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Encyclopedia > Russian Revolution of 1917
History of Russia
East Slavs
Rus' Khaganate
Khazars
Kievan Rus'
Vladimir-Suzdal
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Russian Empire
  • 1682-1796
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The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. This eventually led to the establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922, which lasted until its dissolution in 1991. It resulted in the overthrow of the autocratic rule of the Tzars, the emperors of Russia, and the building up of socialism in the U.S.S.R. The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... The Rus Khaganate was a polity that flourished during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe (roughly the late 8th and early to mid-9th centuries CE). ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... Coat of arms The growth of Muscovy-Russia. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... // Peter I, a child of the second marriage of Tsar Aleksey, was at first relegated to the political background, as various court factions struggled to control the throne. ... // Catherine II died in 1796, and her son Emperor Paul I (r. ... The Russian Empire in 1866 // The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of crisis for Russia. ... // During the 1890s, Russias industrial development led to a significant increase in the size of the urban bourgeoisie and the working class, setting the stage for a more dynamic political atmosphere and the development of radical parties. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... The History of the Soviet Union has roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... The Russian Civil War (1917-1922) began immediately after the collapse of the Russian provisional government and the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd, rapidly intensifying after the dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly and signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. ... // At the fourteenth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in December 1927, Stalin attacked the left by expelling Trotsky and his supporters from the party and then moving against the right by abandoning Lenins New Economic Policy which had been championed by Nikolai Bukharin and Alexei... The Cold War ensued as the USSR and the United States struggled indirectly for influence around the world. ... The Soviet Unions collapse into its original independent nations began in earnest 1985. ... This is a timeline of Russian history. ... Росси́йская Импе́рия, (also Imperial Russia) covers the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great into the Russian Empire stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single person. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ...

  • The February Revolution of 1917 (March 1917 in the Western Calendar), which led directly to the fall of the autocracy of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, the last Tsar of Russia, and which sought to establish in its place a democratic republic. Leon Trotsky released Bolshevik leaders hoping they would join the provisional government but instead they became the red guard (later the red army). At this point the country had been re-christened the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Vladimir Lenin created ten Bolshevik policies, one entitled "Abolish all State Debt", meaning any debt the prior country held to other countries was now considered eliminated. This caused other countries to become interested in what was going on in Russia. Eventually Lenin introduced War Communism but it was highly unsuccessful so the New Economic Policy[1] was created to help restore the economy until it had caught back up to the rest of the world.
  • A period of dual power, in which the Provisional Government held state power and the national network of Soviets, led by socialists, had the allegiance of the lower-classes and the political Left. The Mensheviks were also fighting for control over the country at this time.
  • The October Revolution (November in the Western Calendar), in which the Bolshevik party, led by Vladimir Lenin, and the workers' Soviets, overthrew the Provisional Government and brought about a quite dramatic change in the social structure of Russia, as well as paving the way for the USSR. While many notable historical events occurred in Moscow and St. Petersburg, there was also a broadly-based movement in cities throughout the country, among national minorities throughout the empire, and in the rural areas, where peasants seized and redistributed land.[citation needed]

See Russian history, 1892-1917 for the general frame of events. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was an Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // During the 1890s, Russias industrial development led to a significant increase in the size of the urban bourgeoisie and the working class, setting the stage for a more dynamic political atmosphere and the development of radical parties. ...


At the start of 1917, a turning point in Russian history, the country was ripe for revolution—and, indeed, this year saw two very distinct ones: the first, known as the February Revolution, growing rapidly, creating expanded social opportunities but also great uncertainty. Peasant villagers more and more often migrated between agrarian and industrial work environments, and many relocated entirely, creating a growing urban labor force. A middle class of white-collar employees, businessmen and professionals (the latter group comprising doctors, lawyers, teachers, journalists, engineers, etc.) was on the rise. Even nobles had to find new ways to subsist in this changing economy, and contemporaries spoke of new classes forming (proletarians and capitalists, for example), although these classes were also divided along crisscrossing lines of status, gender, age, ethnicity and belief. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

If anything, it was becoming harder to speak of clearly-defined social groups or boundaries. Not only were groups fractured in various ways, their defining boundaries were also increasingly blurred by migrating peasants, worker intellectuals, gentry professionals and the like. Almost everyone felt that the texture of their lives was transformed by a spreading commercial culture which remade the surfaces of material life (buildings, store fronts, advertisements, fashion, clocks and machines) and nurtured new objects of desire.[2] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


By 1917, the growth of political consciousness, the impact of revolutionary ideas, and the weak and inefficient system of government (which had been debilitated further by its participation in the World War I), should have convinced the emperor, Nicholas II to have taken the necessary steps towards reform. In January 1917, in fact, Sir George Buchanan, the British Ambassador in Russia, advised the emperor to "break down the barrier that separates you from your people to regain their confidence." He received little response from Nicholas. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Sir George William Buchanan, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, PC was born in Copenhagen in 1854. ...


The people of Russia resented the autocracy of Nicholas II and the corrupt and anachronistic elements in his government. He was out of touch with the needs and aspirations of the Russian people, the vast majority of whom were victims of the wretched socio-economic conditions which prevailed. Socially, Tsarist Russia stood well behind the rest of Europe in its industry and farming, resulting in few opportunities for fair advancement on the part of peasants and industrial workers. Economically, widespread inflation and food shortages in Russia contributed to the revolution. Militarily, inadequate supplies, logistics, and weaponry led to heavy losses that the Russians suffered during World War I; this further strengthened Russia's view of Nicholas II as weak and unfit to rule. Ultimately, these factors, coupled with the development of revolutionary ideas and movements (particularly since the 1905 Bloody Sunday Massacre) led to the Russian Revolution. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single person. ... Demonstrators march to the Winter Palace. ...

Contents

Economic and social changes

kindergardeners are an elementary theory of property, common to many peasants, that land should belong to those who work it. At the same time, peasant life and culture was changing constantly. Change was facilitated by the physical movement of growing numbers of peasant villagers who migrated to and from industrial and urban environments, but also by the migration of city culture into the village through material goods, the press, and word of mouth.[3]


Workers also had good reasons for discontent: overcrowded housing with often deplorable sanitary conditions, long hours at work (on the eve of the war a 10-hour workday six days a week was the average and many were working 11–12 hours a day by 1916), constant risk of injury and death from very poor safety and sanitary conditions, harsh discipline (not only rules and fines, but foremen’s fists), and inadequate wages (made worse after 1914 by steep war-time increases in the cost of living). At the same time, urban industrial life was full of benefits, though these could be just as dangerous, from the point of view of social and political stability, as the hardships. There were many encouragements to expect more from life. Acquiring new skills gave many workers a sense of self respect and confidence, heightening expectations and desires. Living in cities, workers encountered material goods such as they had never seen while in the village. Most important, living in cities, they were exposed to new ideas about the social and political order. [4]


The social causes of the Russian Revolution mainly came from peanuts in Indian and centuries of oppression towards the lower classes by the Tsarist regime and Nicholas's failures in World War I. While rural agrarian peasants had been emancipated from serfdom in 1861, they still resented paying redemption payments to the state, and demanded communal tender of the land they worked. The problem was further compounded by the failure of Witte's land reforms of the early 1900s. Increasing peasant disturbances and sometimes full revolts occurred, with the goal of securing ownership of their land. Russia consisted mainly of poor farming peasants, with 1.5% of the population owning 25% of the land.[citation needed] The Emancipation reform of 1861 in Russia performed by tsar Alexander II of Russia amounted to liquidation of serf dependence of Russian peasants. ... Costumes of slaves or serfs, from the sixth to the twelfth centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel from original documents in European libraries. ...


