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Encyclopedia > Russian language
Russian
Русский язык Russkiy yazyk 
Pronunciation: [ˈruskʲɪj]
Spoken in: see article
Total speakers: primary language: about 164 million
secondary language: 114 million (2006)[1] 
Ranking: 8 (native)
Language family: Indo-European
 Satem
  Balto-Slavic
   Slavic
    East Slavic
     Russian 
Writing system: Cyrillic (Russian variant
Official status
Official language in:
Flag of Russia Russia
Flag of Belarus Belarus
Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
Flag of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan


Flag of Commonwealth of Independent States Commonwealth of Independent States (working)
International Atomic Energy Agency
Flag of the United Nations United Nations

This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The hypothetical Balto-Slavic language group consists of the Baltic and Slavic language subgroups of the Indo-European family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kyrgyzstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_CIS.svg Flag of the Commonwealth of Independent States. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_IAEA.svg en: Description: Flag of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an organization of the United Nations. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Flag of Abkhazia Abkhazia (Georgia)
Flag of South Ossetia South Ossetia (Georgia)
Flag of Transnistria Transnistria (Moldova)
Flag of Gagauzia Gagauzia (Moldova)
Flag of Crimea Crimea (de facto, Ukraine)
Image File history File links Flag_of_Abkhazia. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Ossetia. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Transnistria. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Gagauzia. ... Anthem Gagauziya Milli Marşı Location of Gagauzia (purple) Capital (and largest city) Comrat Official languages Gagauz, Moldovan (Romanian), Russian Government  -  Governor Mihail Formuzal  -  Chairman of the Peoples Assembly Stepan Esir Autonomous region of Moldova  -  Created April 23, 1994  Area  -  Total 1,832 km²  707 sq mi  Population  -  19961 estimate... Image File history File links Flag_of_Crimea. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ...

Regulated by: Russian Language Institute[2] at the Russian Academy of Sciences
Language codes
ISO 639-1: ru
ISO 639-2: rus
ISO 639-3: rus 
Countries of the world where Russian is spoken.

Russian (русский язык , transliteration: russkiy yazyk, Russian pronunciation: [ˈruskʲɪj jɪˈzɨk]) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, and the largest native language in Europe. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of three (or, according to some authorities, four) living members of the East Slavic languages, the others being Belarusian and Ukrainian (and possibly Rusyn, often considered a dialect of Ukrainian). It is also spoken by the countries of the Russophone. Sergei Ivanovich Ozhegov (August 22, 1900-1964), Russian lexicographer. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 34 KB) Summary Colored by me from public domain Wikimedia Commons source Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links Ru-russkiy jizyk. ... For romanization of Russian on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Romanization of Russian. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Native Language Music, founded in 1996 by musicians Joe Sherbanee and Theo Bishop, is an independent adult contemporary record company based in Southern California that produces, markets, and distributes premium jazz, world, and new age music. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Rusyn is an East Slavic language (along with Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian to which it shares a common linguistic ancestry) that is spoken by the Rusyns. ... Look up Russophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century onwards. Today Russian is widely used outside Russia. Over a quarter of the world's scientific literature is published in Russian.[3] It is also applied as a means of coding and storage of universal knowledge — 60–70% of all world information is published in English and Russian languages.[3] Russian also is a necessary accessory of world communications systems (broadcasts, air- and space communication, etc).[3] Due to the status of the Soviet Union as a superpower, Russian had great political importance in the 20th century. Hence, the language is one of the official languages of the United Nations. Superpowers redirects here. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds. This distinction is found between pairs of almost all consonants and is one of the most distinguishing features of the language. Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels, which is not entirely unlike that of English. Stress in Russian is neither indicated orthographically, nor governed by phonological rules. In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Secondary articulation refers to co-articulated consonants (consonants produced simultaneously at two places of articulation) where the two articulations are not of the same manner. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


NOTE. Russian is written in a non-Latin script. All examples below are in the Cyrillic alphabet, with transcriptions in the IPA. The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union...

Contents

Classification

Russian is a Slavic language in the Indo-European family. From the point of view of the spoken language, its closest relatives are Ukrainian and Belarusian, the other two national languages in the East Slavic group. In many places in eastern Ukraine and Belarus, these languages are spoken interchangeably, and in certain areas traditional bilingualism resulted in language mixture, e.g. Surzhyk in eastern Ukraine and Trasianka in Belarus. An East Slavic Old Novgorod dialect, although vanished during the fifteenth or sixteenth century, is sometimes considered to have played a significant role in formation of the modern Russian language.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Spoken language is a language that people utter words of the language. ... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Surzhyk (Ukrainian: , originally meaning ‘flour or bread made from mixed grains’, e. ... Trasianka or trasyanka (be: трасянка) is a Belarusian–Russian patois or a kind of interlanguage (from the linguistic point of view). ... Old Novgorod dialect (Russian древненовгородский диалект, also translated as Old Novgorodian or Ancient Novgorod dialect) is a term introduced by Andrey Zaliznyak (Андрей Анатольевич Зализняк) to account for the astonishingly distinct linguistic features of the East Slavic birch-bark writings from the 11th to 15th centuries excavated in Novgorod and...


