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Encyclopedia > Russian submarine Kursk explosion

In August 2000, the Russian Oscar II class submarine, Kursk sank in the Barents Sea when a leak of hydrogen peroxide in the forward torpedo room apparently led to the detonation of a torpedo warhead, which in turn triggered the explosion of around half a dozen other warheads about two minutes later. This second explosion was equivalent to about 3-7 tons of TNT[1] and was large enough to register on seismographs across Northern Europe.[2] Oscar class submarine The Soviet Union’s Project 949 (Granit) and Project 949A (Antey) submarines are known in the West by their NATO reporting names: the Oscar-I and Oscar-II classes respectively. ... USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... K-141 Kursk (Russian in full: Атомная подводная лодка Курск [АПЛ Курск] - nuclear submarine Kursk) was a Project 949A Антей (Antey, Antaeus; also known by its NATO reporting name of Oscar-II class) nuclear cruise missile submarine named after the Russian city Kursk, where one of the biggest battles of World War II took place (Battle of... Location of the Barents Sea. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... Seismographs (in Greek seismos = earthquake and graphein = write) are used by seismologists to record seismic waves. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Despite a rescue attempt by British and Norwegian teams, all 118 sailors and officers aboard Kursk were lost. A Dutch team later recovered all of the bodies, which were laid to rest in Russia. Three of the bodies were scorched, mutilated, and unidentifiable.

Contents

The explosion

Omsk, an Oscar II class submarine similar to Kursk
Omsk, an Oscar II class submarine similar to Kursk

The tragedy began on the morning of August 12, 2000. As part of the exercise, Kursk was to fire two dummy torpedoes at a Kirov-class battlecruiser, Peter the Great, the flagship of the Northern Fleet. At 11:28 local time (07:28 UTC), high test peroxide (HTP), a form of highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide used as propellant for the torpedo, seeped through rust in the torpedo casing. The HTP reacted with copper and brass in the tube from which the torpedo was fired, causing a chain reaction, leading to a chemical explosion. A similar incident was responsible for the loss of HMS Sidon in 1959. Image File history File links From http://nfo. ... Image File history File links From http://nfo. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Radars: Voskhod MR-800 (Top Pair) 3D search radar on foremast Fregat MR-710 (Top Steer) 3D search radar on main mast 2 × Palm Frond navigation radar on foremast Sonar Horse Tail VDS (Variable Deep Sonar) Fire control: 2 × Top Dome for SA-N-6 fire control 4 × Bass Tilt... ... High test peroxide or HTP is a high (85 to 98 percent) concentration solution of hydrogen peroxide. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... A blacksmith removing rust with sand prior to welding Rust damage in automobiles can create hidden dangers. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brass (disambiguation). ... HMS Sidon was launched in September 1944, one of the third group of S-class submarines built by Cammell Laird & Co Limited, Birkenhead. ...


The watertight door separating the torpedo room from the rest of the sub was left open prior to firing. This was apparently common practice, on account of excess compressed air being released into the torpedo room when a weapon was fired. The open door allowed the blast to rip back through the first two of nine compartments on the huge sub, probably killing the seven men in the first compartment, and at least injuring or disorienting the thirty-six men in the second compartment. Compressed air is used to refer to: Pneumatics, the use of pressurized gases to do work, as used in the Air car Breathing gas, often used in scuba diving, also to inflate buoyancy devices Compressed air can also be used for cooling using a vortex tube. ...


