuropatkin (1848-1921) was a Russian general. ... Location within China Major districts of Shenyang. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in leap years). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

Mikasa, the most powerful battleship of her time, was the Japanese flagship at the Battle of Tsushima in 1905.
Mikasa, the most powerful battleship of her time, was the Japanese flagship at the Battle of Tsushima in 1905.

Meanwhile, at sea, the Russians had already been preparing to reinforce their fleet the previous year by sending the Baltic Sea fleet under Admiral Zinovi Petrovich Rozhdestvenski around the Cape of Good Hope to Asia. On October 21, 1904, while passing by the United Kingdom (an ally of Japan but neutral in this war), they nearly provoked a war in the Dogger Bank incident by firing on British fishing boats that they mistook for torpedo boats. The duration of the journey meant that Admiral Togo was well aware of the Baltic Fleet's progress, and he made plans to meet it before it could reach port at Vladivostok. He intercepted them in the Tsushima Strait between Korea and Japan, and in the Battle of Tsushima, May 2728, 1905, the more modern Japanese fleet, numerically inferior but with superior speed and firing range, shelled the Russian fleet mercilessly, destroying all eight of their battleships. Image File history File links Japanese battleship Mikasa. ... Image File history File links Japanese battleship Mikasa. ... Mikasa (三笠) was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the flagship of Admiral Togo Heihachiro during the battle of Tsushima (1905) in the Russo-Japanese War. ... Combatants Japan Russia Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships, 27 cruisers, in addition to destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships, 3 coastal battleships, 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead, 583 injured, 3 torpedo boats sunk 4380 dead, 5917 injured 21 ships sunk, 7 captured, 6 disarmed The... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Zinovi Petrovich Rozhdestvenski1 (1848-January 14, 1909) was an admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy, who was involved in the Russo-Japanese War. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Dogger Bank incident (also known as incident of Hull) was the assault on British trawlers at the Dogger Bank by the Russian Baltic Fleet in the night of October 21 to October 22, 1904. ... A sailor of the Baltic Fleet during World War II The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... City and harbor of Vladivostok with the Statue to the fighters for Soviet power in the Far East (bottom right) Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Chinese border and North Korea. ... The Tsushima Strait is the eastern channel of the Korea Strait Tsushima Strait (対馬海峡, also known in Western historical reference works as the Tsu Shima Strait or Tsu-Shima Strait) is that part of the Korea Strait located east and south of the Tsushima Islands. ... Combatants Japan Russia Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships, 27 cruisers, in addition to destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships, 3 coastal battleships, 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead, 583 injured, 3 torpedo boats sunk 4380 dead, 5917 injured 21 ships sunk, 7 captured, 6 disarmed The... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... HMS Victory in 1884 given to the most powerfully gun-armed and most heavily armored classes of warships built between the 15th and 20th centuries. ...


Peace

Although Russia still had a larger army than Japan, these successive defeats had shaken Russian confidence. Throughout 1905, Russia was rocked by the Russian Revolution of 1905, which represented a severe threat to the stability of the government. Russia elected to negotiate peace rather than continue the war so it could concentrate on internal matters. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ...


An offer of mediation by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt (who earned a Nobel Peace Prize for this effort) led to the Treaty of Portsmouth, signed in the U.S. Navy facility at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on September 5, 1905. Russia ceded the southern half of Sakhalin Island to Japan. It was only regained by the USSR in 1952 under the Treaty of San Francisco following the Second World War. Russia signed over its 25-year leasehold rights to Port Arthur, including the excellent naval base, and the peninsula around it. Russia further agreed to evacuate Manchuria and recognize Korea as part of the Japanese sphere of influence. Japan would annex Korea in 1910 with scant protest from other powers. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... The Nobel Peace Prize Medal featuring a portrait of Alfred Nobel Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Treaty signing ceremony The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05. ... Location Location in Rockingham County, New Hampshire Coordinates , Government County Rockingham County City Manager John P. Bohenko Geographical characteristics Area     City 16. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Location of Sakhalin in the Western Pacific Sakhalin, GOST transliteration Sahalin, (Russian: , Traditional Chinese: 庫頁島; Simplified Chinese: 库页岛; pinyin: kùyèdÇŽo), also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45° 50 and 54° 24 N. It is part of the Russian Federation and is its... Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru gives a speech on reconciliation and rapport ) at the San Francisco Peace conference. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