The vocabulary (mainly abstract and literary words), principles of word formation, and, to some extent, inflections and literary style of Russian have been also influenced by Church Slavonic, a developed and partly adopted form of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic language used by the Russian Orthodox Church. However, the East Slavic forms have tended to be used exclusively in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline. In some cases, both the East Slavic and the Church Slavonic forms are in use, with slightly different meanings. For details, see Russian phonology and History of the Russian language. Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Church Slavonic may refer to: Old Church Slavonic language Church Slavonic language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Russian phonology and syntax (especially in northern dialects) have also been influenced to some extent by the numerous Finnic languages of the Finno-Ugric subfamily: Merya, Moksha, Muromian, the language of the Meshchera, Veps, et cetera. These languages, some of them now extinct, used to be spoken in the center and in the north of what is now the European part of Russia. They came in contact with Eastern Slavic as far back as the early Middle Ages and eventually served as substratum for the modern Russian language. The Russian dialects spoken north, north-east and north-west of Moscow have a considerable number of words of Finno-Ugric origin.[4][5] Over the course of centuries, the vocabulary and literary style of Russian have also been influenced by Turkic/Caucasian/Central Asian languages, as well as Western/Central European languages such as Polish, Latin, Dutch, German, French, English.[6] Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ˌfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ... The Merya language was the Finno-Ugric language spoken by the Merya tribe, which lived in what is today the Moscow region. ... The Mokshan language (Moksha), мокшень кяль (mokshanj kälj) is spoken in the western part of the Republic of Mordovia and adjacent Penza, Ryazan, Tambov, Saratov, Samara, Orenburg oblasts, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan republics, Siberia, Far East of Russia and also in Armenia and USA. The number of speakers is around 500,000. ... Muromian was the Finno-Ugric language spoken by the Muromian tribe, in what is today the Murom region in Russia. ... An approximative map of the non-Varangian cultures in European Russia, in the 9th century The Meshchera (Russian: , Meshchyora) were a Finno-Ugric tribe which lived in the territory between the Oka River and the Klyazma river. ... Veps language, spoken by the Vepses, belongs to the Baltic-Finnic group of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


According to the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California, Russian is classified as a level III language in terms of learning difficulty for native English speakers,[7] requiring approximately 780 hours of immersion instruction to achieve intermediate fluency. It is also regarded by the United States Intelligence Community as a "hard target" language, due to both its difficulty to master for English speakers as well as due to its critical role in American world policy. Crest of the Defense Language Institute The Defense Language Institute (DLI) is a United States Department of Defense (DoD) educational and research institution, which provides linguistic and cultural instruction to the Department of Defense, other Federal Agencies and numerous and varied other customers. ... For other uses, see Monterey (disambiguation). ... Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. ...


Geographic distribution

Russian is primarily spoken in Russia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics of the USSR. Until 1917, it was the sole official language of the Russian Empire.[citation needed] During the Soviet period, the policy toward the languages of the various other ethnic groups fluctuated in practice. Though each of the constituent republics had its own official language, the unifying role and superior status was reserved for Russian. Following the break-up of 1991, several of the newly independent states have encouraged their native languages, which has partly reversed the privileged status of Russian, though its role as the language of post-Soviet national intercourse throughout the region has continued. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...


In Latvia, notably, its official recognition and legality in the classroom have been a topic of considerable debate in a country where more than one-third of the population is Russian-speaking, consisting mostly of post-World War II immigrants from Russia and other parts of the former USSR (Belarus, Ukraine).[citation needed] Similarly, in Estonia, the Soviet-era immigrants and their Russian-speaking descendants constitute 25,6% of the country's current population and 58,6% of the native Estonian population is also able to speak Russian.[8] In all, 67,8% of Estonia's population can speak Russian. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ...


In many Central Asian countries, Russian is still the lingua franca of commerce, education, et cetera. despite its no longer being the official language and despite many ethnic Russians having left these countries.[citation needed] Large Russian-speaking communities still exist in northern Kazakhstan.[citation needed] Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


A much smaller Russian-speaking minority in Lithuania has largely been assimilated during the decade of independence and currently represent less than 1/10 of the country's overall population. Nevertheless more than half of the population of the Baltic states are able to hold a conversation in Russian and almost all have at least some familiarity with the most basic spoken and written phrases.[citation needed] The Russian control of Finland in 1809–1918, however, has left few Russian speakers in Finland. There are 33,400 Russian speakers in Finland, amounting to 0.6% of the population. 5000 (0.1%) of them are late 19th century and 20th century immigrants, and the rest are recent immigrants, who have arrived in the 90's and later. The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ...

Sign above a urinal in an Israeli international airport. Translated into four languages spoken in Israel: English, Hebrew, Russian, and Arabic.
Sign above a urinal in an Israeli international airport. Translated into four languages spoken in Israel: English, Hebrew, Russian, and Arabic.

In the twentieth century, Russian was widely taught in the schools of the members of the old Warsaw Pact and in other countries that used to be allies of the USSR. In particular, these countries include Poland, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Albania and Cuba. However, younger generations are usually not fluent in it, because Russian is no longer mandatory in the school system. It was, and to a lesser extent still is, taught in Mongolia due to Soviet influence. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... A urinal is any specialized toilet or container designed for urinating, generally by men and boys. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ...


Russian is also spoken in Israel by at least 750,000 ethnic Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union (1999 census). The Israeli press and websites regularly publish material in Russian. For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML...


Sizable Russian-speaking communities also exist in North America, especially in large urban centers of the U.S. and Canada such as New York City, Philadelphia, Boston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Toronto, Baltimore, Miami, Chicago, Denver, and the Cleveland suburb of Richmond Heights. In the former two Russian-speaking groups total over half a million. In a number of locations they issue their own newspapers, and live in their self-sufficient neighborhoods (especially the generation of immigrants who started arriving in the early sixties). Only about a quarter of them are ethnic Russians, however. Before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the overwhelming majority of Russophones in North America were Russian-speaking Jews. Afterwards the influx from the countries of the former Soviet Union changed the statistics somewhat. According to the United States 2000 Census, Russian is the primary language spoken in the homes of over 700,000 individuals living in the United States. North American redirects here. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Boston redirects here. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Miami redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Richmond Heights is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... Look up Russophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... The United States Census of year 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...


Significant Russian-speaking groups also exist in Western Europe. These have been fed by several waves of immigrants since the beginning of the twentieth century, each with its own flavor of language. Germany, the United Kingdom, Spain, France, Italy, Belgium, Greece, Brazil, Norway, Austria, and Turkey have significant Russian-speaking communities totaling 3 million people. A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


Two thirds of them are actually Russian-speaking descendants of Germans, Greeks, Jews, Armenians, or Ukrainians who either repatriated after the USSR collapsed or are just looking for temporary employment. A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ...


Earlier, the descendants of the Russian émigrés tended to lose the tongue of their ancestors by the third generation. Now, because the border is more open, Russian is likely to survive longer,[citation needed] especially because many of the emigrants visit their homelands at least once a year and also have access to Russian websites and TV channels.


