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Encyclopedia > Russian literature

Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia or its émigrés, and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Russia or the Soviet Union. Prior to the nineteenth century Russia produced very little, if any, internationally read literature, but in the nineteenth century Russian literature underwent an astounding golden age, beginning with the poet Pushkin and culminating in possibly the two greatest novelists in the history of world literature, Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky. Russia has remained a leading nation in literature since that time, although Russian literature declined under the didactic limitations of the Soviet regime; nonetheless, dissidents like Solzhenitsyn and Boris Pasternak produced world-renowned Russian literature in the twentieth century. With the break up of the USSR different countries and cultures may lay claim to various ex-Soviet writers who wrote in Russian on the basis of birth or of ethnic or cultural associations. Émigré is a French term that shows how Martin B. loves stephanie. ... Russian (Russian: ,  ) is the most widely spoken language of Eurasia and the most widespread of the Slavonic languages. ... Pushkin may refer to: People Aleksandr Pushkin - a famous Russian poet Apollo Mussin-Pushkin - chemist and plant collector Aleksei Musin-Pushkin - statesman, historian, art collector Other Pushkin, a town in Russia Pushkin Square - square in Moscow Pushkin Museum - fine arts museum in Moscow This is a disambiguation page — a... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: , Lev Nikolaevič Tolstoj), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy (September 9, 1828 [O.S. August 28] – November 20, 1910 [O.S. November 7]) was a Russian novelist, writer, essayist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, vegetarian, moral thinker and an influential member of... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, IPA: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky  ) (November 11, 1821 [O.S. October 30] – February 9, 1881 [O.S. January 28]) is considered one of the greatest Russian writers. ... Solzhenitsyn was exiled from the Soviet Union for his book The Gulag Archipelago. ... Boris Pasternak (1890-1960). ...

Contents

Early history

Old Russian literature consists of several sparse masterpieces written in the Old Russian language (not to be confused with the contemporaneous Church Slavonic). Anonymous works of this nature include The Tale of Igor's Campaign (Слово о Полку Игореве, Slovo o Polku Igoreve) and the Praying of Daniel the Immured (Моление Даниила Заточника, or Moleniye Daniila Zatochnika). The so-called жития святых (zhitiya svyatikh, lives of the saints) formed a popular genre of the Old Russian literature. The Life of Alexander Nevsky (Житие Александра Невского, or Zhitiye Aleksandra Nevskogo) offers a well-known example. Other Russian literary monuments include Zadonschina, Physiologist, Synopsis and A Journey Beyond the Three Seas. Bylinas -- oral folk epics -- fused Christian and pagan traditions. Medieval Russian literature had an overwhelmingly religious character and used an adapted form of the Church Slavonic language with many South Slavic elements. The first work in colloquial Russian, the autobiography of archpriest Avvakum, emerged only in the mid-17th century. The name Old Russian language has been applied to different things. ... Church Slavonic may refer to: Old Church Slavonic language Church Slavonic language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Tale of Igors Campaign (Old East Slavic: Слово о плъку Игоревѣ, Slovo o pălku IgorevÄ›; Modern Russian: Слово о полку Игореве, Slovo o polku Igoreve) is an anonymous masterpiece of East Slavic literature written in Old East Slavic language and tentatively dated by the end of 12th century. ... Praying of Daniel the Immured (Моление Даниила Заточника in Russian, or Moleniye Danila Zatochnika), is a Russian literary monument of the 13th century. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ... Look up genre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Life of Alexander Nevsky (Житие Александра Невского in Russian, or Zhitiye Aleksandra Nevskogo), a Russian literary monument of the late 13th — early 14th centuries. ... Zadonschina («Задонщина» in Russian; could be translated as the region beyond the Don River) is a Russian literary monument of the late 14th century, which tells about the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380. ... Originally, Physiologist was an ancient collection of stories about nature, which probably appeared in Alexandria in 200 - 300 A.D. The ancient Russian Physiologist (Russian: Физиолог) in its 15th-century version is a translation from Bulgarian. ... Synopsis, also known as the Kievan Synopsis (Ukrainian: , Russian: ) is a historical work, first published in Kiev in 1674. ... A Journey Beyond the Three Seas (Хождение за три моря in Russian, or Khozhdeniye za tri morya) is a Russian literary monument in the form of travel notes, made by a merchant from Tver India in 1466... Bylina (Russian: были́на, also Byliny and Stariny) is a traditional epic, heroic narrative poetry of early East Slavs of Kievan Rus, the tradition continued in Russia and Ukraine. ... Church Slavonic may refer to: Old Church Slavonic language Church Slavonic language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Old Believer icon depicting Avvakum surrounded by other martyrs of the Old Faith Avvákum Petróv (November 20, 1620 or 1621 - April 14, 1682) was a Russian archpriest of Kazan Cathedral on Red Square who led the opposition to Patriarch Nikons reforms of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