This was one of the first major victories in the modern era of an Asian country over a Western one and began a series of events that would lead to decolonization. Japan's prestige rose greatly as it began to be considered a modern Great Power. Concurrently, Russia lost virtually its entire Eastern and Baltic fleets and slipped downward in esteem. This was particularly true in the eyes of bellicose Germany, then locked in a power struggle with France over Morocco. While the Kaiser was a relative of the Tsar, Russia was France's ally, and that loss of prestige would have a significant effect on German war plans. Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization is the process by which a colony gains its independence from a colonial power, a process opposite to colonization. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kaiser is the German title meaning Emperor, derived from the Roman title of Caesar, as is the Slavic title of Tsar. ... Look up Tsar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the US community of Czar, see Czar, West Virginia. ...


In the absence of Russian competition and with the distraction of European nations during World War I and the Great Depression, the Japanese military began the efforts to dominate China that would lead to the Pacific War of World War II. In Russia, this defeat led in the short term to a reform of the Russian military that would allow it to face Germany in World War I. However, the revolts at home following the war and military defeat presaged the Russian Revolution of 1917. Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... The Great Depression was known as a worldwide economic downturn, starting in 1929 and lasting through most of the 1930s. ... US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War was the part of World War II that occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, 1937 to 1945. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...


[All above dates are believed to be New-Style (Gregorian, not the Julian used in Tsarist Russia): for conformity, where there are two, use the one that reads 13 days "later" than the other.] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and took force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ...


Assessment of war results

Japanese soldiers' corpses in a trench, with Russian soldiers looking on.
Japanese soldiers' corpses in a trench, with Russian soldiers looking on.

The conflict resulted in a victory for Japan which won most conflicts of the war, and devastated Russia's deep water navy while chewing up several Russian armies. That feeling of triumph soured drastically in Japan, leading to widespread riots when the terms of the peace treaty were announced, military and economic exhaustion of both belligerents, and the reluctant and distasteful (to the West) establishment of Japan as a major world power. The war ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth, mediated by the US, which alienated the two powers and started a trend of repeated insults and disrespect that culminated in Japan's decision to go to war with the United States in 1941. Japan resented the settlement and felt like she had been treated like the defeated power. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1814x1780, 329 KB) Other versions of this file File links The following pages link to this file: Russo-Japanese War ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1814x1780, 329 KB) Other versions of this file File links The following pages link to this file: Russo-Japanese War ... Treaty signing ceremony The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ...


Popular discontent in Russia following the defeat led to the Russian Revolution of 1905, an event Tsar Nicholas II of Russia had hoped to stave off and avoid entirely by taking intransigent negotiating stances prior to coming to the table at all. The Russian position hardened further during the days immediately preceding and during the Peace Conference itself. The war ended with mediation by the United States in the person of Theodore Roosevelt who was awarded the 1906 Nobel Prize for Peace in 1908. However, there was "widespread riotous discontent" among Japanese when peace was announced because of the lack of territorial gains; but especially at the lack of monetary indemnity (reparations to Japan). Both nations were all but bankrupt after the exhaustive war, and it is hard to fault Roosevelt for finessing the monetary and territorial demands when both parties had such diametrically conflicting expectations and preconditions. Since Roosevelt had also served as honest broker in getting both parties to the peace table, he might have been less cagey and lowered expectations during the preliminary diplomatic wrangling. However, it was a very bloody war foreshadowing World War I in many ways. This led to feelings of distrust toward all western nations. According to Pulitzer Prize-winning biographer Edmund Morris, Japanese feelings that the honest broker United States had misled them since indemnity was a precondition they expected the US to support. Japan also expected that they would retain all of Sakhalin Island, but they had to give half after some Rooseveltian pressure. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May 1868 - 17 July 1918) (Russian: (Nikolai II)) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Sir Edward Appletons medal Photographs of Nobel Prize Medals. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The gold medal awarded for Public Service in Journalism The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical compositions. ... Edmund Morris is a British biographer, winner of the 1980 Pulitzer Prize. ... Location of Sakhalin in the Western Pacific Sakhalin, GOST transliteration Sahalin, (Russian: , Traditional Chinese: 庫頁島; Simplified Chinese: 库页岛; pinyin: kùyèdǎo), also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45° 50 and 54° 24 N. It is part of the Russian Federation and is its...