Recent estimates of the total number of speakers of Russian:

Source Native speakers Native Rank Total speakers Total rank
G. Weber, "Top Languages",
Language Monthly,
3: 12–18, 1997, ISSN 1369-9733
160,000,000 8 285,000,000 5
World Almanac (1999) 145,000,000 8          (2005) 275,000,000 5
SIL (2000 WCD) 145,000,000 8 255,000,000 5–6 (tied with Arabic)
CIA World Factbook (2005) 160,000,000 8

Arabic redirects here. ...

Official status

Russian is the official language of Russia. It is also an official language of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the de facto official language of unrecognized Transnistria, South Ossetia and Abkhazia. Russian is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Education in Russian is still a popular choice for both Russian as a second language (RSL) and native speakers in Russia as well as many of the former Soviet republics. The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


97% of the public school students of Russia, 75% in Belarus, 41% in Kazakhstan, 25% in Ukraine, 23% in Kyrgyzstan, 21% in Moldova, 7% in Azerbaijan, 5% in Georgia and 2% in Armenia and Tajikistan receive their education only or mostly in Russian. Although the corresponding percentage of ethnic Russians is 78% in Russia, 10% in Belarus, 26% in Kazakhstan, 17% in Ukraine, 9% in Kyrgyzstan, 6% in Moldova, 2% in Azerbaijan, 1.5% in Georgia and less than 1% in both Armenia and Tajikistan. Motto: none Anthem: Limba noastră (Our Tongue) Capital ChiÅŸinău Largest city ChiÅŸinău Official language(s) Moldovan (Romanian) Government President Prime Minister Parliamentary Republic Vladimir Voronin Vasile Tarlev Independence  - Formation  - Independence August 27, 1991 August 2, 1940, August 27, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%)   33,843 km² (135th...


Russian-language schooling is also available in Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania, but due to education reforms, a number of subjects taught in Russian are reduced at the high school level.[citation needed] The language has a co-official status alongside Romanian in the autonomies of Gagauzia and Transnistria in Moldova, and in seven Romanian communes in Tulcea and Constanţa counties. In these localities, Russian-speaking Lipovans, who are a recognized ethnic minority, make up more than 20% of the population. Thus, according to Romania's minority rights law, education, signage, and access to public administration and the justice system are provided in Russian alongside Romanian. In the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in Ukraine, Russian is an officially recognized language alongside with Crimean Tatar, but in reality, is the only language used by the government, thus being a de facto official language. Anthem Gagauziya Milli Marşı Location of Gagauzia (purple) Capital (and largest city) Comrat Official languages Gagauz, Moldovan (Romanian), Russian Government  -  Governor Mihail Formuzal  -  Chairman of the Peoples Assembly Stepan Esir Autonomous region of Moldova  -  Created April 23, 1994  Area  -  Total 1,832 km²  707 sq mi  Population  -  19961 estimate... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... A commune (comună in Romanian) is, along with the municipality, the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania. ... Administrative map of Romania with Tulcea county highlighted Tulcea is a Romanian county (Judeţ) in the Dobrogea region, with the capital city at Tulcea (population: 96,813). ... Facts Development region: Sud-Est Historic region: Dobruja Capital city: ConstanÅ£a Population:  â€¢ As of 2002:  â€¢ Population density: 715,151 101/km² Area: 7,071 km² Codes:  â€¢ Car numbers  â€¢ ISO 3166-2:RO CT RO-CT Telephone code: (+40) x41 (1) Web:   County Council Prefecture 1. ... Lipovans (Russian Old Believers) during a ceremony in front of their church in the Romanian village of Slava Cherkeza in 2004. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


Dialects

Despite leveling after 1900, especially in matters of vocabulary, a number of dialects exist in Russia. Some linguists divide the dialects of the Russian language into two primary regional groupings, "Northern" and "Southern", with Moscow lying on the zone of transition between the two. Others divide the language into three groupings, Northern, Central and Southern, with Moscow lying in the Central region. Dialectology within Russia recognizes dozens of smaller-scale variants. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Dialectology is the study of dialects of a language, their evolution, differentiation, inter-intelligibity, grammar, phonetics etc. ...


The dialects often show distinct and non-standard features of pronunciation and intonation, vocabulary, and grammar. Some of these are relics of ancient usage now completely discarded by the standard language.


The northern Russian dialects and those spoken along the Volga River typically pronounce unstressed /o/ clearly (the phenomenon called okanye/оканье). East of Moscow, particularly in Ryazan Region, unstressed /e/ and /a/ following palatalized consonants and preceding a stressed syllable are not reduced to [ɪ] (like in the Moscow dialect), being instead pronounced as /a/ in such positions (e.g. несли is pronounced as [nʲasˈlʲi], not as [nʲɪsˈlʲi]) - this is called yakanye/ яканье;[9] many southern dialects have a palatalized final /tʲ/ in 3rd person forms of verbs (this is unpalatalized in the standard dialect) and a fricative [ɣ] where the standard dialect has [g].[citation needed] However, in certain areas south of Moscow, e.g. in and around Tula, /g/ is pronounced as in the Moscow and northern dialects unless it precedes a voiceless plosive or a pause. In this position /g/ is lenited and devoiced to the fricative [x], e.g. друг [drux] (in Moscow's dialect, only Бог [box], лёгкий [lʲɵxʲkʲɪj], мягкий [ˈmʲæxʲkʲɪj] and some derivatives follow this rule). Some of these features (e.g. a debuccalized or lenited /g/ and palatalized final /tʲ/ in 3rd person forms of verbs) are also present in modern Ukrainian, indicating either a linguistic continuum or strong influence one way or the other. Northern Russian dialects are the dialects of a group of dialects of the Russian language. ... “Volga” redirects here. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Administrative center Ryazan Area - total - % water Ranked 61 - 39,600 km² - Population - Total - Density Ranked 44 - est. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Yakanye ( in Russian Cyrillic) is the practice in the Russian language whereby unstressed and following palatalized consonants and preceding a stressed syllabus are not reduced to (unlike the Standard Russian) and are instead pronounced as in such positions (e. ... , For other uses, see Tula (disambiguation). ... Lenition is a kind of consonant mutation that appears in many languages. ... Lenition is a kind of consonant mutation that appears in many languages. ...