The rapid industrialization of Russia also resulted in urban overcrowding and poor conditions for urban industrial workers (as mentioned above). Between 1890 and 1910, the population of the capital of St. Petersburg swelled from 1,033,600 to 1,905,600, with Moscow experiencing similar growth. This created a new 'proletariat' which, due to being crowded together in the cities, was much more likely to protest and go on strike than the peasantry had been in previous times. In one 1904 survey, it was found that an average of sixteen people shared each apartment in St. Petersburg, with six people per room. There was also no running water, and piles of human waste were a threat to the health of the workers. The poor conditions only aggravated the situation, with the number of strikes and incidents of public disorder rapidly increasing in the years shortly before World War I.


World War One only added to the chaos. Conscription swept up the unwilling in all parts of Russia. The vast demand for factory production of war supplies and workers caused many more labor riots and strikes. Conscription stripped skilled workers from the cities, who had to be replaced with unskilled peasants, and then, when famine began to hit due to the poor railway system, workers abandoned the cities in droves to look for food. Finally, the soldiers themselves, who suffered from a lack of equipment and protection from the elements, began to turn against the Tsar. This was mainly because as the war progressed, many of the officers who were loyal to the Tsar were killed, and they were replaced with discontented conscripts from the major cities who were much less loyal to the Tsar.


Political issues

Politically, many Russians, as well as non-Russian subjects of the crown, had reason to be dissatisfied with the existing autocratic system. Nicholas II was a deeply conservative ruler. His criteria of virtue—orderliness, family, and duty—were viewed as both personal ideals for a moral individual and rules for society and politics. Individuals and society alike were expected to show self-restraint, devotion to community and hierarchy, and a spirit of duty to country and tradition. Religious faith helped bind all this together: as a source of comfort and reassurance in the face of contradictory conditions, as a source of insight into the divine will, as a source of state power and authority. Indeed, perhaps more than any other modern monarch, Nicholas II attached himself and the future of his dynasty to the myth of the ruler as saintly and blessed father to his people. This inspiring faith, many historians have argued, was blinding: unable to believe that his power was not from God and the true Russian people were not as devoted to him as he felt he was to them, he was unwilling to allow the democratic reforms that might have prevented revolution, and when, after the 1905 revolution, he allowed limited civil rights and democratic representation, he tried to limit these in every possible way, in order to preserve his autocratic authority.[5]


At the same time, the desire for democratic participation was strong. Not withstanding stereotypes about Russian political culture, Russia had a long tradition of democratic thought. Since the end of the eighteenth century, a whole pantheon of Russian intellectuals promoted ideals about the dignity and rights of the individual and the ethical and practical necessity of civil rights and democratic representation. These ideas were reflected most obviously among Russia’s liberals, though populists, Marxists, and anarchists also all claimed this democratic heritage as their own. A growing movement of opposition challenged the autocracy even before the crisis brought by World War I. Dissatisfaction with Russian autocracy culminated in the huge national upheaval that followed the Bloody Sunday massacre of January 1905, in which Russian workers saw their pleas for justice rejected as hundreds of unarmed protesters were shot by the Tsar's troops. The response to the massacre crippled the nation with strikes forcing Nicholas to offer his October Manifesto, which promised a democratic parliament (the State Duma). However, the Tsar undermined his promises of democracy with Article 87 of the 1906 Fundamental State Laws, and then subsequently dismissed the first two Dumas when they proved uncooperative. Unfulfilled hopes of democracy fueled revolutionary ideas and violence targeted at the Tsarist regime. Demonstrators march to the Winter Palace. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: October Manifesto (in English) Ilya Repin 17 October 1905 The October Manifesto (Russian: ) was issued on October 17, 1905; October 30 in the Gregorian calendar) by Emperor Nicholas II of Russia under the influence of Count Sergei Witte as a response to... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... The first Russian constitution, known as the Fundamental Laws was enacted on April 23, 1906, on the eve of the opening of the first State Duma. ...


One of Nicholas' reasons for going to war in 1914 was his desire to restore the prestige that Russia had lost during the Russo-Japanese war. Nicholas also wanted to galvanize the diverse people in his empire under a single banner by directing military force at a common enemy, namely Germany and the Central Powers. A common assumption among his critics is that he believed that by doing so he could also distract the people from the ongoing issues of poverty, inequality, and poor working conditions that were sources of discontent. Instead of restoring Russia's political and military standing, World War I would lead to horrifying military casualties on the Russian side and undermined it further. Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


World War I

The outbreak of war in August 1914 initially served to quiet the prevalent social and political protests, focusing hostilities against a common external enemy, but this patriotic unity did not last for very long. As the war dragged on inconclusively, war-weariness gradually took its toll. More important, though, was this deeper fragility: although many ordinary Russians joined anti-German demonstrations in the first few weeks of the war, the most popular reaction appears to have been skepticism and fatalism. Hostility toward the Kaiser and the desire to defend their land and their lives did not necessarily translate into enthusiasm for the tsar or the government.[6]


Russia's first major battle of the war was a disaster: in the 1914 Battle of Tannenberg, over 120,000 Russian troops were killed, wounded or captured, while Germany suffered just 20,000 casualties. In the autumn of 1915, Nicholas had taken direct command of the army, personally overseeing Russia's main theatre of war and leaving his ambitious but incapable wife Alexandra in charge of the government. Reports of corruption and incompetence in the Imperial government began to emerge, and the growing influence of Grigori Rasputin in the Imperial family was widely resented. In 1915, things took a critical turn for the worse when Germany shifted its focus of attack to the Eastern front. The superior German army—it was better led, trained and supplied—was terrifyingly effective against the ill-equipped Russian forces, and, by the end of October 1916, Russia had lost between 1,600,000 and 1,800,000 soldiers, with an additional 2,000,000 prisoners of war and 1,000,000 missing, all making up a total of nearly 5,000,000 men. These staggering losses played a definite role in the Mutinies which began to occur, and, in 1916, reports of fraternizing with the enemy started to circulate. Soldiers went hungry, and they lacked shoes, munitions, and even weapons. Rampant discontent lowered morale, only to be further undermined by a series of military defeats. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (or Grigori Yefimovich Novyh) (Russian: ) (January 22 [O.S. January 10] 1869–December 29 [O.S. December 16] 1916) was a Russian mystic who is perceived as having influenced the latter days of the Russian Tsar Nicholas II, his wife the Tsarina Alexandra, and their only son...