External link

  • Philology in Runet. A special search through the sites devoted to the Old Russian literature.

Petrine era

The "Westernization" of Russia, commonly associated with Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, coincided with a reform of the Russian alphabet and increased tolerance of the idea of employing the popular language for general literary purposes. Authors like Antioch Kantemir, Vasily Trediakovsky, and Mikhail Lomonosov in the earlier 18th century paved the way for poets like Derzhavin, playwrights like Sumarokov and Fonvizin, and prose writers like Karamzin and Radishchev. Peter was a tall figure, with an extremely striking build of 2. ... Catherine II of Russia Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May 1729–17 November 1796 [O.S. 6 November]) — sometimes referred to as an epitome of the enlightened despot — reigned as Empress of Russia for some 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until... Prince Antiokh Dmitrievich Kantemir (Антиох Дмитриевич Кантемир in Russian, Antioh Cantemir in Romanian, Antioche Cantemir in French) was a Moldavian-born Russian Enlightenment man of letters and diplomat. ... Vasily Kirillovich Trediakovsky (March 5 (O.S. February 22) 1703 in Astrakhan — August 17 (O.S. August 6) 1768 in Sankt Petersburg) a Russian poet, who laid foundations of classical Russian literature. ... Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов) (November 19 (November 8, Old Style), 1711 – April 15 (April 4, Old Style), 1765) was a Russian writer and polymath who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Gavrila Romanovich Derzhavin (Гаврила Романович Державин, 1743 – 1816) was the greatest Russian poet before Alexander Pushkin. ... Aleksandr Petrovich Sumarokov (1717 - 1774) wrote severely classical 18th-century Russian dramas based on proto_Russian legends (Mstislav) or on Shakespearean plots (Makbet). ... Denis Fonvizin (1744?–92). ... Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin (December 1, 1766--1826) a Russian author credited with reforming the Russian literary language. ... Aleksandr Nikolaevich Radishchev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Ради́щев) (1749 – 1802) was a Russian author and social critic who was arrested and exiled under Catherine the...


Golden Age

Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin
Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin

The 19th century is traditionally referred to as the "Golden Age" of Russian literature. Romanticism permitted a flowering of especially poetic talent: the names of Zhukovsky and Aleksandr Pushkin came to the fore, followed by Mikhail Lermontov and Fyodor Tyutchev. Image File history File links Aleksander_Puszkin. ... Image File history File links Aleksander_Puszkin. ... Portrait of Alexander Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Vasily Andreevich Tropinin (Russian: ) (March 30 (O.S. March 19) 1776 – May 16 (O.S. May 4) 1857) was a Russian painter who worked in the Romantic movement. ... Romanticism is an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... After losing to the 18-year-old Pushkin a bet on who would write a better fairy tale, Zhukovsky presented to him this portrait with an inscription: To the victorious disciple from the beaten tutor. Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky (29 Jan. ... Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, Aleksandr Sergeevič PuÅ¡kin,  ) (June 6, 1799 [O.S. May 26] – February 10, 1837 [O.S. January 29]) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1] [2][3] and the founder of modern Russian... Mikhail Lermontov in 1837 Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (Михаил Юрьевич Лермонтов), (October 15, 1814–July 27, 1841), a Russian Romantic writer and poet, sometimes called the poet of the Caucasus, was the most important presence in the Russian poetry from Alexander Pushkins death until his own four years later, at the age... Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev (Russian: Федор Иванович Тютчев) (December 5 [O.S. November 23] 1803 - July 27 [O.S. July 15] 1873) is generally considered the last of three great Romantic poets of Russia, following Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov. ...