After the first explosion, due to the fact the air conditioning duct was quite light, the blast wave traveled to more compartments, including the command post, filling them with smoke and flames. After the explosion, the captain was believed to be trying to order an 'emergency blow' which causes the sub to rapidly rise to the surface, but he was quickly overcome with smoke. An emergency buoy, designed to release from a submarine automatically when emergency conditions such as rapidly changing pressure or fire are detected and intended to help rescuers locate the stricken vessel, also failed to deploy. The previous summer, in a Mediterranean mission, fears of the buoy accidentally deploying, and thereby revealing the sub's position to the U.S. fleet, had led to the buoy being disabled. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Two minutes and fifteen seconds after the initial eruption, a much larger explosion ripped through the sub. Seismic data from stations across Northern Europe show that the explosion occurred at the same depth as the sea bed, suggesting that the sub had collided with the sea floor which, combined with rising temperatures due to the initial explosion, had caused further torpedoes to explode. The second explosion was equivalent to 3–7 tons of TNT, or about a half-dozen torpedo warheads and measured 3.5 on the Richter scale. After the second explosion, the nuclear reactors were shut down to prevent a nuclear disaster, although the blast was almost enough to destroy the reactors. Seismographs (in Greek seismos = earthquake and graphein = write) are used by seismologists to record seismic waves. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. ...


The second explosion ripped a two-metre-square hole in the hull of the craft, which was designed to withstand depths of 1000 meters. The explosion also ripped open the third and fourth compartments. Water poured into these compartments at 90,000 litres per second – killing all those in the compartments, including five officers from 7th SSGN Division Headquarters. The fifth compartment contained the ship's nuclear reactors, encased in a further five inches of steel. The bulkheads of the fifth compartment withstood the explosion, causing the nuclear control rods to stay in place and prevent nuclear disaster.[citation needed] SSGN is the United States Navy hull classification symbol for a cruise missile submarine. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... A bulkhead is an upright wall within the hull of a ship. ... A control rod is a rod made of a chemical element capable of absorbing many neutrons without decaying themselves. ...


Twenty-three men working in the sixth through to ninth compartments survived the two blasts. They gathered in the ninth compartment, which contained the secondary escape tunnel (the primary tunnel was in the destroyed second compartment). Captain-lieutenant Dmitri Kolesnikov (one of three officers of that rank surviving) appears to have taken charge, writing down the names of those who were in the ninth compartment. The pressure in the compartment at the time of the explosion was the same as that of the surface. Thus it would be possible from a physiological point of view to use the escape hatch to leave the submarine one man at a time, swimming up through 100 metres of Arctic water in a survival suit, to await help floating at the surface. It is not known if the escape hatch was workable from the inside – opinions still differ about how badly the hatch was damaged. However it is likely that the men rejected using the perilous escape hatch even if it were operable. They may have preferred instead to take their chances waiting for a rescue vessel to clamp itself onto the escape hatch.


It is not known with certainty how long the remaining men survived in the compartment. As the nuclear reactors had automatically shut down, emergency power soon ran out, plunging the crew into complete blackness and falling temperatures. Kolesnikov wrote two further messages, much less tidily than before. In the last, he wrote:

"It's dark here to write, but I'll try by feel. It seems like there are no chances, 10-20%. Let's hope that at least someone will read this. Here's the list of personnel from the other sections, who are now in the ninth and will attempt to get out. Regards to everybody, no need to be desperate. Kolesnikov."

There has been much debate over how long the sailors might have survived. Some, particularly on the Russian side, say that they would have died very quickly; water is known to leak into a stationary Oscar-II craft through the propeller shafts and at 100m depth it would have been impossible to plug these. Others point out that the many superoxide chemical cartridges, used to absorb carbon dioxide and chemically release oxygen to enable survival, were found used when the craft was recovered, suggesting that they had survived for several days. Ironically, the cartridges appear to have been the cause of death; a sailor appears to have accidentally brought a cartridge in contact with the sea water, causing a chemical reaction and a flash fire. The official investigation into the disaster showed that some men appeared to have survived the fire by plunging under the water (the fire marks on the walls indicate the water was at waist level in the lower area at this time). However the fire rapidly used up the remaining oxygen in the air, causing death by asphyxiation. Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ... A chemical oxygen generator is a device that releases oxygen created by a chemical reaction. ... In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... A flash fire is an unexpected, sudden intense fire caused by ignition of flammable solids, liquids or their vapors, gases, or dust. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ...