Casualty rates were the most vivid sign of this disaster. Already, by the end of 1914, only five months into the war, nearly 400,000 Russian men had lost their lives and nearly 1,000,000 were injured. Far sooner than expected, scarcely-trained recruits had to be called up for active duty, a process repeated throughout the war as staggering losses continued to mount. The officer class also saw remarkable turnover, especially within the lower echelons, which were quickly filled with soldiers rising up through the ranks. These men, usually of peasant or worker backgrounds, were to play a large role in the politicization of the troops in 1917.


The huge losses on the battlefields were not limited to men, however. The army quickly ran short of rifles and ammunition (as well as uniforms and food), and, by mid-1915, men were being sent to the front bearing no arms; it was hoped that they could equip themselves with the arms that they recovered from fallen soldiers, of both sides, on the battlefields. With patently good reason, the soldiers did not feel that they were being treated as human beings, or even as valuable soldiers, but, rather, as raw materials to be squandered for the purposes of the rich and powerful. By the spring of 1915, the army was in steady retreat—and it was not always orderly: desertion, plunder and chaotic flight were not uncommon. By 1916, however, the situation had improved in many respects. Russian troops stopped retreating, and there were even some modest successes in the offensives that were staged that year, albeit at great loss of life. Also, the problem of shortages was largely solved by a major effort to increase domestic production. Nevertheless, by the end of 1916, morale among soldiers was even worse than it had been during the great retreat of 1915. The fortunes of war may have improved, but the fact of the war, still draining away strength and lives from the country and its many individuals and families, remained an oppressive unavoidability. The crisis in morale (as was argued by Allan Wildman, a leading historian of the Russian army in war and revolution) "was rooted fundamentally in the feeling of utter despair that the slaughter would ever end and that anything resembling victory could be achieved."[7]


The war was devastating, of course, and not only to soldiers. By the end of 1915, there were manifold signs that the economy was breaking down under the heightened strain of wartime demand. The main problems were food shortages and rising prices. Inflation shoved real incomes down at an alarmingly rapid rate, and shortages made it difficult to buy even what one could afford. These shortages were especially a problem in the capital, Petrograd (formerly the City of St. Petersburg), where distance from supplies and poor transportation networks made matters particularly bad. Shops closed early or entirely for lack of bread, sugar, meat and other provisions, and lines lengthened massively for what remained. It became increasingly difficult both to afford and actually buy food. Not surprisingly, strikes increased steadily from the middle of 1915, and so did crime; but, for the most part, people suffered and endured—scouring the city for food—working-class women in Petrograd reportedly spent about forty hours a week in food lines—begging, turning to prostitution or crime, tearing down wooden fences to keep stoves heated for warmth, grumbling about the rich, and wondering when and how this would all come to an end. With good reason, the government officials responsible for public order worried about how long the people's patience would last. A report by the Petrograd branch of the security police, the Okhranka, in October 1916, warned quite bluntly of "the possibility in the near future of riots by the lower classes of the empire enraged by the burdens of daily existence."[8] Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The Okhrannoye otdeleniye (Russian: , meaning Security Section or Security Station), also the Okhrana or Tsarist Okhranka in Western sources, or diminutive Okhranka by those dissatisfied with the tsarist regime, was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in late 1800s...


Nicholas was blamed for all of these crises, and what little support he had left began to crumble. As discontent grew, the State Duma issued a warning to Nicholas in November 1916. It stated that, inevitably, a terrible disaster would grip the country unless a constitutional form of government was put in place. In typical fashion, however, Nicholas ignored them, and Russia's Tsarist regime collapsed a few months later during the February Revolution of 1917. One year later, the Tsar and his entire family were executed. Ultimately, Nicholas's inept handling of his country and the War destroyed the Tsars and ended up costing him both his rule and his life. For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ...


February Revolution

Main article: February Revolution
Nicholas II, March 1917, shortly after the revolution brought about his abdication.
Nicholas II, March 1917, shortly after the revolution brought about his abdication.

This revolution broke out without definite leadership and formal plans, which may be seen as indicative of the fact that the Russian people had had quite enough of the existing system. Petrograd, the capital, became the focus of attention, and, on February 23 (March 8) 1917, people at the food queues started a demonstration. They were soon joined by many thousands of women textile workers, who walked out of their factories—partly in commemoration of International Women's Day but mainly to protest against the severe shortages of bread. Already, large numbers of men and women were on strike, and the women stopped at any still-operating factories to call on their workers to join them. The mobs marched through the streets, belting out slogans such as "Bread!" and "Give us bread!" During the next two days, the strike, encouraged by the efforts of hundreds of rank-and-file socialist activists, spread to factories and shops throughout the capital. By February 25th, virtually every industrial enterprise in Petrograd had been shut down, together with many commercial and service enterprises. Students, white-collar workers and teachers joined the workers in the streets and at public meetings, whilst, in the still-active Duma, liberal and socialist deputies came to realise a potentially-massive problem. They presently denounced the current government even more vehemently and demanded a responsible cabinet of ministers. The Duma pressed the Tsar to abdicate. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... Image:IWD 2007 Logo. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ...


On the evening of Saturday the 25th, with police having lost control of the situation, Nicholas II, who refused to believe the warnings about the seriousness of these events, sent a fateful telegram to the chief of the Petrograd military district, General Sergei Khabalov: "I command you tomorrow to stop the disorders in the capital, which are unacceptable in the difficult time of war with Germany and Austria."[9] Most of the soldiers obeyed these orders on the 26th, but mutinies, often led by lower-ranked officers, spread overnight. On the morning of the 27th, workers in the streets, many of them now armed, were joined by soldiers, sent in by the government to quell the riots. Many of these soldiers were insurgents, however, and they joined the crowd and fired on the police, in many cases little red ribbons tied to their bayonets. The outnumbered police then proceeded to join the army and civilians in their rampage. Thus, with this near-total disintegration of military power in the capital, effective civil authority collapsed.


By nighttime on the 27th, the cabinet submitted its resignation to the tsar and proposed a temporary military dictatorship, but Russia's military leaders rejected this course. Nicholas, meanwhile, had been on the front with the soldiers, where he had seen first-hand Russia's defeat at Tannenburg. He had become very frustrated and was conscious of the fact that the demonstrations were on a massive scale; indeed, he feared for his life. The ill health of his son (suffering from the blood disorder hemophilia) was causing him difficulties, too. Nicholas accepted defeat at last and abdicated on 2 March, hoping, by this last act of service to his nation (as he stated in his manifesto), to end the disorders and bring unity to Russia.[10] In the wake of this collapse of the 300-year-old Romanov dynasty—Nicholas's brother, to whom he subsequently offered the crown, refused to become Tsar unless that was the decision of an elected government; he wanted the people to want him as their leader—a minority of the Duma's deputies declared themselves a Provisional Government, chaired by Prince Lvov, a moderate reformist—although leadership moved gradually to Alexander Kerensky of the Social Revolutionary Party. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Between February and throughout October: "Dual Power" (dvoevlastie)

The effective power of the Provisional Government was challenged by the authority of an institution that claimed to represent the will of workers and soldiers and could, in fact, mobilize and control these groups during the early months of the revolution—the Petrograd Soviet [Council] of Workers' Deputies. The model for the soviet were workers' councils that had been established in scores of Russian cities during the 1905 revolution. In February 1917, striking workers elected deputies to represent them and socialist activists began organizing a citywide council to unite these deputies with representatives of the socialist parties. On 27 February, socialist Duma deputies, mainly Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries, took the lead in organizing a citywide council. The Petrograd Soviet met in the Tauride Palace, the same building where the new government was taking shape. Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... Tauride Palace and Gardens in the early 20th century. ...