Nineteenth-century developments included Ivan Krylov the fabulist; non-fiction writers such as Belinsky and Herzen; playwrights such as Griboedov and Ostrovsky; poets such as Evgeny Baratynsky, Konstantin Batyushkov, Nikolai Alekseevich Nekrasov, Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, Fyodor Tyutchev, and Afanasij Fet; Kozma Prutkov (a collective pen name) the satirist; and a group of widely recognised novelists such as Nikolai Gogol, Leo Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Leskov, Ivan Turgenev, Saltykov-Shchedrin and Goncharov. Ivan Andreyevich Krylov (Иван Андреевич Крылов in Russian) (February 13, 1769 - November 21, 1844) was a famous Russian fabulist. ... Vissarion Grigorievich Belinskii (Виссарио́н Григо́рьевич Бели́нский) (1811 - 1848) was Russian writer, literary critic, philosopher and revolutionary activist (a Westernizer). ... Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) (April 6 [O.S. 25 March] 1812 in Moscow - January 21 [O.S. 9 January] 1870 in Paris) was a major Russian pro-Western writer and thinker known as the father of Russian socialism. He is held responsible for creating a political climate leading to the emancipation... Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov (Александр Сергеевич Грибоедов in Russian) (January 15, 1795 - February 11, 1829) was a Russian diplomat, playwright, and composer, whose brilliant comedy in verse, Wit Works Woe, is the most often staged play in Russia. ... Portrait of A. N. Ostrowskij by Vasily Perov. ... Evgeny Baratynsky (1800-1844) was a Russian Romantic and symbolic poet. ... Konstantin Batyushkov Konstantin Nikolayevich Batyushkov (1787, Vologda - 1855, Vologda) was an important precursor of Alexander Pushkin in the Russian poetry. ... Nikolai Alekseevich Nekrasov (November 28, 1821 - January 8, 1878 {O.S.: December 28, 1877}) was a Russian poet, best remembered as the long standing publisher of Современник (The Contemporary) (from 1846 until July 1866, when the journal was shut down... Aleksey Tolstoy (September 5, 1817 (Julian calendar: August 24) – October 10, 1875 (Julian calendar: September 28) was a Russian poet, novelist and dramatist. ... Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev (Russian: Федор Иванович Тютчев) (December 5 [O.S. November 23] 1803 - July 27 [O.S. July 15] 1873) is generally considered the last of three great Romantic poets of Russia, following Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov. ... Afanasy Afanasievich Fet (Dec. ... Kozma Prutkov was a psuedonym of Russian author Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy. ... Nikolai Gogol by Alexander Ivanov Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (Russian: IPA: ) (April 1, 1809 — March 4, 1852) was a Russian writer. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: , Lev Nikolaevič Tolstoj), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy (September 9, 1828 [O.S. August 28] – November 20, 1910 [O.S. November 7]) was a Russian novelist, writer, essayist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, vegetarian, moral thinker and an influential member of... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, IPA: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky  ) (November 11, 1821 [O.S. October 30] – February 9, 1881 [O.S. January 28]) is considered one of the greatest Russian writers. ... Nikolai Leskov by Valentin Serov, 1894 Nikolai Semyonovich Leskov ((Russian: , 16 February 1831 - 5 March 1895) was a Russian journalist, novelist and short story writer. ... Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) For other uses, see Turgenev (disambiguation). ... Saltykov-Shchedrin. ... Ivan Alexandrovich Goncharov (June 18, 1812 – September 27, 1891; June 6, 1812 – September 15, 1891, O.S.) was a Russian novelist best known as the author of Oblomov (1859). ...


