FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Russian serfdom
A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov.
A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov.

The origins of serfdom in Russia are traced to Kievan Rus in the 11th century. Legal documents of the epoch, such as Russkaya Pravda, distinguished several degrees of feudal dependency of peasants. Traditionally, the term for a peasant of the epoch of feudalism in Imperial Russia, krepostnoi krestyanin (крепостной крестьянин), is translated as serf. Image File history File linksMetadata Yuriev_day. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Yuriev_day. ... A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov. ... Sergei V. Ivanov Sergei Vasilyevich Ivanov (Russian: , July 14 (July 4 (O.S.)) 1864— 16 August 1910) was a Russian painter and graphic artist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Russkaya Pravda is being read to people Russkaya Pravda (Russian: , Russkaya Pravda; Ukrainian: ; Archaic: Правда Роська, Pravda Roska) was the legal code of Kievan Rus and the subsequent Rus principalities during the times of feudal division. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...

Contents

History

The legal code of Ivan III of Russia, Sudebnik (1497), strengthened the dependency of peasants, statewise, and restricted their mobility. The Russians persistently battled against the successor states of the Golden Horde, chiefly the Khanate of Crimea. Tens of thousand of noblemen protected the southern borderland--a heavy burden for the state--which slowed its social and economic development and expanded the taxation of peasantry. Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... Sudebnik of 1497 (Судебник in Russian, or Code of Law), a collection of laws, which was introduced by Ivan III and played a big part in the centralization of the Russian state, creation of the nationwide Russian Law and elimination of feudal division. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Golden Horde (Turkish: Altın Ordu) was a Turkic state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... The Crimean Khanate (Khanate of Crimea) was an independent Turkic state (khanate) founded in 1441 by Haci Giray Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan. ...


Although Serfdom was a dissuading fact in Russian life, a regional leader, who was only known - and to this day- by his pseudo name, "Alibek" was to change the future economical ties of the modern world and Russia's impoverished people. Through much reform, which has been attributed to families of higher dynasty, "Alibek" created a structure of economic reform, leading to the rise in freedom of thought and expression; it was through economical reform that "Alibek" established the underlying notions which would soon develop into the next Russian revolution.


After the passage of laws which further restricted the peasant's right to free movement, the vast majority of the Russian populace was finally bound in full serfdom. Serfs were given estates in the Sobornoye Ulozhenie (Соборное уложение, "Code of Law") of 1649; and flight was made a criminal offense in 1658. Russian landowners eventually gained almost unlimited ownership over Russian serfs. The landowner could transfer the serf without the land to another landowner while keeping the serf's personal property and family, however the landowner had no right to kill the serf. As a whole serfdom came to Russia much later than in other European countries. // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by...


There were numerous rebellions against this bondage, most often in conjunction with Cossack uprisings, such as the uprisings of Ivan Bolotnikov (1606-1607), Stenka Razin (1667-1671), Kondraty Bulavin (1707-1709), and Yemelyan Pugachev (1773-1775). While the Cossack uprisings benefited from disturbances among the peasants, and they in turn received an impetus from Cossack rebellion, none of the Cossack movements were directed against the institution of serfdom itself. Instead, peasants in Cossack-dominated areas became Cossacks, thus escaping from the peasantry rather than directly organizing peasants against the institution. Between the end of the Pugachev rebellion and the beginning of the nineteenth century, there were hundreds of outbreaks across Russia, and there was never a time when the peasantry was completely quiescent. By the mid-eighteenth century, the peasants composed a majority of the population, and according to the census of 1857 the number of serfs was 23.1 million of the 62.5 million of Russians. Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Bolotnikovs Battle with the Tsars army at Nizhny Kotly Ivan Isayevich Bolotnikov (Иван Исаевич Болотников) (?—1608) was the leader of the uprising of 1606-1607 (Bolotnikov rebellion, Восстание Ивана Болотникова), which was part of the Time of Troubles in Russia. ... Stepan (Stenka) Timofeyevich Razin (Степан (Стенька) Тимофеевич Разин in Russian) (1630 - 6. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... Kondraty Afanisievich Bulavin (Кондратий Афанасьевич Булавин) (1660-1708) was a Don Cossack, the leader of a Cossack-serf rebellion of commonly known as the Bulavin RebellionБулавинское восстание1707-1709. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Emelyan Pugachov Yemelyan Ivanovich Pugachev (Russian: ), born in 1740 or 1742 and executed in 1775, was a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great Cossack insurrection during the reign of Catherine II. Alexander Pushkin wrote a remarkable history of the rebellion; and he recounted some of the events... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Russian serfdom depended entirely on the traditional and extensive technology of the peasantry. Yields remained low and stationary throughout most of the nineteenth century. Any increase in income drawn from agriculture was drawn largely through increasing land area and extensive grain raising by means of exploitation of the peasant labor, that is, by burdening the peasant household still further.


In Russian Baltic provinces (Courland, Estonia, Livonia) serfdom, however, was abolished at the beginning of 19th century.


In 1861 all serfs were freed in a major agrarian reform, stimulated by the fear voiced by Tsar Alexander II that "it is better to liberate the peasants from above" than to wait until they won their freedom by risings "from below." Serfdom was abolished in 1861, but its abolition was achieved on terms unfavorable to the peasants and served to increase revolutionary pressures. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born April 17, 1818 in Moscow; died March 13, 1881 in St. ...