The leaders of the Petrograd Soviet believed that they represented particular classes of the population, not the whole nation. They also believed Russia was not ready for socialism. So they saw their role as limited to pressuring hesitant "bourgeoisie” to rule and to introduce extensive democratic reforms in Russia (the replacement of the monarchy by a republic, guaranteed civil rights, a democratic police and army, abolition of religious and ethnic discrimination, preparation of elections to a constituent assembly, and so on).[11] They met in the same building as the emerging Provisional Government not to compete with the Duma Committee for state power but to best exert pressure on the new government, to act, in other words, as a popular democratic lobby.

The relationship between these two major powers was complex from the beginning and would shape the politics of 1917. The representatives of the Provisional Government agreed to "take into account the opinions of the Soviet of Workers' Deputies," though they were also determined to prevent "interference in the actions of the government," which would create "an unacceptable situation of dual power."[12] In fact, this was precisely what was being created, though this "dual power" (dvoevlastie) was the result less of the actions or attitudes of the leaders of these two institutions than of actions outside their control, especially the ongoing social movement taking place on the streets of Russia’s cities, in factories and shops, in barracks and in the trenches, and in the villages. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


A series of political crises—see the chronology below—in the relationship between population and government and between the Provisional government and the soviets (which developed into a nationwide movement with a national leadership, The All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Soviets (VTsIK)) undermined the authority of the Provisional Government but also of the moderate socialist leaders of the Soviet. Although the Soviet leadership initially refused to participate in the "bourgeois" Provisional Government, Alexander Kerensky, a young and popular lawyer and a member of the Social Revolutionary Party (SRP), agreed to join the new cabinet, and he became an increasingly central figure in the government, eventually taking leadership of the Provisional Government. As minister of war and later Prime Minister, Kerensky promoted freedom of speech, released thousands of political prisoners, did his very best to continue the war effort and even organised a new offensive (which, however, was no more successful than its predecessors). Nevertheless, Kerensky still faced several great challenges, highlighted by the soldiers, urban workers and peasants, who claimed that they had gained nothing by the revolution: Alexander Kerensky This article is about the Russian politician. ... The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a...

  • Other political groups were trying to undermine him.
  • Heavy military losses were being suffered on the front.
  • The soldiers were dissatisfied, demoralised and had started to defect. (On arrival back in Russia, these soldiers were either imprisoned or sent straight back to the front.)
  • There was enormous discontent with Russia's involvement in the war, and many were calling for an end to it.
  • There were great shortages of food and supplies, which was difficult to remedy because of the wartime economic conditions.

When Vladimir Lenin, exiled in neutral Switzerland, heard of the revolution, he was quite taken aback. He quickly made arrangements with the German government to travel back to Russia. German officials agreed, assuming that Lenin's activities might weaken Russia or even (especially if the Bolsheviks came to power) lead to Russia's withdrawal from the war against Germany. Lenin and his associates, however, had to agree to travel to Russia in a sealed train: the Germans wanted to be certain he did not foment revolution in Germany. With the help of German commanders, he arrived in Petrograd in April 1917.


With Lenin's takeover, the popularity of the Bolsheviks increased steadily. By September, electoral victories by the Bolsheviks, especially in the Moscow and Petrograd Soviets, made it possible and necessary, Lenin now argued, for the Bolsheviks to take power into their own hands. He believed that the patience of workers, soldiers and peasants had run out, and, given the Bolshevik program (with immediate peace, land going immediately to the peasants and the return of the democratic liberties restricted by Kerensky), this would be a government, he argued, "that nobody can overthrow."[13] Neither Lenin nor his ideas won widespread support, however—in spite of his understanding of the needs of the oppressed, with simple but relevant and meaningful slogans (like "Peace, land, and bread", "End the War" and "All land to the peasants") being used in his endeavours to stir the proletariat's feelings against the provisional government. Bolshevik Party Meeting. ...


In July, a garrison at Petrograd refused to follow the plans of the army to continue the war effort against Germany. This mutiny amounted to treason, and Lenin tried to exploit it by staging a Bolshevik coup. This was unsuccessful, however, as Kerensky still had enough support to bring a halt to the unrest. Lenin was exiled from the country once again, forced to flee to Finland—which, of course, was not too far from Russia, allowing for a quick return if the chance arose. Kerensky's government, meanwhile, failed to follow up on its successful foiling of the Bolshevik plans with further clamping-down on the Bolsheviks, whose not-negligible popularity had not been at all obliterated by this development. They had shown their support for the army, whose grievances were acknowledged by a vast number of their countrymen.


Lenin, meanwhile, continued his operations underground, outside Russia's borders. He did not enjoy total support within the Bolshevik movement, but, against some doubt in his own party (including some opposition that lasted to the very day of the insurrection), a decision was approved at a meeting of the Bolshevik central committee on 10 October to organize the immediate armed overthrow of the government.


The rising popularity of the Bolsheviks is unquestionable. Bolsheviks benefited from the deepening political polarization in Russia, as liberals and conservatives gravitated toward policies such as those advocated by General Lavr Kornilov, who attempted another coup in August, this time attempting to seize power by attempting to destroy the Bolsheviks; his wish was for a return to the monarchy. In order to secure his position, Kerensky had to ask for Bolshevik assistance. He also sought help from the Petrograd Soviet, which called upon armed Red Guards to "defend the revolution." Kornilov was defeated and relieved of his position. Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov (Russian: Лавр Георгиевич Корнилов) (August 18, 1870–April 13, 1918) was a senior Russian army general during World War I and the ensuing Russian Civil War. ...


Growing numbers of socialists and lower-class Russians viewed the government less and less as a force in support of their needs and interests. The Bolsheviks benefited as the only major organized opposition party still standing outside the government, and they benefited from growing frustration and even disgust with the compromises of the Mensheviks and SRs, who stubbornly refused to break with the idea of national unity across all classes.


October Revolution

Main article: October Revolution
Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks

The October Revolution was led by Vladimir Lenin and was based upon Lenin's writing on the ideas of Karl Marx, a political ideology often known as Marxism-Leninism. It marked the beginning of the spread of communism in the twentieth century. It was far less sporadic than the revolution of February and came about as the result of deliberate planning and coordinated activity to that end. Though Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik Party, it has been argued that since Lenin wasn't present during the actual takeover of the Winter Palace, it was really Trotsky's organization and direction that led the revolution, spurred by the motivation Lenin instigated within his party.[citation needed] Critics on the Right have long argued that the financial and logistical assistance of German intelligence via their key agent, Alexander Parvus was a key component as well, though historians are divided, for the evidence is sparse. For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Lenin (note that this is only the left half of the original picture; the right half featured Trotsky, so the picture got sliced in two by stalinist censorship in the 30s, and the Trotsky half was removed) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Lenin (note that this is only the left half of the original picture; the right half featured Trotsky, so the picture got sliced in two by stalinist censorship in the 30s, and the Trotsky half was removed) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... “Lenin” redirects here. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was an Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Dr. Helphand (Parvus) Dr. Israel Lazarevich Helphand (last name also spelt as Gelfant), in Russian: Израиль Лазаревич Гельфанд, is known also by his frequently used pseudonym Alexander Parvus. ...