The influence of Pushkin cannot be overstated. He is credited with both crystalizing the literary Russian language and introducing a new level of artistry to Russian literature. His most well-known work is a novel in verse, Eugene Onegin. In the field of the novel, Tolstoy and Dostoevsky in particular were titanic figures, and have remained internationally renowned, to the point that many scholars have described one or the other as the greatest novelist ever. Eugene Onegin (Russian: Евгений Онегин, BGN/PCGN: Yevgeniy Onegin) is a novel in verse written by Aleksandr Pushkin. ...


Silver Age

Other genres came to the fore with the approach of the 20th century. Anton Chekhov excelled in writing short stories and became perhaps the leading dramatist internationally of his period, while Anna Akhmatova represented innovative lyricists. Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: , Anton Pavlovič Čehov) (29 January 1860 [O.S. 17 January] – 15 July 1904 [O.S. 2 July]) was a physician, major Russian short story writer and playwright. ... Akhmatova in the 1920s Anna Akhmatova (Russian: , real name А́нна Андре́евна Горе́нко) (June 23, 1889 [O.S. June 11] — March 5, 1966) was the pen name of Anna Andreevna Gorenko, the leader and the heart and soul of St Petersburg tradition of Russian poetry in the course of half a century. ...


The beginning of the 20th century ranks as the Silver Age of Russian poetry. Well-known writers of the period include: Anna Akhmatova, Innokenty Annensky, Andrei Bely, Alexander Blok, Valery Bryusov, Marina Tsvetaeva, Sergei Esenin, Nikolay Gumilyov, Daniil Kharms, Velimir Khlebnikov, Dmitry Merezhkovsky, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Zinaida Gippius, Fedor Sologub and Maximilian Voloshin. Akhmatova in the 1920s Anna Akhmatova (Russian: , real name А́нна Андре́евна Горе́нко) (June 23, 1889 [O.S. June 11] — March 5, 1966) was the pen name of Anna Andreevna Gorenko, the leader and the heart and soul of St Petersburg tradition of Russian poetry in the course of half a century. ... Alexandre Benois Portrait of Innokenty Annensky Innokentiy Fyodorovich Annensky (Russian: , 1855-1909) was a poet, critic and translator, representative of the first wave of the Russian Symbolism. ... Leon Bakst Portrait of Andrei Bely Andrei Bely (Андрей Белый) was the pseudonym of Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev (October 14, 1880 (Old Style)- January 8, 1934), a Russian novelist, poet, theorist, and literary critic. ... Blok in 1907 Alexander Blok (Александр Александрович Блок, November 28, 1880 [O.S. November 16] – August 7, 1921), was perhaps the most gifted lyrical poet produced by Russia after Alexander Pushkin. ... Portrait by Mikhail Vrubel Valery Yakovlevich Bryusov (Russian: ) (December 1, 1873 – October 9, 1924) was a Russian poet, prose writer, dramatist, translator, critic and historian. ... Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva (Russian: ) (October 9, 1892 – August 31, 1941) was a Russian poet and writer. ... Insert non-formatted text hereSergei Aleksandrovich Yesenin born September 21, 1895 in Konstantinovo, Ryazan, Russia – died December27, 1925 in St. ... Nikolai Gumilev during his senior years in gymnasium Nikolay Stepanovich Gumilyov (Russian: , April 15 NS 1886 - August 1921) was an influential Russian poet who founded the acmeism movement. ... Daniil Kharms Daniil Kharms (Russian: ) (30 December 1905/Gregorian calendar: 12 January 1906 - 2 February 1942) was an early Soviet-era satirist who used a surrealist or absurdist style. ... Velemir Khlebnikov portrait by Wladimir Burliuk, 1913 Velimir Khlebnikov (Russian: Велимир Хлебников; first name also spelled Velemir; last name also spelled Chlebnikov, Hlebnikov, Xlebnikov), pseudonym of Viktor Vladimirovich Khlebnikov (November 9, 1885 (October 28, 1885 (O.S.)) – June 28, 1922), was a central part of the Russian Futurist movement but his work... Dmitry Merezhkovsky Dmitry Sergeyevich Merezhkovsky Дмитрий Сергеевич Мережковский (August 14, 1865, St Petersburg-December 9, 1941, Paris) was one of the earliest and most eminent ideologues of Russian Symbolism. ... Portrait of Vladimir Mayakovsky Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский) (July 7 (O.S.) July 19 (N.S.), 1893 – April 14, 1930) was among the foremost representatives for the poetic futurism of early 20th century Tsarist Russia and the Soviet Union. ... Zinaida Nikolaevna Gippius (1865 - 1945) was a Russian symbolist poet and author. ... Fyodor Sologub (Russian: , real name Фёдор Кузьмыч Тетерников) (March 1 (O.S. February 17) 1863 - December 5, 1927) was the pen name of Fyodor Kuzmich Teternikov, a Russian Symbolist poet and author. ... Maximilian Alexandrovich Kirienko-Voloshin (1877 - 1932) was one of the significant representatives of the epoch of symbolism in Russian culture and literature. ...