The city of Veliky Novgorod has historically displayed a feature called chokanye/tsokanye (чоканье/цоканье), where /ʨ/ and /ʦ/ were confused (this is thought to be due to influence from Finnish,[citation needed] which doesn't distinguish these sounds). So, цапля ("heron") has been recorded as 'чапля'. Also, the second palatalization of velars did not occur there, so the so-called ě² (from the Proto-Slavonic diphthong *ai) did not cause /k, g, x/ to shift to /ʦ, ʣ, s/; therefore where Standard Russian has цепь ("chain"), the form кепь [kʲepʲ] is attested in earlier texts. For other cities named Novgorod, see Novgorod (disambiguation). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Russian (Russian: ,  ) is the most widely spoken language of Eurasia and the most widespread of the Slavonic languages. ...


Among the first to study Russian dialects was Lomonosov in the eighteenth century. In the nineteenth, Vladimir Dal compiled the first dictionary that included dialectal vocabulary. Detailed mapping of Russian dialects began at the turn of the twentieth century. In modern times, the monumental Dialectological Atlas of the Russian Language (Диалектологический атлас русского языка [dʲɪɐˌlʲɛktəlɐˈgʲiʨɪskʲɪj ˈatləs ˈruskəvə jɪzɨˈka]), was published in 3 folio volumes 1986–1989, after four decades of preparatory work. For other uses, see Lomonosov (disambiguation). ... Dahls portrait by Vasily Perov. ...


The standard language is based on (but not identical to) the Moscow dialect.[citation needed]


Derived languages

  • Fenya, a criminal argot of ancient origin, with Russian grammar, but with distinct vocabulary.
  • Surzhyk is a language with Russian and Ukrainian features, spoken in some areas of Ukraine
  • Trasianka is a language with Russian and Belarusian features used by a large portion of the rural population in Belarus.
  • Balachka a dialect, spoken primarily by Cossacks, in the regions of Don, Kuban and Terek.
  • Quelia, a pseudo pidgin of German and Russian.
  • Russenorsk is an extinct pidgin language with mostly Russian vocabulary and mostly Norwegian grammar, used for communication between Russians and Norwegian traders in the Pomor trade in Finnmark and the Kola Peninsula.
  • Runglish, Russian-English pidgin. This word is also used by English speakers to describe the way in which Russians attempt to speak English using Russian morphology and/or syntax.
  • Nadsat, the fictional language spoken in 'A Clockwork Orange' uses a lot of Russian words and Russian slang.

Fenya or Fenka is a Russian cant language used among criminals. ... Argot (French for slang) is primarily slang used by various groups, including but not limited to thieves and other criminals, to prevent outsiders from understanding their conversations. ... Surzhyk (Ukrainian: , originally meaning ‘flour or bread made from mixed grains’, e. ... Trasianka or trasyanka (be: трасянка) is a Belarusian–Russian patois or a kind of interlanguage (from the linguistic point of view). ... Balachka (Russian and Ukrainian: балачка) is a Cossack dialect that is spoken in the traditional Cossack regions of Russia such as the Kuban, Stavropol and Don areas. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... Terek River in North Georgia. ... Quelia or Russo-German (German: quälen or Quelle or Deutschrussisch, Russian: квeля/kvelya, Quelia: Qweля/Qvelya) is a mixed language or pidgin used by some Russian immigrants living in Germany. ... Russenorsk or Russonorsk (Norwegian for Russo-Norwegian) was a pidgin language combining elements of Russian and Norwegian, created by traders and whalers from northern Norway and the Russian Kola peninsula. ... This article is about simplified languages. ... County NO-20 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Vadsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 1 48,618 km² 15. ... Location of Kola south of the Barents Sea. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Nadsat is a constructed slang dialect of English with many Russian influences invented by the linguist, novelist, and composer Anthony Burgess. ... Clockwork Orange redirects here. ...

Writing system

Alphabet

A page from Azbuka (Alphabet book), the first Russian textbook. Printed by Ivan Fyodorov in 1574. This page features the Cyrillic alphabet.
A page from Azbuka (Alphabet book), the first Russian textbook. Printed by Ivan Fyodorov in 1574. This page features the Cyrillic alphabet.
Main article: Russian alphabet

Russian is written using a modified version of the Cyrillic (кириллица) alphabet. The Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters. The following table gives their upper case forms, along with IPA values for each letter's typical sound: A is for Armadillo An Alphabet book is a book primarily designed for younger readers and writers. ... The first monument to Fedorov was opened in Moscow in 1909. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union...

А
/a/
Б
/b/
В
/v/
Г
/g/
Д
/d/
Е
/je/
Ё
/jo/
Ж
/ʐ/
З
/z/
И
/i/
Й
/j/
К
/k/
Л
/l/
М
/m/
Н
/n/
О
/o/
П
/p/
Р
/r/
С
/s/
Т
/t/
У
/u/
Ф
/f/
Х
/x/
Ц
/ʦ/
Ч
/ʨ/
Ш
/ʂ/
Щ
/ɕː/
Ъ
/-/
Ы
[ɨ]
Ь
/◌ʲ/
Э
/e/
Ю
/ju/
Я
/ja/