According to Raising Kursk broadcast by the Science Channel: "In June of 2002, the Russian Navy recovered Kursk's bow section. Shortly afterwards, the Russian government investigation into the accident officially concluded that a faulty torpedo sank Kursk in the Summer of 2000." The Science Channel is a branch off of the Discovery Channel which features only science-related shows. ...


Rescue attempts

Russian and Norwegian ships heading towards the Kursk site
Russian and Norwegian ships heading towards the Kursk site

Image File history File links A photo of the Kursk rescue opperation. ... Image File history File links A photo of the Kursk rescue opperation. ...

Russian government response

As noted in an excerpt from The Guardian: "For President Vladimir Putin, the Kursk crisis was not merely a human tragedy, it was a personal PR catastrophe. Twenty-four hours after the submarine's disappearance, as Russian naval officials made bleak calculations about the chances of the 118 men on board, Putin was filmed enjoying himself, shirtsleeves rolled up, hosting a barbecue at his holiday villa on the Black Sea."[3] Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The first fax sent from the Russian Navy to the various Press offices said the submarine had "minor technical difficulties". The government downplayed the incident and then claimed bad weather was making it impossible to rescue the people onboard. A Samsung fax machine Fax (short for facsimile, from Latin fac simile, make similar, i. ...


On August 18, Nadezhda Tylik mother of Kursk submariner Lt. Sergei Tylik, produced an intense emotional outburst in the middle of an in-progress news briefing about Kursk's fate. After attempts to quiet her failed, a nurse injected her with a sedative and she was removed from the room, incapacitated. The event, caught on film, caused further criticism of the government's response to both the disaster, and how the government handled public criticism of said response. is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nadezhda Tylik is a Russian citizen, and the mother of submariner Lt. ...


Sequence of events

Initially the other boats in the exercise, all of which had detected an explosion, did not report it. Each only knew about its own part in the exercise, and ostensibly assumed that the explosion was that of a depth charge, and part of the exercise. It was not until the evening that commanders stated that they became concerned that they had heard nothing from Kursk. Later in the evening, and after repeated attempts to contact Kursk had failed, a search and rescue operation was launched. The rescue ship Rudnitsky carrying two submersible rescue vessels, AS-32 and the Priz (AS-34) reached the disaster area at around 8:40 AM the following morning. Depth Charge used by U.S. Navy later in World War II The depth charge is the oldest anti-submarine weapon. ... The AS-34 is a Priz class Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle, or rescue mini-sub. ...


The rescue vessels' batteries were in poor condition — draining quickly and difficult to re-charge. The AS-32 proved virtually useless. Priz was somewhat successful — reaching Kursk's ninth compartment on Monday afternoon, but failed to dock with it. Bad weather prevented further attempts on Tuesday and Wednesday. A further attempt on Thursday again made contact but failed to create a vacuum seal required to dock.


The United States offered the use of one of its two Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicles, as did the British government. On August 16, 2000, the Russian government accepted the British and Norwegian governments' assistance. A rescue ship was dispatched from Norway on August 17 and reached the site on August 19. British deep-sea divers reached the ninth compartment escape hatch on Sunday 20 August. They were able to determine that the compartment was flooded, and all hope of finding survivors was lost. The US Navys Mystic docked to a Los Angeles class attack submarine. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Salvage

Most of the submarine's hull, except the bow, was raised from the ocean floor by the Dutch salvage companies Smit International and Mammoet in the fall of 2001 and towed back to the Russian Navy's Roslyakovo Shipyard. The bodies of its dead crew were removed from the wreck and buried in Russia – three of them were unidentifiable because of they were so badly burned. Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a decree awarding the Order of Courage to all the crew and title Hero of the Russian Federation to the submarine's captain, Gennady Lyachin.[4] Salvage may refer to: Look up salvage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Dutch company operating in the maritime sector. ... Mammoet is a Dutch company specialised in hoisting and transporting heavy objects. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... The Order of Courage (ОРДЕН МУЖЕСТВА) is a decoration presented by the government of the Russian Federation. ... This is a list of the dead crewmembers on the Russian submarine Kursk, which sank on August 10, 2000. ... Obverse of the Gold Star medal Hero of the Russian Federation (Russian: ) is the highest honorary title that can be bestowed on a citizen by the Russian Federation. ... Gennady Lyachin Gennady Lyachin was the captain of the Russian submarine Kursk when she sank on August 10, 2000. ...