Soviet era

Bulgakov's The Master and Margarita has moved from underground cult classic to recognised satirical masterpiece
Bulgakov's The Master and Margarita has moved from underground cult classic to recognised satirical masterpiece

Sovietization of Russia affected literature after 1917. Maxim Gorky, Nobel Prize winner Mikhail Sholokhov, Valentin Kataev, Aleksei Nikolaevich Tolstoi, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Ilf and Petrov came to prominence as part of Soviet literature. Whilst Socialist realism gained official support in the Soviet Union, some of the writers -- such as Mikhail Bulgakov, Boris Pasternak, Andrei Platonov, Osip Mandelstam, Yury Trifonov, Isaac Babel and Vasily Grossman -- secretly continued the classical tradition of Russian literature, writing "under the table", with no hope of publishing such works until after their deaths. The Serapion Brothers insisted on the right to create a literature independent of political ideology: this brought them into conflict with the government. Nor did the authorities tolerate the experimental art of the Oberiuts. Meanwhile, émigré writers such as Nobel Prize winner Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin, Alexander Kuprin, Andrey Bely, Marina Tsvetaeva and Vladimir Nabokov continued to flourish in exile. The Master and Margarita book cover This image is a book cover. ... The Master and Margarita book cover This image is a book cover. ... The Master and Margarita (Russian: ) is a novel by Mikhail Bulgakov, woven about the premise of a visit by the Devil to the fervently atheistic Soviet Union. ... Kult (Status) Cult classic ---- (more info) Stage 1 : Request (How-to) Id volunteer to try and translate the complete German article into English, but Id like someone else to check the result for missing internal links to corresponding subjects in en. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Gorkys autographed portrait Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov (In Russian Алексей Максимович Пешков) (March 28 [O.S. March 16] 1868–June 14, 1936), better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим Горький), was a Soviet/Russian author, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Mikhail Sholokhov (left) and Vasily Shukshin (right) Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (Russian: Михаи́л Алекса́ндрович Шо́лохов) (May 24, 1905 (Old Style May 11) - February 21, 1984) was a Soviet/Russian novelist. ... Katayev, Valentin (Petrovich) (Russian: Валентин Катаев) (b. ... Aleksei Nikolaevich Tolstoi (Russian: Алексей Николаевич Толстой) (January 10, 1883 (December 29, 1882 (O.S.)) - February 23, 1945), nicknamed the Comrade Count, was a Soviet Russian writer who wrote in many genres but specialized in science fiction and historical novels. ... Portrait of Vladimir Mayakovsky Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский) (July 7 (O.S.) July 19 (N.S.), 1893 – April 14, 1930) was among the foremost representatives for the poetic futurism of early 20th century Tsarist Russia and the Soviet Union. ... Ilf and Petrov Ilya Ilf (Ilya Arnoldovich Faynzilberg, 1897–1937) and Evgeny or Yevgeny Petrov (Yevgeniy Petrovich Kataev or Katayev, 1903–1942) were two Soviet prose authors of the 1920s and 1930s. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 Socialist realism is a teleologically-oriented style of realistic art which has as its purpose the furtherance of the goals of socialism and communism. ... Mikhail Afanasievich Bulgakov (Russian: Михаил Афанасьевич Булгаков; May 15 [O.S. May 3] 1891, Kiev – March 10, 1940, Moscow) was a Russian novelist and playwright of the first half of the 20th century. ... Boris Pasternak (1890-1960). ... Andrei Platonov (Russian: Андрей Плато́нов) (1899-1951) was the pen name of Andrei Platonovich Klimentov, a Russian writer of the Soviet period whose works anticipate existentialism. ... Osip Mandelstam Osip Emilyevich Mandelstam (also spelled Mandelshtam) (Russian: ) (January 15 [O.S. January 3] 1891 – December 27, 1938) was a Jewish Russian poet and essayist, one of the foremost members of the Acmeist school of poets. ... Yury Valentinovich Trifonov (Russian: Юрий Трифонов; 1925-1981) was a leading representative of the so-called Soviet urban prose, a 1970s movement inspired by the psychologically complicated works of Anton Chekhov and his 20th-century American followers. ... Isaac Babel Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel, Russian: Исаак Эммануилович Бабель (13 July [O.S. 1 July] 1894 – January 27, 1940) was a Russian journalist, playwright, and short story writer. ... Vasily Semyonovich Grossman (alternatively spelled Vassily, Vasiliy, Russian language: Василий Гроссман), December 12, 1905 – September 14, 1964, was a prominent Soviet-era writer and journalist. ... Serapion Brothers is a Russian literary group, founded in 1922. ... OBERIU (rus. ... Ivan Bunin Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin (Ива́н Алексе́евич Бу́нин) (October 10, 1870 – November 8, 1953) was the first Russian writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. ... Alexander Vasilievich Kuprin (Александр Васильевич Куприн) was a Russian painter, a member of the Jack of Diamond group. ... Boris Budaev Andrei Bely (Андрей Белый) was the pseudonym of Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev (1880 - 1934), a Russian novelist, poet, theorist, and literary critic. ... Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva (Russian: ) (October 9, 1892 – August 31, 1941) was a Russian poet and writer. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22, 1899 [O.S. April 10], Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American author. ...