Older letters of the Russian alphabet include <ѣ>, which merged to <е> (/e/); <і> and <ѵ>, which both merged to <и>(/i/); <ѳ>, which merged to <ф> (/f/); and <ѧ>, which merged to <я> (/ja/ or /ʲa/). The yers <ъ> and <ь> originally indicated the pronunciation of ultra-short or reduced /ŭ/, /ĭ/. While these older letters have been abandoned at one time or another, they may be used in this and related articles. A (А, а) is the first letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Look up Б, б in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ve (Ð’, в) is the third letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the sound . ... Look up Г, г in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... De (Д, д) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Ye, or E (Е, е), is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zhe (Ж, ж) is the letter of Cyrillic alphabet which represents the voiced postalveolar fricative (listen), similar to the s in the English word treasure. Zhe is the 7th letter of the Bulgarian and Belarusian alphabets, the 8th letter in the Macedonian, Russian and Serbian alphabets, and the 9th in the Ukrainian... Ze (З, з) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /z/. Its easily confusable with the number 3, for example the stages of the N1 rocket. ... I or Y (И, и) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet, pronounced in Russian, or in Ukrainian. ... Й, й (Short I) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Ka (К, к) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... El (Л, л) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Em (М, м) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /m/. Code positions This article is a substub, the first step on the way to becoming a full article. ... Look up Н, н in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... O (О, о) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /o/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Pe (П, п) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /p/. It arose directly from the Greek letter Pi (Π, Ï€). The shape of capital printed Pe can be described as a square with the bottom line missing, not to be confused with El (Cyrillic), which has a curved left. ... Er (Р, р) is the eighteenth letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Te (Т, т) is the letter representing the consonant /t/ in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... U (У, у) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /u/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Ef (Ф, ф) is the twenty-first letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Kha, or Ha, (Х, х) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the voiceless velar fricative /x/ (pronounced like the ch in German Bach). It is derived from the greek letter chi. ... Tse (Ц, ц) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Che (Ч, ч) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant cluster /tS/ or /tS/ (like the ch in change). Categories: Cyrillic letters | Stub ... Sha (Ш, ш) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant sound or . ... Shcha or Shta (Щ, щ) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant // or // in Russian, // or // in Ukrainian, and the consonant // in Bulgarian. ... The letter (Ъ, ÑŠ) of the Cyrillic alphabet is known as the hard sign (твёрдый знак ) in the modern Russian alphabet and as er golyam (ер голям, big yer) in the Bulgarian alphabet. ... Yery (Ы, Ñ‹) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Soft Sign (Ь, ÑŒ) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet (Russian: мягкий знак (mÄ­ahkiy znak) [], Ukrainian: м’який знак (miakyy znak) [], Belarusian: мяккі знак (miakki znak) []). It is named so because it usually indicates softening, or palatalization, of the preceding consonant or of the group of them. ... E or E Oborotnoye (Э, э) is a letter of the Russian alphabet, representing the non-iotated vowel, IPA: or ). Code positions See also Glagolitic alphabet Categories: | ... Yu (Ю, ю) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the iotated vowel /ju/. In common with many Cyrillic letters, it was derived from a digraph, being a ligature of Izhe (then І) or Izhei (then Н, both now И) and Uk (Ѹ, no longer in the alphabet). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The letter (Ъ, ÑŠ) of the Cyrillic alphabet is known as the hard sign (твёрдый знак ) in the modern Russian alphabet and as er golyam (ер голям, big yer) in the Bulgarian alphabet. ...


The Russian alphabet has many systems of character encoding. KOI8-R was designed by the government and was intended to serve as the standard encoding. This encoding is still used in UNIX-like operating systems. Nevertheless, the spread of MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows created chaos and ended by establishing different encodings as de-facto standards. For communication purposes, a number of conversion applications were developed. "iconv" is an example that is supported by most versions of Linux, Macintosh and some other operating systems. Most implementations (especially old ones) of the character encoding for the Russian language are aimed at simultaneous use of English and Russian characters only and do not include support for any other language. Certain hopes for a unification of the character encoding for the Russian alphabet are related to the Unicode standard, specifically designed for peaceful coexistence of various languages, including even dead languages. Unicode also supports the letters of the Early Cyrillic alphabet, which have many similarities with the Greek alphabet. A character encoding consists of a code that pairs a sequence of characters from a given character set (sometimes referred to as code page) with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses, in order to facilitate the storage of text in computers and the... KOI8-R is an 8-bit character encoding, designed to cover Russian, which uses the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Windows redirects here. ... iconv is a computer program and a standardized API used to convert between different character encodings. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... For other uses, see Macintosh (disambiguation) and Mac. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... An extinct language is a language which is no longer natively spoken: it is estimated that one natural human language dies every two weeks. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The original Cyrillic alphabet was a writing system developed in Macedonia and in the First Bulgarian Empire in the tenth century to write the Old Church Slavonic liturgical language. ... This page contains special characters. ...

Further information: Romanization of Russian and Informal romanizations of Russian

For romanization of Russian on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Romanization of Russian. ... Informal or ad hoc romanizations of Russian have been in use since the early days of electronic communications, starting from early e-mail and bulletin board systems. ...

Orthography

Main article: Russian orthography

Russian spelling is reasonably phonemic in practice.[attribution needed] It is in fact a balance among phonemics, morphology, etymology, and grammar; and, like that of most living languages, has its share of inconsistencies and controversial points. A number of rigid spelling rules introduced between the 1880s and 1910s have been responsible for the latter whilst trying to eliminate the former. Russian orthography (правописание ) is formally considered to encompass spelling (орфография ) and punctuation (пунктуация ). Russian spelling, which is quite phonetic in practice, is a mix of the morphological and phonetic principles, with a few etymological or historic forms, and occasional grammatical differentiation. ... In Russian, the term spelling rule is used to describe a number of rules relating to the spelling of words in the language that would appear in most cases to deviate from a strictly phonetic transcription. ...


The current spelling follows the major reform of 1918, and the final codification of 1956. An update proposed in the late 1990s has met a hostile reception, and has not been formally adopted.


The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greek, was in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries reformulated on the French and German models.


Sounds

Main article: Russian phonology

The phonological system of Russian is inherited from Common Slavonic, but underwent considerable modification in the early historical period, before being largely settled by about 1400. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article or section should be merged with Proto-Slavic language Common Slavonic is the common language spoken by the Slavs, which eventually broke up into the ancestors of the modern Slavic languages. ...


The language possesses five vowels, which are written with different letters depending on whether or not the preceding consonant is palatalized. The consonants typically come in plain vs. palatalized pairs, which are traditionally called hard and soft. (The hard consonants are often velarized, especially before back vowels, although in some dialects the velarization is limited to hard /l/). The standard language, based on the Moscow dialect, possesses heavy stress and moderate variation in pitch. Stressed vowels are somewhat lengthened, while unstressed vowels tend to be reduced to near-close vowels or an unclear schwa. (See also: vowel reduction in Russian.) Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


The Russian syllable structure can be quite complex with both initial and final consonant clusters of up to 4 consecutive sounds. Using a formula with V standing for the nucleus (vowel) and C for each consonant the structure can be described as follows: For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ...