Alternative theories and claims about the cause of the explosion

Test torpedo

An official 2000 page report, published in 2002, concluded that the sinking of Kursk was caused by a test torpedo that exploded in the torpedo room. Some conspiracy theorists claim that the report was a coverup to further strengthen the relations between Russia and the USA.


Command failure

Other alternative claims regarding the loss of Kursk have been broadly discredited by notable and credible investigative reports. In its 2002 review of two books on this topic, "Kursk, Russia's Lost Pride" and "A Time to Die: The Kursk Disaster" The Guardian says: "The hopelessly flawed rescue attempt, hampered by badly designed and decrepit equipment, illustrated the fatal decline of Russia's military power. The navy's callous approach to the families of the missing men was reminiscent of an earlier Soviet insensitivity to individual misery. The lies and incompetent cover-up attempts launched by both the navy and the government were resurrected from a pre-Glasnost era. The wildly contradictory conspiracy theories about what caused the catastrophe said more about a naval high command in turmoil, fumbling for a scapegoat, than about the accident itself."[3] //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ...


Collision Theories

Several collision theories have emerged, suggestion that a possible collision occurred between Kursk and another submarine or surface vessel. Given that Kursk sank during large-scale Russian naval war games, many navies and governments would be interested in monitoring the activities through the use of reconnaissance and surveillance platforms, including the United States and Great Britain. While surface naval exercises can be monitored safely through the use of space based reconnaissance satellites, they can not detect missile signals and other transmissions from an exercise area, and are unable to track submarines for a variety of reasons. As a result it is common practice among nations interested in retrieving such information to dispatch ships and/or submarines to the area(s) that naval exercise occur in order to obtain intelligence-worthy information. KH-4B Corona satellite Lacrosse radar spy satellite under construction A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ...


USS Memphis and USS Toledo

Shortly after the sinking of Kursk, two American Los Angeles-class submarines — Memphis and Toledo — put in at European ports. These two vessels, plus the Royal Naval submarine HMS Trafalgar, were monitoring the activities of the war games.[5] When Kursk sank, Memphis and Toledo acquired data on the explosion[citation needed]. After the sinking, the games were canceled, and the two U.S. vessels put in to port to offload data to the U.S. Naval Command for further analysis.[citation needed] Some have speculated that a collision between the Toledo, which was closely shadowing the Kursk, may have lead to the disaster (see below). The Los Angeles-class attack submarines (SSN) are the most numerous class of nuclear powered submarines built by any nation, and form the bulk of the U.S. attack submarine force as of 2007. ... Tony owns References This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register and various press releases. ... USS Toledo (SSN-769), a Los Angeles-class submarine, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for Toledo, Ohio. ... {{Ship table| |Ship table fate=status |Ian McGhie, an instructor, both pleaded guilty at court-martial to contributing to the accident. ...


Emergency batteries

Another theory for the first explosion was that one of the emergency batteries exploded. At the time it wasn't uncommon for batteries to explode due to the risk of the battery leaking. The batteries act as a back-up power source if the reactors are shut off and are similar to a car battery in that they charge up during use, produce hydrogen, and if they leak they could possibly cause an explosion. This theory was ruled out because the torpedo tube showed signs of being blown off first.