In post-Stalin Russia, Socialist realism remained the only permitted style; writers like Nobel Prize winner Alexandr Solzhenitsyn (who built his works on the legacy of the gulag camps) or Venedikt Erofeev continued the tradition of clandestine literature. In addition, Soviet authorities put pressure on the Nobel Prize committee to deny Konstantin Poustovsky the Literature Prize in 1965. The prize was awarded instead to Mikhail Sholokhov as more loyal to the Soviet regime. Post-Communist Russia saw most of these works published and become a part of mainstream culture. However, even before the decay of the Soviet Union, tolerance to non-mainstream art had slowly started to grow, especially during the Khrushchev Thaw. Some works of Bulgakov, Solzhenitsyn and Varlam Shalamov were published in the 1960s. Social criticism, as in the science fiction of the Strugatsky brothers and the literature of the Mitkis became popular. As another post-Stalin development, bard poetry developed. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Solzhenitsyn was exiled from the Soviet Union for his book The Gulag Archipelago. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: // Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... Venedikt Erofeev (Венедикт Ерофеев), (October 24, 1938—May 11, 1990), was a Russian writer. ... Nobel Prize medal. ... Konstantin Georgiyevich Paustovsky (Russian: , 1892- July 14, 1968) was a Russian writer. ... In Soviet history, Kruschevs Thaw or Khrushchev Thaw refers to the period between the end of 1950s and the beginning of 1960s, when repressions and censorship reached a low point. ... Varlam Shalamov Varlam Tikhonovich Shalamov (Варлам Тихонович Шаламов, July 1, 1907–January 17, 1982) was a Russian writer, journalist, poet, political prisoner and Gulag survivor. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Boris and Arkady Strugatsky The two brothers Arkady (Арка́дий, August 28, 1925 – October 12, 1991) and Boris (Бори́с, born April 14, 1933) Strugatsky (Струга́цкий; alternate spelling: Strugatski) are Russian science fiction authors who collaborated on their fiction. ... The Mitki (Митьки́) are an art group in St. ... Bulat Okudzhava, a pioneer of the Bard genre For other meanings of the word, see Bard (disambiguation). ...


In the late Soviet era émigré authors like Nobel prize winner Joseph Brodsky and short story writer Sergei Dovlatov became successful in the West, but remained known in the Soviet Union only in samizdat. Bookcover of Works and Days in Russian Joseph Brodsky (May 24, 1940 – January 28, 1996), born Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky (Russian: ) was a Russian-born poet and essayist who won the Nobel Prize in Literature (1987) and was chosen Poet Laureate of the United States (1991-1992). ... Sergei Dovlatov on the cover of one of his books Sergei Donatovich Dovlatov (Russian: September 3, 1941-August 24, 1990) was a Russian short-story writer and novelist. ... Samizdat, book published by Pathfinder Press containing a collection of forbidden Trotskyist Samizdat texts. ...


Post-Soviet era

The end of the 20th century and the early 21st century has proven a difficult period for Russian literature, with relatively few authors, such as Victor Pelevin or Vladimir Sorokin, producing distinctive fiction. Victor Pelevin (Russian: Виктор Олегович Пелевин, b. ... Vladimir Georgievich Sorokin (, in Russian) (born August 7, 1955 in Bykovo, a small town near Moscow in Russia) is a contemporary postmodern Russian writer. ...


In the early 21st century the reading public in Russia has shown considerable interest in new quality literature. Many new authors have emerged, along with new publishing companies, new brands and new literature series. Traditional Russian prose remains popular, and distinctive work has come out of the Russian provinces: for example Nina Gorlanova from Perm has written stories about the everyday problems and joys of the provincial intelligentsia. Nina Gorlanova is a modern short-story writer and novelist who has been living in a provincial Russian city Perm (depicted as Youryatin in Pasternaks novel Doctor Zhivago) She was born in 1947, grew up in a village in Perm region, and studied philology at Perm University. ...


Widely popular in teen and early-twenty's audience gained a humoristic fantasy, sci-fi or mixed literature, mostly known for Andrey Belyanin's books. However the overall plot and humor are widely criticized by some, mostly calling it plain dumb. Andrei Belyanin is a modern Russian science fiction and fantasy writer, who wrote at least 15 novels with many of then selling over 2 million copies. ...


Detective stories and thrillers have proven a very successful genre of new Russian literature: note the interesting phenomenon of the huge interest in ironic detective stories by Darya Dontsova. She has written about 50 novels, and her books have appeared published in millions of copies and even translated in Europe.


Generations of winter ( in Russian: Moskovskaya saga ), a novel by the Russian writer Vasily Aksyonov, has appeared in the USA. Many critics have praised this novel as a new Doctor Zhivago large-scale Russian novel, which tells the story of the Russian Gradov family struggling to survive in the Stalin era. Generations of Winter (in Russian, Moskovskaya Saga) is a novel by Russian writer Vasily Aksyonov. ... Vasily Pavlovich Aksyonov (Russian: Василий Павлович Аксёнов, born August 20, 1932 in Kazan) is a Russian novelist who began his career in the Soviet era. ... Doctor Zhivago ( Russian: Доктор Живаго) is a highly significant 20th century novel by Boris Pasternak. ...