On November 7, 1917, Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin led his leftist revolutionaries in a revolt against the ineffective Provisional Government (Russia was still using the Julian Calendar at the time, so period references show an October 25 date). The October Revolution ended the phase of the revolution instigated in February, replacing Russia's short-lived provisional parliamentary government with government by soviets, local councils elected by bodies of workers and peasants. Liberal and monarchist forces, loosely organized into the White Army, immediately went to war against the Bolsheviks' Red Army. is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


Soviet membership was initially freely elected, but many members of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, anarchists, and other leftists opposed the Bolsheviks through the soviets. When it became clear that the Bolsheviks had little support outside of the industrialized areas of St. Petersburg and Moscow, they barred non-Bolsheviks from membership in the soviets. Other socialists revolted and called for "a third revolution." The most notable instances were the Tambov rebellion, 1919–1921, and the Kronstadt rebellion in March 1921. These movements, which made a wide range of demands and lacked effective coordination, were eventually defeated along with the White Army during the Civil War. Socialist-Revolutionary election poster, 1917. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Antonovschina. ... Combatants Soviet Sailors Red Army Commanders Stepan Petrichenko Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky Strength c. ... The Russian Civil War (1917-1922) began immediately after the collapse of the Russian provisional government and the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd, rapidly intensifying after the dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly and signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. ...


Death of the royal family

In early March, the Provisional Government placed Nicholas and his family under house arrest in the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoe Selo, 15 miles (24 km) south of Petrograd. In August 1917 the Kerensky government evacuated the Romanovs to Tobolsk in the Urals, allegedly to protect them from the rising tide of revolution during the Red Terror. After the Bolsheviks came to power in October 1917, the conditions of their imprisonment grew stricter and talk of putting Nicholas on trial grew more frequent. As the counter revolutionary White movement gathered force, leading to full-scale civil war by the summer, the Romanovs were moved, during April and May 1918, to Yekaterinburg, a militant Bolshevik stronghold. During the night of 16–17 July, Nicholas, Alexandra, their children, their physician, and three servants were taken into the basement and executed. Whether this was on direct orders from Vladimir Lenin in Moscow (as many believe, though there is a lack of hard evidence), or an option approved in Moscow should White troops approach Yekaterinburg, or at the initiative of local Bolsheviks, remains in dispute, as does whether the order (if there was an order) was for the execution of Nicholas alone or the entire family. The royal family was lined up as if for a picture, then the shooting commenced, which accounts by participants described as chaotic, partly because the jewels sewn inside the girls undergarments deflected many of the initial shots. One of the royal family, Dmitry Grinevich, attempted to escape but was run down and stabbed to death. View of the corps de logis from the cour dhonneur. ... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... Alexander Kerensky This article is about the Russian politician. ... View of Tobolsk in the 1910s Tobolsk (Russian: ; Tatar: Tubıl) is a historic capital of Siberia, now an ordinary town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia. ... Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were executed. ...


Civil war

Main article: Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War, which broke out in 1918 shortly after the revolution, brought death and suffering to millions of people regardless of their political orientation. The war was fought mainly between the Red Army ("Reds"), consisting of radical communists and revolutionaries, and the "Whites"—the monarchists, conservatives, liberals and moderate socialists who opposed the drastic restructuring championed by the Bolsheviks. The Whites had backing from nations such as the Great Britain, France, USA and Japan. The Russian Civil War (1917-1922) began immediately after the collapse of the Russian provisional government and the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd, rapidly intensifying after the dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly and signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... White Army redirects here. ...


Also during the Civil War, Nestor Makhno led a Ukrainian anarchist movement allied with the Bolsheviks thrice, one of the powers ending the alliance each time. However, a Bolshevik force under Mikhail Frunze destroyed the Makhnovist movement, when the Makhnovists refused to merge into the Red Army. In addition, the so-called "Green Army" (nationalists and anarchists) played a secondary role in the war, mainly in Ukraine. Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Ukrainian: Нестор Іванович Махно, October 26, 1888 – July 25, 1934) was an anarcho-communist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze (Russian Михаил Васильевич Фрунзе) (1885 – 31 October 1925) was a Bolshevik leader during and just prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Nestor Makhno in 1909 Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (October 27, 1889–July 25, 1934) was an anarchist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Green Army, which functioned during the Russian Civil War, had its roots in nonpolitical, anarchist or nationalist movements, and formed a third force in contradistinction both to the Reds and to the Whites. ...


The Russian revolution and the world

Trotsky said that the goal of socialism in Russia would not be realized without the success of the world revolution. Indeed, a revolutionary wave caused by the Russian Revolution lasted until 1923. Despite initial hopes for success in the German Revolution, in the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic and others like it, no other Marxist movement succeeded in keeping power in its hands. 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (&#1051... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ... A revolutionary wave is a series of revolutions occurring in various locations. ... The Revolutions of 1917-23 formed a revolutionary wave precipitated by the Russian Revolutions of 1917 and the end of World War I. Some authorities date the wave as ending in 1919 or 1921. ... Karl Liebknecht on 9 November 1918 in the Berliner Tiergarten Statue of a revolutionary soldier, memorial to the German Revolution of 1918-1919 in East Berlin. ... The Hungarian Soviet Republic was the political regime in Hungary from March 21, 1919 until the beginning of August of the same year, and it is the second Communist (or soviet) government in world history, after the one in Russia (1917). ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ...


This issue is subject to conflicting views on the communist history by various Marxist groups and parties. Stalin later rejected this idea, stating that socialism was possible in one country. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Socialism in One Country was a thesis put forward by Joseph Stalin in 1924 and further supported by Nikolai Bukharin. ...


The confusion regarding Stalin's position on the issue stems from the fact that he, after Lenin's death in 1924, successfully used Lenin's argument—the argument that socialism's success needs the workers of other countries in order to happen—to defeat his competitors within the party by accusing them of betraying Lenin and, therefore, the ideals of the October Revolution.


Brief chronology leading to Revolution of 1917

Dates are correct for the Julian calendar, which was used in Russia until 1918. It was twelve days behind the Gregorian calendar during the 19th century and thirteen days behind it during the 20th century. The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ...

Date(s) Event(s)
1855 Start of reign of Tsar Alexander II.
1861 Emancipation of the serfs.
1874–81 Growing anti-government terrorist movement and government reaction.
1881 Alexander II assassinated by revolutionaries; succeeded by Alexander III.
1883 First Russian Marxist group formed.
1894 Start of reign of Nicholas II.
1898 First Congress of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP).
1900 Foundation of Socialist Revolutionary Party (SR).
1903 Second Congress of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. Beginning of split between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
1904–5 Russo-Japanese War; Russia loses war.
1905 Russian Revolution of 1905.
1906 First State Duma. Prime Minister: Petr Stolypin. Agrarian reforms begin.
1907 Second State Duma, February–June.
1907 Third State Duma, until 1912.
1911 Stolypin assassinated.
1912 Fourth State Duma, until 1917. Bolshevik/Menshevik split final.
1914 Germany declares war on Russia.
1915 Serious defeats, Nicholas II declares himself Commander in Chief. Progressive Bloc formed.
1916 Food and fuel shortages and high prices.
1917 Strikes, mutinies, street demonstrations lead to the fall of autocracy.

Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... The Emancipation reform of 1861 in Russia performed by tsar Alexander II of Russia amounted to liquidation of serf dependence of Russian peasants. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая Па́ртия = РСДРП), also known as the Russian Social-Democratic Workers Party and the Russian Social-Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist Russian political party formed in 1898 in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organizations into one party. ... The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Essaires; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For other incidents referred to by this name, see Bloody Sunday. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Russian battleship Potemkin. ... ODESSA (German: Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, Organization of Former SS Members) is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II by a group of SS officers. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Battleship Potemkin (Russian: , ), sometimes rendered as The Battleship Potyomkin, is a 1925 silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and produced by Mosfilm. ... St. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: October Manifesto (in English) Ilya Repin 17 October 1905 The October Manifesto (Russian: ) was issued on October 17, 1905; October 30 in the Gregorian calendar) by Emperor Nicholas II of Russia under the influence of Count Sergei Witte as a response to... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... Petr Stolypin Petr Arkadyevich Stolypin (Russian: Пётр Арка́дьевич Столы́пин) (April 14 (April 2 Old Style) 1862 - September 18 (September 5 Old Style) 1911) served as Nicholas IIs Chairman... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... The Progressive Bloc (Spanish: Bloque Progresista) is an electoral alliance in the Dominican Republic. ...

Expanded chronology of Revolution of 1917

Gregorian Date Julian Date Event
January Strikes and unrest in Petrograd
February February Revolution
March 8th February 23rd International Women's Day: strikes and demonstrations in Petrograd, growing over the next few days.
March 11th February 26th 50 demonstrators killed in Znamenskaya Square Tsar Nicholas II prorogues the State Duma and orders commander of Petrograd military district to suppress disorders with force.
March 12th February 27th * Troops refuse to fire on demonstrators, desertions. Prison, courts, and police stations attacked and looted by angry crowds.
  • Okhranka buildings set on fire. Garrison joins revolutionaries.
  • Petrograd Soviet formed.
  • Formation of Provisional Committee of the Duma by liberals from Constitutional Democratic Party (Kadets).
March 14th March 1st Order No.1 of the Petrograd Soviet.
March 15th March 2nd Nicholas II abdicates. Provisional Government formed under Prime Minister Prince Lvov.
April 16th April 3rd Return of Lenin to Russia. He publishes his April Theses.
May 3rd–4th April 20th–21st "April Days": mass demonstrations by workers, soldiers, and others in the streets of Petrograd and Moscow triggered by the publication of the Foreign Minister Miliukov's note to the allies, which was interpreted as affirming commitment to the war policies of the old government. First Provisional Government falls.
May 18th May 5th First Coalition Government forms when socialists, representatives of the Soviet leadership, agree to enter the cabinet of the Provisional Government. Kerensky, the only socialist already in the government, made minister of war and navy.
June 16th June 3rd First All-Russian Congress of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies opens in Petrograd. Closed on 24th. Elects Central Executive Committee of Soviets (VTsIK), headed by Mensheviks and SRs.
June 23rd June 10th Planned Bolshevik demonstration in Petrograd banned by the Soviet.
June 29th June 16th Kerensky orders offensive against Austro-Hungarian forces. Initial success only.
July 1st June 18th Official Soviet demonstration in Petrograd for unity is unexpectedly dominated by Bolshevik slogans: "Down with the Ten Capitalist Ministers", "All Power to the Soviets".
July 15th July 2nd Russian offensive ends. Trotsky joins Bolsheviks.
July 16th–17th July 3rd–4th The "July Days"; mass armed demonstrations in Petrograd, encouraged by the Bolsheviks, demanding "All Power to the Soviets".
July 19th July 6th German and Austro-Hungarian counter-attack. Russians retreat in panic, sacking the town of Tarnopol. Arrest of Bolshevik leaders ordered.
July 20th July 7th Lvov resigns and asks Kerensky to become Prime Minister and form a new government. Established July 25th.
August 4th July 22nd Trotsky and Lunacharskii arrested.
September 8th August 26th Second coalition government ends.
September 8th–12th August 26th–30th "Kornilov mutiny". Begins when the commander-in-chief of the Russian army, General Lavr Kornilov, demands (or is believed by Kerensky to demand) that the government give him all civil and military authority and moves troops against Petrograd.
September 13th August 31st Majority of deputies of the Petrograd Soviet approve a Bolshevik resolution for an all-socialist government excluding the bourgeoisie.
September 14th September 1st Russia declared a republic
September 17th September 4th Trotsky and others freed.
September 18th September 5th Bolshevik resolution on the government wins majority vote in Moscow Soviet.
October 2nd September 19th Moscow Soviet elects executive committee and new presidium, with Bolshevik majorities, and the Bolshevik Viktor Nogin as chairman.
October 8th September 25th Third coalition government formed. Bolshevik majority in Petrograd Soviet elects Bolshevik Presidium and Trotsky as chairman.
October 23rd October 10th Bolshevik Central Committee meeting approves armed uprising.
October 24th October 11th Congress of Soviets of the Northern Region, until October 13th.
November 2nd October 20th First meeting of the Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet.
November 7th October 25th October Revolution is launched as MRC directs armed workers and soldiers to capture key buildings in Petrograd. Winter Palace attacked at 9:40pm and captured at 2am. Kerensky flees Petrograd. Opening of the 2nd All-Russian Congress of Soviets.
November 8th October 26th Second Congress of Soviets: Mensheviks and right SR delegates walk out in protest against the previous day's events. Congress approves transfer of state authority into its own hands and local power into the hands of local soviets of workers', soldiers', and peasants' deputies, abolishes capital punishment, issues Decree on Peace and Decree on Land, and approves the formation of an all-Bolshevik government, the Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom), with Lenin as chairman.