(C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C)


Clusters of four consonants are not very common, however, especially within a morpheme.[10]


Consonants

  Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental &
Alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar
Nasal hard /m/   /n/      
soft /mʲ/   /nʲ/      
Plosive hard /p/   /b/   /t/   /d/     /k/   /g/
soft /pʲ/   /bʲ/   /tʲ/   /dʲ/     /kʲ/*   [gʲ]
Affricate hard     /ʦ/           
soft         /tɕ/       
Fricative hard   /f/   /v/ /s/   /z/ /ʂ/   /ʐ/   /x/     
soft   /fʲ/   /vʲ/ /sʲ/   /zʲ/ /ɕː/*   /ʑː/*   [xʲ]     
Trill hard     /r/      
soft     /rʲ/      
Approximant hard     /l/      
soft     /lʲ/   /j/  

Russian is notable for its distinction based on palatalization of most of the consonants. While /k/, /g/, /x/ do have palatalized allophones [kʲ, gʲ, xʲ], only /kʲ/ might be considered a phoneme, though it is marginal and generally not considered distinctive (the only native minimal pair which argues for /kʲ/ to be a separate phoneme is "это ткёт"/"этот кот"). Palatalization means that the center of the tongue is raised during and after the articulation of the consonant. In the case of /tʲ/ and /dʲ/, the tongue is raised enough to produce slight frication (affricate sounds). These sounds: /t, d, ʦ, s, z, n and rʲ/ are dental, that is pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the teeth rather than against the alveolar ridge. In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language, which differ in only one phone, phoneme, toneme or chroneme and have a distinct meaning. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... An alveolar ridge is one of the two jaw ridges either on the roof of the mouth between the upper teeth and the hard palate or on the bottom of the mouth behind the lower teeth. ...


Grammar

Main article: Russian grammar

Russian has preserved an Indo-European synthetic-inflectional structure, although considerable leveling has taken place. Russian grammar encompasses: a highly synthetic morphology a syntax that, for the literary language, is the conscious fusion of three elements: a Church Slavonic inheritance; a Western European style; a polished vernacular foundation. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... A synthetic language, in linguistic typology, is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ...


Russian grammar encompasses

The spoken language has been influenced by the literary one, but continues to preserve characteristic forms. The dialects show various non-standard grammatical features,[citation needed] some of which are archaisms or descendants of old forms since discarded by the literary language. A synthetic language, in linguistic typology, is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


Vocabulary

This page from an "ABC" book printed in Moscow in 1694 shows the letter П.

See History of the Russian language for an account of the successive foreign influences on the Russian language. Download high resolution version (848x1252, 551 KB)The page giving the letter П ( /p/ ) in an ABC book printed in Moscow in 1694. ... Download high resolution version (848x1252, 551 KB)The page giving the letter П ( /p/ ) in an ABC book printed in Moscow in 1694. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


The total number of words in Russian is difficult to reckon because of the ability to agglutinate and create manifold compounds, diminutives, etc. (see Word Formation under Russian grammar). Russian grammar encompasses: a highly synthetic morphology a syntax that, for the literary language, is the conscious fusion of three elements: a Church Slavonic inheritance; a Western European style; a polished vernacular foundation. ... Russian grammar encompasses: a highly synthetic morphology a syntax that, for the literary language, is the conscious fusion of three elements: a Church Slavonic inheritance; a Western European style; a polished vernacular foundation. ...


The number of listed words or entries in some of the major dictionaries published during the last two centuries, and the total vocabulary of Pushkin (who is credited with greatly augmenting and codifying literary Russian), are as follows: Pushkin may refer to: People Aleksandr Pushkin - a famous Russian poet Apollo Mussin-Pushkin - chemist and plant collector Aleksei Musin-Pushkin - statesman, historian, art collector Other Pushkin, a town in Russia Pushkin Square - square in Moscow Pushkin Museum - fine arts museum in Moscow This is a disambiguation page — a navigational...

Work Year Words Notes
Academic dictionary, I Ed. 1789–1794 43,257 Russian and Church Slavonic with some Old Russian vocabulary
Academic dictionary, II Ed 1806–1822 51,388 Russian and Church Slavonic with some Old Russian vocabulary
Pushkin opus 1810–1837 21,197 -
Academic dictionary, III Ed. 1847 114,749 Russian and Church Slavonic with Old Russian vocabulary
Dahl's dictionary 1880–1882 195,844 44,000 entries lexically grouped; attempt to catalogue the full vernacular language, includes some properly Ukrainian and Belarusian words
Ushakov's dictionary 1934–1940 85,289 Current language with some archaisms
Academic dictionary 1950–1965 120,480 full dictionary of the "Modern language"
Ozhegov's dictionary 1950s–1960s 61,458 More or less then-current language
Lopatin's dictionary 2000 c.160,000 Orthographic, current language

(As a historical aside, Dahl was, in the second half of the nineteenth century, still insisting that the proper spelling of the adjective русский, which was at that time applied uniformly to all the Orthodox Eastern Slavic subjects of the Empire, as well as to its one official language, be spelled руский with one s, in accordance with ancient tradition and what he termed the "spirit of the language". He was contradicted by the philologist Grot, who distinctly heard the s lengthened or doubled). Dahls portrait by Perov Vladimir Ivanovich Dal (also: Dahl, Владимир Иванович Даль) (November 10, 1801 – September 22, 1872) was the greatest Russian lexicographer. ...


Proverbs and sayings

The Russian language is replete with many hundreds of proverbs (пословица [pɐˈslo.vʲɪ.ʦə]) and sayings (поговоркa [pə.gɐˈvo.rkə]). These were already tabulated by the seventeenth century, and collected and studied in the nineteenth and twentieth, with the folk-tales being an especially fertile source. Russian proverbs give an insight into many aspects of Russian history, culture, national character. ... Russian sayings give an insight into many aspects of Russian history, culture, and national character. ...