Film: Kursk: a Submarine in Troubled Waters

French filmmaker Jean-Michel Carré, in Kursk: a Submarine in Troubled Waters,[6][7] which aired on 7 January 2005 on French TV channel France 2, alleged that Kursk sank because of an exchange triggered by a collision with the US submarine USS Toledo. According to Carré, Kursk was performing tests of a new torpedo called Shkval and the tests were being observed by two US submarines on duty in the region, USS Toledo and USS Memphis. is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... USS Toledo (SSN-769), a Los Angeles-class submarine, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for Toledo, Ohio. ... The VA-111 Shkval torpedo and its descendants are supercavitating torpedoes, developed by the Russian Navy, which are capable of speeds of several hundred knots. ...

Size and mass comparison of Kursk and Toledo
Size and mass comparison of Kursk and Toledo


At some point, Kursk and the Toledo collided, damaging the former (video footage shows long gashes carved in the side of Kursk) and, in order to prevent Kursk firing upon Toledo (allegedly presaged by the audible opening of Kursk's torpedo tubes), Memphis fired a Mark 48 torpedo into the Russian submarine. According to this story, the US torpedo would have hit an old type Russian torpedo on Kursk which did not explode until later, but when the explosion did occur it substantially damaged Kursk. Carré alleges that Russian president Vladimir Putin deliberately concealed the truth about what happened and let the crew members die, in order to not strain relations with the US Government.[8] The New York Times later revealed that Memphis had in fact been observing Kursk during the torpedo tests. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 270 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 270 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Testing of the Mark 48: The Australian Collins-class submarine, HMAS Farncomb, fired a Mark 48 torpedo at the 28-year-old destroyer escort Torrens. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Another incident purportedly supporting the veracity of this story is that Toledo arrived at the Håkonsvern Naval Station in Bergen, Norway, where -- per standard practice -- no non-Americans were allowed to inspect the submarine in its dock.[9] Another circumstance purporting to confirm the story and its coverup is that the USA freed Russia from payment responsibility for a substantial monetary loan and even gave Russia permission to take out another loan.[citation needed] In addition, although the submarine was later raised by a Dutch salvage company, the damaged front section was cut off and left on the seabed. Despite this apparent secrecy, video footage of the raised submarine showed what appeared to be a concave impact injury.[10] The documentary claims this to be typical signature of U.S. MK-48 torpedoes. Today, the remains of Kursk have been melted down and destroyed. County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... When a scandal breaks, the discovery of an attempt to cover up the evidence of wrongdoing is often regarded as even more scandalous than the original deeds. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Testing of the Mark 48: The Australian Collins class submarine, HMAS Farncomb, fired a Mark-48 torpedo at the 28-year-old destroyer escort Torrens. ...


Some knowledgeable Western submarine experts point out that there are a number of flaws with the theory regarding a collision scenario:

  1. A Russian Oscar class submarine has twice the submerged displacement (physical mass) of a Los Angeles-class submarine; it is therefore not credible from a fundamental physics perspective that Kursk would have sustained the far worse damage in such a collision.
  2. U.S. peacetime rules of engagement (ROE) would not in any way have permitted the U.S. submarine to fire upon Kursk without first being fired upon, and no credible argument has been made by anyone for that scenario.
  3. If the alleged collision had actually taken place, the proximity of the colliding U.S. submarine to Kursk would have prevented the other U.S. submarine captain—even a fictional "renegade" one—from firing a MK-48 (which uses acoustic homing for target acquisition) torpedo at Kursk; this would have equally endangered the Toledo.
  4. The idea that a U.S. torpedo would be capable of 'hitting' an on-board Russian torpedo — which only later detonated—is improbable; torpedoes function by getting immediately under their target and then detonating their massive warheads, crushing the target with the force of the explosion. No weapon in any nation's submarine force makes a small hole like the claimed entry hole.

Oscar class submarine The Soviet Union’s Project 949 (Granit) and Project 949A (Antey) submarines are known in the West by their NATO reporting names: the Oscar-I and Oscar-II classes respectively. ... The Los Angeles-class attack submarines (SSN) are the most numerous class of nuclear powered submarines built by any nation, and form the bulk of the U.S. attack submarine force as of 2007. ... This article describes the military term of the rules of engagement. ... A system of target location using sound, only used in torpedoes. ...