Several Russian writers have become rather popular in the West, such as Tatyana Tolstaya and (especially) Lyudmila Ulitskaya. Detective-story writer Boris Akunin, with his series about the 19th century sleuth Erast Fandorin, publishes in Europe and in the USA. Alexandra Marinina, the most popular female detective-story writer in Russia, has succeeded in publishing her books around Europe, especially in Germany. Important Russian language writers in Ukraine are Aleksandr Abramovic Bejderman and Andrey Kurkov. Tatyana Tolstaya (also Tatiana Tolstaya) is a well-known modern Russian writer, TV-host, publicist, novelist, and essayist. ... Lyudmila Ulitskaya 1995 Ludmila Ulitskaya is a critically acclaimed modern Russian novelist and short-story writer. ... Boris Akunin Boris Akunin (Russian: ) is the pen name of Grigory Shalvovich Chkhartishvili (Григорий Шалвович Чхартишвили), born May 20, 1956, a Russian ( half Georgian and half Jew ) essayist, literary translator, and fiction writer. ... Oleg Menshikov as Erast Fandorin in the 2005 movie The Councillor of State. ... Alexandra Marinina (born July 16, 1957, real name Alekseyeva Marina Anatolyevna) is a Russian best-seller detective stories writer. ... Andrey Kurkov (born in 1961 in Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Ukrainian novelist who writes in Russian. ...


Themes in Russian literature

Suffering, often as a means of redemption, is a recurrent theme in Russian literature. Dostoevsky in particular is noted for exploring suffering in works such as Notes from the Underground and Crime and Punishment. Christianity and Christian symbolism are also important themes, notably in the works of Dostoevsky, Tolstoy and Chekhov. In the 20th century, suffering as a mechanism of evil was explored by authors such as Solzhenitsyn in The Gulag Archipelago. Notes from Underground (also translated in English as Notes from the Underground or Letters from the Underworld) (1864) is a short novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Crime and Punishment (Russian: Преступление и наказание) is a novel written by Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Coat of arms of Count Leo Tolstoy This article is about the Tolstoy family; for the famous novelist, see Leo Tolstoy. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: , Anton Pavlovič Čehov) (29 January 1860 [O.S. 17 January] – 15 July 1904 [O.S. 2 July]) was a physician, major Russian short story writer and playwright. ... The Gulag Archipelago. ...


The 2003 Frankfurt Book Fair selected Russia as its special guest of the year. The Frankfurt Book Fair (German: Frankfurter Buchmesse) is the worlds largest trade fair for books, held annually in mid-October in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ...


See List of Russians and List of Russian authors for more names. This is a list of people associated with Imperial Russia, the Soviet Union, and Russia of today. ... This is the list of authors that wrote in Russian language. ...


See also

Bylina (Russian: были́на, also Byliny and Stariny) is a traditional epic, heroic narrative poetry of early East Slavs of Kievan Rus, the tradition continued in Russia and Ukraine. ... Poets who wrote much of their poetry in the Russian language. ... // Introduction The distinctive feature of Russian Formalism is the emphasis on the functional role of literary devices and the original conception of the evolution of literary history. ... Russian (Russian: ,  ) is the most widely spoken language of Eurasia and the most widespread of the Slavonic languages. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Russian literature - definition of Russian literature in Encyclopedia (1034 words)
Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia or its emigrés, and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Russia or the Soviet Union.
Old Russian literature consists of several sparse masterpieces written in the Old Russian language (not to be confused with the contemporaneous Church Slavonic).
Social criticism, as in the science fiction of the Strugatsky brothers and the literature of the Mitkis became popular.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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