The defeat of Russia was met with shock both in the West and especially across Asia. That a non-Western country could defeat an established power in a large military conflict was inspiring to various anti-colonial independence movements around the world. The world’s major powers, in the fashion of the times, looking with racist or national condescension, failed to heed the lesson of how modern technology had transformed land warfare into a deadly morass. The major powers had also unanimously embraced naval improvement programs which had the cumulative effect of making future naval battles at short to moderate ranges, as had occurred in this war, nearly as deadly as charging a machine gun. Assimilating these lessons would be bought with blood and treasure only nine years later on the muddy fields of World War I. World map showing the location of Asia. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First...


It should be noted, however, that the first naval battle of this war (and possibly the war itself) does not accurately reflect the military prowess of either Russia or Japan as compared to each other. With European militaries, it had been customary for opponents to declare an intention of hostility before opening battle. However, in the first naval battle the Japanese, either ignorant or possibly exploitative of this custom of battle, had given the Russians no foreword before opening fire on a surprised Russian navy.[1] Had this battle been fought under more equal circumstances, its victor might have well been the Russians. Although the Japanese had consistently defeated Russian forces throughout the war and not just in the first battle, this string of defeats for the Russians might be attributed in no little part to the heavy loss of morale incurred from the first battle. Russia also faced problems from within its Empire as its internal social tensions were growing as were the ethnic tensions in some rebellious regions, particularly in Poland, where the population expressed joy at the troubles faced by Russia and sent emissaries to Japan to collaborate on sabotage and intelligence gathering within the Russian Empire.[2][3],[4].


In the war, the Japanese army treated Russian civilians and prisoners of war well (the same cannot be said of Korean and Chinese prisoners), without the brutality and atrocities that were widespread during World War II. Japanese historians think this war was a turning point for Japan and a key to understanding why Japan failed militarily and politically later. The acrimony within Japanese society went to every class and level, and it became the consensus within Japan that they had been treated as the defeated power during the peace conference. This feeling built up by degrees with every perceived slight and condescending act by the Western powers toward Japan for the next few decades. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II...


List of battles

1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Battle of Port Arthur (February 9, 1904) was the opening battle of the Russo-Japanese War. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Battle of Chemulpo Bay was an early battle in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Cruiser Varyag (also spelled Variag; see Varangian for the meaning of the name) (Russian: ) was a Russian protected cruiser gone down to the military history of Russia. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Battle of Yalu River took place from April 30 to May 1, 1904, and was the first major land battle during the Russo-Japanese War. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The battle of Dalian took place on May 30, 1904, during the Japanese forces under the command of general Hikato. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Battle of the Yellow Sea was the first main naval engagement of the Russo-Japanese War, being fought on August 10, 1904. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Battle of the Japanese Sea was a minor naval enagement during the Russo-Japanese War. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Siege of Port Arthur (1 August 1904-2 January 1905), the Russian deepwater port and naval base at the tip of the Liaotung Peninsula (See Map below the Battlebox) in Manchuria was one of the longest and most vicious battles during the Russo-Japanese War. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Battle of Liaoyang (August 24, 1904 - September 4, 1904) was one of the major battles of the Russo-Japanese War. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Battle of Sha-ho River Conflict Russo-Japanese War Date February 20 to March 10, 1905 Place Near Sha-ho River Result Draw The Battle of Sha-ho River was a battle of the Russo-Japanese War fought along a 37-mile front centered at Sha-ho on the Mukden... October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... October 17 is the 290th (in leap years the 291st) day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Battle of Sandepu Conflict Russo-Japanese War Date January 25 and January 26, 1905 Place Near Mukden in Manchuria Result Draw The Battle of Sandepu, (also known as the Battle of Heikoutai) was a major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Mukden was the last major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, fought from February 20 to March 10, Japan and Russia near Mukden in Manchuria. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in leap years). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Japan Russia Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships, 27 cruisers, in addition to destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships, 3 coastal battleships, 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead, 583 injured, 3 torpedo boats sunk 4380 dead, 5917 injured 21 ships sunk, 7 captured, 6 disarmed The... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... The French battleship Orient burns, 1 August 1798, during the Battle of the Nile A naval battle is a battle fought using ships or other waterborne vessels. ...