History and examples

Main article: History of the Russian language
See also: Reforms of Russian orthography

The history of Russian language may be divided into the following periods.[attribution needed] Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

  • Kievan period and feudal breakup
  • The Tatar yoke and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  • The Moscovite period (15th–17th centuries)
  • Empire (18th–19th centuries)
  • Soviet period and beyond (20th century)

Judging by the historical records, by approximately 1000 AD the predominant ethnic group over much of modern European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus was the Eastern branch of the Slavs, speaking a closely related group of dialects. The political unification of this region into Kievan Rus' in about 880, from which modern Russia, Ukraine and Belarus trace their origins, established Old East Slavic as a literary and commercial language. It was soon followed by the adoption of Christianity in 988 and the introduction of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical and official language. Borrowings and calques from Byzantine Greek began to enter the Old East Slavic and spoken dialects at this time, which in their turn modified the Old Church Slavonic as well. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Old East Slavic, traditionally known as Old Russian (Russian: древнерусский), is a name for a vernacular literary language used between the 10th and 14th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus and other states formed by that ethnic group. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ... Old East Slavic, traditionally known as Old Russian (Russian: древнерусский), is a name for a vernacular literary language used between the 10th and 14th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus and other states formed by that ethnic group. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ...


Dialectal differentiation accelerated after the breakup of Kievan Rus in approximately 1100. On the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine emerged Ruthenian and in modern Russia medieval Russian. They definitely became distinct in 13th century by the time of division of that land between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania on the west and independent Novgorod Feudal Republic plus small duchies which were vassals of the Tatars on the east. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (ru: Ки́ев, Kiev; uk: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ...


The official language in Moscow and Novgorod, and later, in the growing Moscow Rus', was Church Slavonic which evolved from Old Church Slavonic and remained the literary language until the Petrine age, when its usage shrank drastically to biblical and liturgical texts. Russian with a strong influence of the Church Slavonic until the close of the seventeenth century, but, despite attempts at standardization, as by Meletius Smotrytsky c. 1620, its purity was by then strongly compromised by an incipient secular literature. Church Slavonic may refer to: Old Church Slavonic language Church Slavonic language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... What is a letter?... from the first edition of Smotrytskys grammar Meletius Smotrytsky (Ukrainian: Мелетій Смотрицький; Belarusian: Мялецій Сматрыцкі; Russian: Мелетий Смотрицкий), né Maksym Herasymovytch (c. ...


The political reforms of Peter the Great were accompanied by a reform of the alphabet, and achieved their goal of secularization and Westernization. Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. By 1800, a significant portion of the gentry spoke French, less often German, on an everyday basis. Many Russian novels of the 19th century, e.g. Lev Tolstoy's "War and Peace", contain entire paragraphs and even pages in French with no translation given, with an assumption that educated readers won't need one. Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his...


The modern literary language is usually considered to date from the time of Aleksandr Pushkin in the first third of the nineteenth century. Pushkin revolutionized Russian literature by rejecting archaic grammar and vocabulary (so called "высокий стиль" — "high style") in favor of grammar and vocabulary found in the spoken language of the time. Even modern readers of younger age may only experience slight difficulties understanding some words in Pushkin's texts, since only few words used by Pushkin became archaic or changed meaning. On the other hand, many expressions used by Russian writers of the early 19th century, in particular Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Griboedov, became proverbs or sayings which can be frequently found even in the modern Russian colloquial speech. Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, Aleksandr Sergeevič PuÅ¡kin,  ) (June 6, 1799 [O.S. May 26] – February 10, 1837 [O.S. January 29]) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1] [2][3] and the founder of modern Russian...

Winter Evening Image File history File links Ru-Zimniy vecher. ...

Reading of excerpt of Pushkin's "Winter Evening" (Зимний вечер), 1825.
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

The political upheavals of the early twentieth century and the wholesale changes of political ideology gave written Russian its modern appearance after the spelling reform of 1918. Political circumstances and Soviet accomplishments in military, scientific, and technological matters (especially cosmonautics), gave Russian a world-wide prestige, especially during the middle third of the twentieth century.[citation needed]


See also

Language description

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Russian grammar encompasses: a highly synthetic morphology a syntax that, for the literary language, is the conscious fusion of three elements: a Church Slavonic inheritance; a Western European style; a polished vernacular foundation. ... Russian orthography (правописание ) is formally considered to encompass spelling (орфография ) and punctuation (пунктуация ). Russian spelling, which is quite phonetic in practice, is a mix of the morphological and phonetic principles, with a few etymological or historic forms, and occasional grammatical differentiation. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The list of Russian language topics stores articles on grammar and other language-related topics that discuss (or should discuss) peculiarities of the Russian language, among others. ...

Related languages

This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... Great Russian language (Великорусский язык, Velikorusskiy yazyk) is a name given in the 19th century to the Russian language as opposed to the Ukrainian and Belarusian languages. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... The name Old Russian language has been applied to different things. ...

Other

Many languages, including English, contain words possibly borrowed from Russian. ... Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia or its émigrés, and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Russia or the Soviet Union. ... Russian humour gains much of its wit from the great flexibility and richness of the Russian language, allowing for plays on words and unexpected associations. ... Russian proverbs give an insight into many aspects of Russian history, culture, national character. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... For romanization of Russian on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Romanization of Russian. ... Volapuk encoding (Russian: кодировка волапюк, kodirovka volapyuk) or Pseudotranslit is a slang term for rendering the letters of the Cyrillic alphabet with Latin ones. ... Non-native pronunciations of English result from the common linguistic phenomenon in which non-native users of any language tend to carry the intonation, phonological processes, and pronunciation rules from their mother tongue into their English speech. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In computing, Russification is the localization of computers and of software, i. ...