This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Julian day or Julian day number (JDN) is the number of days that have elapsed since 12 noon Greenwich Mean Time (UT or TT) on Monday, January 1, 4713 BC (in the proleptic Julian calendar; or November 24, 4714 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar). ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... View of Nevsky Prospekt from Znamenskaya Square in the 1890s. ... The Okhrannoye otdeleniye (Russian: , meaning Security Section or Security Station), also the Okhrana or Tsarist Okhranka in Western sources, or diminutive Okhranka by those dissatisfied with the tsarist regime, was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in late 1800s... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... Nicholas II redirects here. ... The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov, Knyaz (Prince) (Russian: Георгий Евгеньевич Львов) (November 2, 1861-March 7, 1925) was a Russian statesman and the first post-imperial prime minister of Russia, in the Russian... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... The Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin returned to the capital of Russia, Petrograd, on April 3, 1917, just over a month following the February Revolution which had brought about the establishment of the liberal Provisional Government. ... Pavel Nikolayevich Milyukov (Cyrillic: Павел Николаевич Милюков) (1859-1943) was (alongside Vladimir Lenin and Peter Stolypin) the greatest Russian politician of pre-revolutionary years. ... Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Russian:Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский) (April 22, 1881 (May 2, New Style) - June 11, 1970) was the second prime minister of the... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was an Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... The July Days took place between July 4 and 7 July in 1917 in Russia when sailors and industrial workers of Petrograd rioted against the Russian Provisional Government. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Ternopil (Тернопіль in Ukrainian, Tarnopol in Polish, Ternopol in Russian) is a city in Western Ukraine, located at the banks of the Seret river. ... An assembly of the Petrograd Soviet, 1917 The Petrograd Soviet, or the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, was the council set up in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg, Russia) in March 1917 as the representative body of the citys workers. ... Military Revolutionary Committee also known as the MILREVCOM (Russian: ) was the name for military organs under soviet (council)s during the period of the Russian Revolution. ... An assembly of the Petrograd Soviet, 1917 The Petrograd Soviet, or the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, was the council set up in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg, Russia) in March 1917 as the representative body of the citys workers. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... The Decree On Peace, written by Vladimir Lenin, was passed by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers, Soldiers, and Peasants Deputies on the 26 October 1917, following the success of the October Revolution. ... The Decree On Land, written by Vladimir Lenin, was passed by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers, Soldiers, and Peasants Deputies on 26 October 1917, following the success of the October Revolution. ... Sovnarkom (Russian language СовНарКом, the abbreviation of the phrase Совет Народных Комиссаров, Sovet Narodnykh Komissarov, the Council of Peoples Commissars, sometimes...

Cultural portrayal

The Russian Revolution has been portrayed in several films. “Moving picture” redirects here. ...

Alexander Dovzhenko was a Soviet filmmaker. ... October (Ten Days That Shook The World), (Russian language title: “Октябрь” (“Десять дней, которые потрясли мир”), which... Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн) (January 23, 1898–February 11, 1948) was a Russian director noted for his films Battleship Potemkin and Oktober, both... The End of St Petersburg (Russian: Конец Санкт-Петербурга, Konets Sankt-Peterburga) is a 1927 silent film directed by Vsevolod Pudovkin and produced by Mezhrabpom. ... Vsevolod Illarionovich Pudovkin (Russian: ) (February 16, 1893–June 20, 1953) was a Russian film director who developed influential theories of montage. ... Reds is a 1981 film starring Warren Beatty and Diane Keaton. ... Henry Warren Beatty (born March 30, 1937), better known as Warren Beatty, is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American actor, producer, screenwriter, and director. ... Ten Days that Shook the World (1919) is a book by American journalist and socialist John Reed, about the October Revolution in Russia 1917 which Reed experienced first-hand. ... Anastasia is an animated feature film produced and directed by Don Bluth and Gary Goldman at Fox Animation Studios, and was released on November 14, 1997 by Twentieth Century Fox. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Gary Goldman (born November 17, 1944 in Oakland, California) is American animator, director, and producer. ... Doctor Zhivago (Russian: Доктор Живаго) is a 1965 film directed by David Lean and loosely based on the famous novel of the same name by Boris Pasternak. ...

Notes

  1. ^ New Economic Policy closely resembled a Mixed Economy and it was introduced to temporarily restore the economy. It proved extremely successful and was abolished in 1929 following Lenin's death.
  2. ^ See, for example, Cambridge History of Russia (Cambridge, England, 2006), volumes 2–3.
  3. ^ The scholarly literature on peasants is now very large. Major recent works that examine themes discussed above (and can serve as a guide to older scholarship) Christine Worobec, Peasant Russia: Family and Community in the Post Emancipation Period (Princeton, 1955); Frank and Steinberg, eds., Cultures in Flux (Princeton, 1994); Barbara Alpern Engel, Between the Fields and the City: Women, Work, and Family in Russia, 1861–1914 (Cambridge, 1994); Jeffrey Burds, Peasant Dreams and Market Politics (Pittsburgh, 1998); Stephen Frank, Crime, Cultural Conflict and Justice in Rural Russia, 1856–1914 (Berkeley, 1999).
  4. ^ Among the many scholarly works on Russian workers, see especially Reginald Zelnik, Labor and Society in Tsarist Russia: The Factory Workers of St. Petersburg, 1855–1870 (Stanford, 1971); Victoria Bonnell, Roots of Rebellion: Workers’ Politics and Organizations in St. Petersburg and Moscow, 1900–1914 (Berkeley, 1983).
  5. ^ See, especially, Dominic Lieven, Nicholas II: Emperor of all the Russias (London, 1993); Andrew Verner, The Crisis of the Russian Autocracy: Nicholas II and the 1905 Revolution (Princeton, 1990); Mark Steinberg and Vladimir Khrustalev, The Fall of the Romanovs: Political Dreams and Personal Struggles in a Time of Revolution (New Haven, 1995); Richard Wortman, Scenarios of Power, vol. 2 (Princeton, 2000).
  6. ^ Allan Wildman, The End of the Russian Imperial Army, vol. 1 (Princeton, 1980): 76–80; Hubertus Jahn, Patriotic Culture in Russia During World War I (Ithaca, 1995); Figes, A People’s Tragedy, 257–258.
  7. ^ Wildman: The End of the Russian Imperial Army (I), p. 85–89, 99–105, 106 (quotation).
  8. ^ "Doklad petrogradskogo okhrannogo otdeleniia osobomu otdelu departamenta politsii" ["Report of the Petrograd Okhrana to the Special Department of the Department of the Police"], October 1916, Krasnyi arkhiv 17 (1926), 4–35 (quotation 4).
  9. ^ Quoted by Khabalov in his testimony of 22 March 1917, in Padenie tsarskogo rezhima: stenograficheskie otchety doprosov i pokazanii, dannykh v 1917 g. v Chrezvychainoi Sledstvennoi Komissii Vremennogo Pravitel'stva [The fall of the tsarist regime: stenographic reports of interrogations and testimony given in 1917 to the Extraordinary Investigatory Commission of the Provisional Government], ed. P. E. Shchegolev, 7 vols. (Moscow and Leningrad, 1924–1927), 1: 190–91.
  10. ^ Mark Steinberg and Vladimir Khrustalev, Fall of the Romanovs, 50.
  11. ^ N. N. Sukhanov, The Russian Revolution: A Personal Record, ed. and trans. Joel Carmichael (Oxford, 1955; originally published in Russian in 1922), 101–8.
  12. ^ "Zhurnal [No. 1] Soveta Ministrov Vremennogo Pravitel'stva," 2 March 1917, GARF (State Archive of the Russian Federation), f. 601, op. 1, d. 2103, l. 1
  13. ^ Lenin, Letter to Central Committee and to the Petrograd and Moscow Party Committees, 12–14 September 1917, in V. I. Lenin, Sochineniia, vol. 26 (Moscow, 1952): 1–3.