Origins

The origins of serfdom in Russia (крепостничество, or krepostnichestvo) may be traced to the 11th century, however, the most complete form of feudal exploitation enveloped only certain categories of rural population. In the 12th century, the exploitation of the so-called zakups on arable lands (ролейные (пашенные) закупы, or roleyniye (pashenniye) zakupy) and corvee smerds (Russian term for corvee is барщина, or barschina) was the closest to what is now known as serfdom. According to the Russkaya Pravda, a princely smerd had limited property and personal rights. His escheat was given to the prince and his life was equated with that of the kholop, meaning his murder was punishable by 5 grivnas. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... The term exploitation may carry two distinct meanings: The act of utilizing something for any purpose. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Corvée, or corvée labor, is a term used in feudal societies. ... Smerds (Smerd sing. ... Russkaya Pravda is being read to people Russkaya Pravda (Russian: , Russkaya Pravda; Ukrainian: ; Archaic: Правда Роська, Pravda Roska) was the legal code of Kievan Rus and the subsequent Rus principalities during the times of feudal division. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for the member of the highest aristocracy. ... Property designates those things that are commonly recognized as being the possessions of a person or group. ... Escheat is an obstruction of the course of descent and the consequent reversion of property to the original grantor. ... Kholops (Холопы in Russian) were feudally dependant people in Russia between the 10th and early 18th centuries. ... The hryvnia (Ukrainian гривня) has been the national currency of Ukraine since 1996 when it replaced the coupon (or karbovanets), the temporary currency used after Ukraine left the Soviet Union and the ruble zone. ...


In the 13th-15th centuries, feudal dependency applied to a significant number of peasants, but serfdom as we know it was still not a widespread phenomenon. In the mid-15th century, the right of certain categories of peasants in some votchinas to leave their master was limited to a period of one week before and after the so-called Yuri's Day (November 26). The Sudebnik of 1497 officially confirmed this time limit as universal for everybody and also established the amount of the "break-away" fee called pozhiloye (пожилое). The Sudebnik of 1550 increased the amount of pozhiloye and introduced an additional tax called za povoz (за повоз , or transportation fee), in case a peasant refused to bring the harvest from the fields to his master. A temporary (Заповедные лета, or Prohibition years) and later an open-ended prohibition for peasants to leave their masters was introduced by the ukase of 1597, which also defined the so-called fixed years (Урочные лета, or urochniye leta), or the 5-year time frame for search of the runaway peasants. In 1607, a new ukase defined sanctions for hiding and keeping the runaways: the fine had to paid to the state and pozhiloye - to the previous owner of the peasant. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Votchina (Russian: ) or otchina (о́тчина) was a land estate that could be inherited. ... Yuris Day or Saint George Day is a Russian Orthodox feast celebrated twice a year - in spring and in autumn. ... November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sudebnik of 1497 (Судебник in Russian, or Code of Law), a collection of laws, which was introduced by Ivan III and played a big part in the centralization of the Russian state, creation of the nationwide Russian Law and elimination of feudal division. ... Sudebnik of tsar Ivan IV (Russian: ), a revised code of laws instituted by his grandfather Ivan the Great. ... This article is the current Taxation Collaboration of the Month. ... Crops have been harvested by hand throughout most of human history. ... Ukase (Russian: указ, ukaz) in Imperial Russia was a proclamation of the tsar government, or a religions leader patriarch that had the force of law. ... Events 17 January - A court case in Guildford recorded evidence that a certain plot of land was used for playing “kreckett” (i. ... Events January 20 - Tidal wave swept along the Bristol Channel, killing 2000 people. ... Sanction is an interesting word, in that, depending on context, it can have diametrically opposing meanings. ...


Most of the dvoryane were content with the long time frame for search of the runaway peasants. The major landowners of the country, however, together with the dvoryane of the south, were interested in a short-term persecution due to the fact that many runaways would usually flee to the southern parts of Russia. During the first half of the 17th century the dvoryane sent their collective petitions (челобитные, or chelobitniye) to the authorities, asking for the extension of the "fixed years". In 1642, the Russian government established a 10-year limit for search of the runaways and 15-year limit for search for peasants, taken away by their new owners. Dvoryanstvo (Russian: дворянство) refers to a category of Russian nobility. ... Landowner or Landholder is a holder of the estate in land with considerable rights of ownership or, simply put, an owner of land. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ...


The Sobornoye Ulozhenie (Соборное уложение, or Code of Law) of 1649 introduced an open-ended search for those on the run, meaning that all of the peasants who had fled from their masters after the census of 1626 or 1646-1647 had to be returned. The government would still introduce new time frames and grounds for search of the runaways after 1649, which applied to the peasants who had fled to the outlying districts of the country, such as regions along the border abatises called zasechniye linii (засечные линии) (ukases of 1653 and 1656), Siberia (ukases of 1671, 1683 and 1700), Don (1698) etc. The dvoryane constantly demanded that the search for the runaways be sponsored by the government. The legislation of the second half of the 17th century paid much attention to the means of punishment of the runaways. // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... 1646 (MDCXLVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... This article is about the river in Western Russia. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ...


See also

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...

External links

  • The Causes of Slavery or Serfdom: A Hypothesis
  • Крепостная правда in Kommersant-Money.

Kommersant (Cyrillic: Коммерсантъ) (which literally translates as The Businessman) was a commerce-oriented newspaper published in Russia. ...

Further reading

  • (Russian) Князьков, С. Как сложилось и как пало крепостное право в России. 1906
  • (Russian) Энгельман, И. История крепостного права в России. М., 1900

  Results from FactBites:
 
Serfdom (1851 words)
Under the Polish system of serfdom the peasants were bound by law to their plots of land, which were owned by the lord.
The Russian system of serfdom, which was established in most Ukrainian territories under Russian rule at the end of the 18th century, was based on the principle that the lord owned the peasant under his control.
Ukraine, serfdom was difficult to impose: because of the proximity of the
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m