See also

SEE ALSO red star rogue K-141 Kursk (Russian in full: Атомная подводная лодка Курск [АПЛ Курск] - nuclear submarine Kursk) was a Project 949A Антей (Antey, Antaeus; also known by its NATO reporting name of Oscar-II class) nuclear cruise missile submarine named after the Russian city Kursk, where one of the biggest battles of World War II took place (Battle of... This is a list of the dead crewmembers on the Russian submarine Kursk, which sank on August 10, 2000. ... USS San Francisco in Dry Dock after running aground 350 miles south of Guam Since the year 2000, there have been thirteen major naval incidents involving submarines: three Russian submarine incidents, six involving submarines from the United States, and one Chinese, Canadian, British and Australian incidents. ... President Vladimir Putin at the Kursk, Russia memorial to the Kursk submarine. ... K-159 was a Projekt 627 Kit (NATO reporting name November) class submarine of the Soviet Navy. ... Mini-submarine AS-28 Priz after surfacing in the Bering Sea AS-28 is a miniature submarine of the Russian Navy belonging to the Project 1855 Priz class. ... Nadezhda Tylik is a Russian citizen, and the mother of submariner Lt. ...


References

  1. ^ http://geology.about.com/library/weekly/aa012801a.htm
  2. ^ http://www.eas.slu.edu/People/RBHerrmann/Courses/EASA193/Lecture_19/lecture_19.pdf
  3. ^ a b http://www.guardian.co.uk/submarine/story/0,7369,791741,00.html
  4. ^ CDI Russia Weekly – Center for Defense Information, Washington, 1 September 2000.Retrieved on 2007-08-07.
  5. ^ "Russia Identifies U.S. Sub", The New York Times, August 31, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-31. 
  6. ^ Koursk: un sous-marin en eaux troublés
  7. ^ For current screenings see Sundance Channel
  8. ^ article in French newspaper Libération
  9. ^ for more information on the "Toledo"/"Memphis" in Bergen, see this source [1] and reference the section marked "From a Russian magazine report"
  10. ^ seen here [2] and here [3]

SEE ALSO red star rogue Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


External links

John H. Large is an independent nuclear engineer and analyst primarily known for his work in assessing and reporting upon nuclear safety and nuclear related accidents and incidents. ... The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers is an engineering society that provides a forum for the advancement of the engineering profession as applied to the marine field. ... John H. Large is an independent nuclear engineer and analyst primarily known for his work in assessing and reporting upon nuclear safety and nuclear related accidents and incidents. ... The Royal Institution of Naval Architects was founded in 1860 as the Institute of Naval Architects and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1910 and 1960. ...

Further Reading

  • Robert Moore (2002). A Time To Die: The Kursk Disaster. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-81385-4. 
  • Barany, Zoltan (2004). The Tragedy of the Kursk: Crisis Management in Putin's Russia. Government and Opposition 39.3, 476-503.
  • Truscott, Peter (2004): The Kursk Goes Down – pp. 154-182 of Putin's Progress, Pocket Books, London, ISBN 0-7434-9607-8


  Results from FactBites:
 
Russian submarine Kursk explosion: Information from Answers.com (2874 words)
Most of the hull of the submarine, except the bow, was raised from the ocean floor by the Dutch salvage companies Smit International and Mammoet in the fall of 2001 and towed back to the Russian Navy's Roslyakovo Shipyard.
Almost immediately after the Kursk sinking, Chechen independent news agency Kavkaz-Center reported that the explosion in the submarine was caused by a suicide bomber on board, a crew member originating from the Muslim region of Dagestan in southern Russia.
A Russian Oscar class submarine has twice the submerged displacement (physical mass) of a Los Angeles-class submarine; it is therefore not credible from a fundamental physics perspective that the Kursk would have sustained the far worse damage in such a collision.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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