The Russo-Japanese War in Art and Literature

Painting of Admiral Togo on the bridge of the Japanese battleship Mikasa, before the Battle of Tsushima in 1905
Painting of Admiral Togo on the bridge of the Japanese battleship Mikasa, before the Battle of Tsushima in 1905
  • Russo-Japanese War was covered by dozens of foreign journalists who sent back sketches that were turned into lithographs and other reproducible forms. Propaganda images were circulated by both sides and quite a few photographs have been preserved.
  • The Russo-Japanese War is occasionally alluded to in James Joyces' novel, Ulysses. In the "Eumaeus" chapter, a drunken sailor in a bar proclaims, "But a day of reckoning, he stated crescendo with no uncertain voice-- thoroughly monopolising all the conversation-- was in store for mighty England, despite her power of pelf on account of her crimes. There would be a fall and the greatest fall in history. The Germans and the Japs were going to have their little lookin, he affirmed." The prophecy of Japan's rise as a great land and maritime power vis-à-vis the empires of Europe (first Russia, then presumably England at a future point) is consistent with the novel's narrative of Western Civilization's exhaustion, decline and diminished potential.
  • Alexei Silych Novikov-Priboy, a sailor on the Russian battleship "Oryol", wrote an epic documental novel about the journey of the Russian Baltic fleet and battle of Tsushima. It was first published in 1930 in Soviet Union under the name "Tsusima".

The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Mikasa (三笠) was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the flagship of Admiral Togo Heihachiro during the battle of Tsushima (1905) in the Russo-Japanese War. ... Combatants Japan Russia Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships, 27 cruisers, in addition to destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships, 3 coastal battleships, 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead, 583 injured, 3 torpedo boats sunk 4380 dead, 5917 injured 21 ships sunk, 7 captured, 6 disarmed The... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface, as well as a method of manufacturing semiconductor and MEMS devices. ...

References

  • Nish, Ian (1985). The Origins of the Russo-Japanese War. Longman. ISBN 0582491142
  • Edmund Morris, Theodore Rex, The Modern Library, pb.,2002; ISBN 0-8129-6600-7 (div. of Random House, hc,2001)

Edmund Morris is a British biographer, winner of the 1980 Pulitzer Prize. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Random House is a publishing division of the German media conglomerate Bertelsmann based in New York City. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...

See also

Template:History of Stupid Russians Radical revolutionary parties During the 1890s, Russias industrial development led to a significant increase in the size of the urban bourgeoisie and the working class, setting the stage for a more dynamic political atmosphere and the development of radical parties. ... Western imperialism in Asia traces its roots back to the late 15th century with a series of voyages that sought a sea passage to India in the hope of establishing direct trade between Europe and Asia in spices. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... Baron Rosen was one of the members of the Russian delegation that negotiated the end of the Russo-Japanese War at the Portsmouth Peace Conference in 1905 mediated by Theodore Roosevelt Baron Roman Romanovitch Rosen (February 24, 1847 — January 22, 1922) was a Russian diplomat. ... Sergei Iulevich Witte (Серге́й Ю́льевич Ви́тте) (June 29, 1849 – March 13, 1915), also known as Sergius Witte, served as Russian Director of Railway Affairs within the Finance Ministry from 1889 – 1891, Transportation Minister (1892), Finance Minister from 1892 to 1903, Chairman of the Committee of Ministers (1903 – 1905) and Chairman...

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