References

  1. ^ How do you say that in Russian?. Expert (2006). Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
  2. ^ Russian Language Institute
  3. ^ a b c Moscow State University, Russian Language Centre - Official website
  4. ^ Academic credit. Вопросы языкознания. - М., № 5. - С. 18–28 (1982). Retrieved on 2006-04-29.
  5. ^ Academic credit. Прибалтийско-финский компонент в русском слове. Retrieved on 2006-04-29.
  6. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911.
  7. ^ Academic credit. Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. Retrieved on 2006-04-20.
  8. ^ Statistics Estonia (English). Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  9. ^ The Language of the Russian Village (Russian). Retrieved on 2006-07-04.
  10. ^ (Halle 1959, pp. 51-52)

The following serve as references for both this article and the related articles listed below that describe the Russian language: 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени М.В.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In English

  • Comrie, Bernard, Gerald Stone, Maria Polinsky (1996). The Russian Language in the Twentieth Century, 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press. 019824066X. 
  • Timberlake, Alan (2003). A Reference Grammar of Russian. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 0521772923. 
  • Carleton, T.R. (1991). Introduction to the Phonological History of the Slavic Languages. Columbus, Ohio: Slavica Press. 
  • Cubberley, P. (2002). Russian: A Linguistic Introduction, 1st ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Halle, Morris (1959). Sound Pattern of Russian. MIT Press. 
  • Ladefoged, Peter and Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Blackwell Publishers. 
  • Matthews, W.K. (1960). Russian Historical Grammar. London: University of London, Athlone Press. 
  • Stender-Petersen, A. (1954). Anthology of old Russian literature. New York: Columbia University Press. 
  • Wade, Terrence (2000). A Comprehensive Russian Grammar, 2nd ed., Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 0631207570. 

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Morris Halle, né Pinkowitz, is an American linguist. ... Peter Nielsen Ladefoged (September 17, 1925 – January 24, 2006) was a British-American linguist phonetician who traveled the world to document the distinct sounds of endangered languages and pioneered ways to collect and study data. ... Ian Maddieson is a world-renowned linguist at UC Berkeley, the vice president of the International Phonetic Association. ... Blackwell Publishing was formed in 2001 from two Oxford-based academic publishing companies, Blackwell Science and Blackwell Publishers and is the worlds leading society publisher, partnering with 665 academic and professional societies. ...

In Russian

  • Востриков О.В., Финно-угорский субстрат в русском языке: Учебное пособие по спецкурсу.- Свердловск, 1990. – 99c. – В надзаг.: Уральский гос. ун-т им. А. М. Горького.
  • Жуковская Л.П., отв. ред. Древнерусский литературный язык и его отношение к старославянскому. М., «Наука», 1987.
  • Иванов В.В. Историческая грамматика русского языка. М., «Просвещение», 1990.
  • Михельсон Т.Н. Рассказы русских летописей XV–XVII веков. М., 1978.?
  • Новиков Л.А. Современный русский язык: для высшей школы.- Москва: Лань, 2003.
  • Филин Ф. П., О словарном составе языка Великорусского народа; Вопросы языкознания. - М., 1982, № 5. - С. 18–28
  • Цыганенко Г.П. Этимологический словарь русского языка, Киев, 1970.
  • Шанский Н.М., Иванов В.В., Шанская Т.В. Краткий этимологический словарь русского языка. М. 1961.
  • Шицгал А., Русский гражданский шрифт, М., «Исскуство», 1958, 2-e изд. 1983.

External links

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Dictionaries

Sites in Russian

Other resources

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Russian orthography (правописание ) is formally considered to encompass spelling (орфография ) and punctuation (пунктуация ). Russian spelling, which is quite phonetic in practice, is a mix of the morphological and phonetic principles, with a few etymological or historic forms, and occasional grammatical differentiation. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Russian grammar encompasses: a highly synthetic morphology a syntax that, for the literary language, is the conscious fusion of three elements: a Church Slavonic inheritance; a Western European style; a polished vernacular foundation. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-sÅ‚owiÅ„skô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan or Judeo-Slavic) was a West Slavic language, formerly spoken in the Czech lands, now the Czech Republic. ... Lower Sorbian (dolnoserbšćina) is a Slavic minority language spoken in eastern Germany in the historical province of Lower Lusatia, today part of Brandenburg. ... Pannonian Rusyn or simply Rusyn (Ruthenian) is a Slavic language or dialect spoken in north-western Serbia and eastern Croatia (therefore also called Yugoslavo-Ruthenian, Vojvodina-Ruthenian or Bačka-Ruthenian). ... The Polabian language, which became extinct in the 18th century, was a group of Slavic dialects spoken in present-day northern Germany: Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern parts of Lower Saxony, and Schleswig-Holstein. ... Stefan RamuÅ‚ts Dictionary of the Pomeranian (Kashubian) language, published in Kraków, 1893 Pomeranian language edition of Wikipedia Pomeranian is a group of Lechitic dialects which were spoken in the Middle Ages on the territory of Pomerania, between the Oder and Vistula rivers. ... Slovincian is an extinct dialect of the Pomeranian language, spoken between the lakes Gardno and Łebsko in Pomerania. ... Upper Sorbian (hornjoserbšćina) is a minority language of Germany spoken in the historical province of Upper Lusatia, today part of Saxony. ... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Old East Slavic, traditionally known as Old Russian (Russian: древнерусский), is a name for a vernacular literary language used between the 10th and 14th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus and other states formed by that ethnic group. ... Old Novgorod dialect (Russian древненовгородский диалект, also translated as Old Novgorodian or Ancient Novgorod dialect) is a term introduced by Andrey Zaliznyak (Андрей Анатольевич Зализняк) to account for the astonishingly distinct linguistic features of the East Slavic birch-bark writings from the 11th to 15th centuries excavated in Novgorod and... Rusyn is an East Slavic language (along with Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian to which it shares a common linguistic ancestry) that is spoken by the Rusyns. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ... Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... The Å okac language (Å okački jezik) was a language listed in Austro-Hungarian censuses. ... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. ... Russenorsk or Russonorsk (Norwegian for Russo-Norwegian) was a pidgin language combining elements of Russian and Norwegian, created by traders and whalers from northern Norway and the Russian Kola peninsula, and also used in Svalbard. ... The Slavoserbian language (славяносербскій [slavjanoserbskij], словенскій [slovenskij]; in Serbian славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) is a form of the Serbian language which was predominantly used at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century by educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina, and the Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ...

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