References

  • Acton, Edward, Vladimir Cherniaev, and William G. Rosenberg, eds. A Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution, 1914–1921 (Bloomington, 1997).
  • Cambridge History of Russia, vol. 2–3, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81529-0 (vol. 2) ISBN 0-521-81144-9 (vol. 3).
  • Figes, Orlando. A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924, : ISBN 0-14-024364-X (trade paperback) ISBN 0-670-85916-8 (hardcover)
  • Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. 199 pages. Oxford University Press; 2nd Reissue edition. December 1, 2001. ISBN 0-19-280204-6.
  • Lincoln, W. Bruce. Passage Through Armageddon: The Russians in War and Revolution, 1914–1918. (New York, 1986).
  • Malone, Richard. Analysing the Russian Revolution, : ISBN 0-521-54141-7, Melbourne, Cambridge University Press; 1st edition, 2004
  • Pipes, Richard. The Russian Revolution (New York, 1990)
  • Steinberg, Mark, Voices of Revolution, 1917. Yale University Press, 2001

Further reading

Participants' accounts

  • Reed, John. Ten Days that Shook the World. 1919, 1st Edition, published by BONI & Liveright, Inc. for International Publishers. Transcribed and marked by David Walters for John Reed Internet Archive. Penguin Books; 1st edition. June 1, 1980. ISBN 0-14-018293-4. Retrieved May 14, 2005.
  • Serge, Victor. Year One of the Russian Revolution. L'An l de la revolution russe, 1930. Year One of the Russian Revolution, Holt, Reinhart, and Winston. Translation, editor's Introduction, and notes © 1972 by Peter Sedgwick. Reprinted on Victor Serge Internet Archive by permission. ISBN 0-86316-150-2. Retrieved May 14, 2005.
  • Trotsky, Leon. The History of the Russian Revolution. Translated by Max Eastman, 1932. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 8083994. ISBN 0-913460-83-4. Transcribed for the World Wide Web by John Gowland (Australia), Alphanos Pangas (Greece) and David Walters (United States). Pathfinder Press edition. June 1, 1980. ISBN 0-87348-829-6. Retrieved May 14, 2005.

John Reeds signature John Jack Silas Reed (October 22, 1887 – October 19, 1920) was an American journalist, poet, and communist activist, famous for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days that Shook the World. ... Victor Lvovich Kibalchich (Ð’.Л. Кибальчич) (1890-1947) (better known as Victor Serge) was born in Brussels, the son of Russian Narodnik exiles. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was an Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...

Primary documents

  • Ascher, Abraham, ed. The Mensheviks in the Russian Revolution (Ithaca, 1976).
  • Avrich, Paul ed. The Anarchists in the Russian Revolution (Ithaca, 1973).
  • Browder, Robert Paul and Alexander F. Kerensky, eds., The Russian Provisional Government, 1917: Documents. 3 volumes (Stanford, 1961).
  • Bunyan, James and H. H. Fisher, eds. The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917–1918: Documents and Materials (Stanford, 1961; first ed. 1934).
  • Steinberg, Mark D. Voices of Revolution, 1917. In the series “Annals of Communism,” Yale University Press, 2001. On-line publication of these texts in the Russian original: Golosa revoliutsii, 1917 g. (Yale University Press, 2002): http://www.yale.edu/annals/Steinberg/golosa.htm

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Russian Revolution of 1917

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Victor Lvovich Kibalchich (Ð’.Л. Кибальчич) (1890-1947) (better known as Victor Serge) was born in Brussels, the son of Russian Narodnik exiles. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Triple Entente, United States, Italy, Serbia, Romania, Greece The European Theater of World War I was the primary site of the fighting of this great war. ... Combatants Central Powers Triple Entente, Serbia, Romania The Balkans Campaign of World War I was fought between Serbia and later Romania who sided with the Allied Powers against the Central Powers, mostly Austria-Hungary and Germany as well as Bulgaria. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Austria-Hungary Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Combatants Italy United Kingdom France Austria-Hungary German Empire Commanders Armando Diaz Luigi Cadorna Lord Cavan Conrad von Hötzendorf Svetozar Boroević Otto von Below The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Austria-Hungary and Italy, along with their allies, in northern Italy... Combatants Ottoman Empire, Military Mission of the German Empire Russian Empire, Armenia, British Empire, Australia, India, Newfoundland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France Strength 2,850,000 2, max strength: 800,000 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3, 891,000 WIA, 240,000 sick, 103,731 MIO, 239,000-250,000 POW... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Central Caspian Dictatorship Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville Strength •3rd... Combatants United Kingdom British India  Ottoman Empire Commanders General Nixon, General Maude Khalil Pasha, General von der Goltz Strength 112,000 90,000 ? Casualties 92,000 100,000 ? The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of the Great War fought between Allied Powers represented by the... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders, Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 182,000 251,309 The Battle of... Persia was neutral in World War I, but was affected by the rivalry between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers. ... Combatants United Kingdom ‎South Africa ‎ France ‎Belgium ‎Portugal German Empire The African Theater of World War I comprises geographically distinct campaigns around the German colonies scattered in Africa: the German colonies of Cameroon, Togo, South-West Africa, and German East Africa. ... This article describes the conquest and occupation of German held South-West Africa, now called Namibia, by forces from the Union of South Africa acting on behalf of the British Imperial Government at the start of World War I. The outbreak of hostilities in Europe in August 1914 had long... Combatants Great Britain, France, Belgium Germany The West Africa Campaign of World War I consisted of two small and fairly short military operations to capture the German colonies in West Africa: Togoland and Kamerun. ... Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany Commanders Jan Smuts Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck Strength 40,000 15,500 // Introduction German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda) was a large territory with complex geography (including the massive Rift Valley and Lake Victoria). ... Combatants Empire of Japan British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand German Empire The Asian and Pacific Theater of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Pacific Campaign of World War I saw limited action by the forces of Australia, New Zealand and Japan. ... The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. ... The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Combatants Allied Powers Cemtral Powers Some limited sea combat took place between the Central Powers navies of Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire and the Allied navies of France, Italy, Greece, Japan and the British Empire. ... British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Color Autochrome Lumière of a Nieuport Fighter in Aisne, France 1917 One of the many innovations of World War I, aircraft were first used for reconnaissance purposes and later as fighters and bombers. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Russian revolution (527 words)
The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party.
Russian Revolution: The Revolution of 1905 - The Revolution of 1905 The Russian Revolution of 1905 began in St. Petersburg on Jan. 22 (Jan. 9,...
The Russian revolutions of 1917 involved a series of uprisings by workers and peasants throughout the country and by soldiers, who were predominantly of peasant origin, in the Russian army.
Russian Revolution of 1917, series of events in imperial Russia that culminated in 1917 with the establishment of the ... (4539 words)
Russian Revolution of 1917, series of events in imperial Russia that culminated in 1917 with the establishment of the Soviet state that became known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
The second revolution, which opened with the armed insurrection of October 24 and 25, organized by the Bolshevik Party against the Provisional Government, effected a change in all economic, political, and social relationships in Russian society; it is often designated the Bolshevik, or October, Revolution.
The immediate cause of the February Revolution of 1917 was the collapse of the czarist regime under the gigantic strain of World War I. The underlying cause was the backward economic condition of the country, which made it unable to sustain the war effort against powerful, industrialized Germany.
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