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Encyclopedia > Russian Revolution of 1905
See also: Russian history, 1892-1917

The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide struggle of both anti-government and undirected violence which swept through vast areas of Russia in 1905. It was not controlled or managed, and it had no single cause or aim, but instead was the culmination of decades of unrest and dissatisfaction stemming from the autocratic rule of the Romanov dynasty and the slow pace of reform in Russian society. The direct cause was the abject failure of the Tsar's military forces in the initially-popular Russo-Japanese War, which set off a series of revolutionary activities, sometimes by mutinous soldiers and other times by revolutionary societies. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The history of Russia is essentially that of its many nationalities, each with a separate history and complex origins. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Map of Russia. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over...


Although put down with a blend of accommodation and savagery, the Revolution did increase the pace of reform in Russia, but not enough to prevent the second revolution which overturned the Romanovs in 1917, and the Revolution of 1905 was often looked back on by the Bolsheviks as an initial popular antecedent to their own revolution. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ...

Contents

Background

Soviet propaganda poster portraying the 1905 revolution. The caption reads "Glory to the People's Heroes of the Potemkin!"
Soviet propaganda poster portraying the 1905 revolution. The caption reads "Glory to the People's Heroes of the Potemkin!"

The Tsars (or Czars, as it is spelt in English), Russia's monarchs (being the equivalents of chiefs, kings or pharaohs), governed with an iron fist -- just as the Bourbons, Louis' and Hapsburgs did in other countries. Both the state and the church were subordinate to this autocracy, which in 1905 was headed by Nicholas II, of the House of Romanov. Five percent of Russia's population consisted of the nobles, who owned most of the land (and had, until 1861, owned the peasants) . The peasants, with the small, but growing industrial working class (proletariat), made up the remaining 95 percent of the Russian populace. Their land, labour and goods were fiercely controlled at the aristocracy, and their socio-economic conditions were usually poor. Image File history File links Poster15. ... Image File history File links Poster15. ... Battleship Potemkin The Potemkin (Russian: , ‘Prince Potyomkin of Tauris’) was a pre-dreadnought battleship (Bronenosets) of the Russian Black Sea Fleet. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ...


Although unrest had been a regular part of the Russian Empire, serious disturbances had been rare in the decades prior to 1905. Nonetheless, political discontent had been building since Tsar Alexander II's controversial 1861 decree, which saw the emancipation of the serfs. Prior to this, the serfs had been penniless slaves, living on borrowed land and paying rent to the landlords with cash and labour; now (having been given the right to own land and freed from compulsory service and obedience towards the nobility), they were merely penniless. The emancipation was dangerously incomplete, however, with years of "redemption" payments to the nobility, and only limited, technical freedom for the narod (common people). Rights for the people were still embedded in a range of duties and rules which were rigidly structured by social class. Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS, October... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born 29 April 1818 in Moscow; died 13 March 1881 in St. ... The Emancipation reform of 1861 in Russia performed by tsar Alexander II of Russia amounted to liquidation of serf dependence of Russian peasants. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Russian nobility. ...


The emancipation was only one part of a range of governmental, legal, social and economic changes beginning in the 1860s as the country slowly moved from feudal absolutism towards market-driven capitalism. The growth of liberal and socialist doctrines had given rise to discontent under the autocratic regime, and there was a strong demand for reform. While the aforementioned changes had liberalized economic, social and cultural structures, the political system was left virtually unchanged. Attempts at reform were sternly resisted by the monarchy and the bureaucracy. Even agreed-upon administrative reform was limited; in less than forty provinces, for example, Alexander had introduced a system of elected local councils (or zemstva) - although this came about all of fifty years after the legislation had been passed. The raising of expectations, which had been offset by the limited implementation progress, produced frustration which eventually led to rebellion. The feeling among those who rebelled was that the demand for "land and liberty" could only truly be met by revolution. In spite of the changes that had been made, there was still much that the liberals regarded as unacceptable: the Tsars and their policies were greedy, self-absorbed and wasteful; they had absolute power; there was almost no land available to the peasants, who desperately needed it; and taxation was very high, especially for those who could least afford it. // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person, who is often generally a monarch, should hold all power. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born 29 April 1818 in Moscow; died 13 March 1881 in St. ... The institution of the zemstvo (plural: zemstva) provided local government councils in Russia between 1864 and October 17, 1917. ...


Active revolutionaries were drawn almost exclusively from the intelligentsia. The movement was called narodnichestvo, the term itself derives from the Russian expression "Хождение в народ" ("Going to the people"). This was not a singular and unified group, but rather an enormous spectrum of radical splinter groups, each with its own agenda. (The Nihilists, who rejected prevailing social and moral norms, and the Anarchists, who were more widely focused on eliminating governmental rule, were perhaps the most prominent of these. Led by Mikhail Bakunin, they engaged in a form of political terrorism.) The revolutionaries' early ideological roots stemmed from the pre-emancipation work of the noble Alexander Herzen and his synthesis of European socialism and Slavic peasant collectivism. Herzen held that Russian society was still pre-industrial, and he espoused an idealised view which considered narod and the obshchina ("commune") as the base for revolutionary change. In his opinion, the country lacked a significant body of industrial proletariat at the time. The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... This article or section should be merged with Narodism Narodniks was the name for Russian revolutionaries of the 1860s and 1870s. ... The Nihilist movement was an 1860s Russian cultural movement which questioned the validity of traditional values and institutions. ... Michel Bakunin. ... For the character on the TV series Lost, see Mikhail Bakunin Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian — Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin — on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814–June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern... Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) (April 6 [O.S. 25 March] 1812 in Moscow - January 21 [O.S. 9 January] 1870 in Paris) was a major Russian pro-Western writer and thinker known as the father of Russian socialism. He is held responsible for creating a political climate leading to the emancipation... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Russian word mir (мир), besides its direct meanings of peace and world, had some other meanings related to social organization in Imperial Russia. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ...


Other thinkers argued that the Russian peasantry was an extremely conservative force; they were loyal to their households, villages, or communes, and nobody else. These thinkers held that the peasants cared only for their land and were deeply opposed to democracy and the liberal ideas of the West (as encouraged by a small group class of intellectuals and officers, who believed that these could bring about quicker reform). Russian ideologues later gravitated to the idea of a leading revolutionary "elite" or New class, a concept that was later put into action in 1917. The new class is a term to describe the privileged ruling class of bureaucrats and Communist party functionaries which typically arises in a Stalinist communist state. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


On March 1 (Old Style), 1881, Tsar Alexander was assassinated in his vehicle by a bomb-blast from Narodnaya volya, a splinter of the second Zemlya i volya party. There had already been a previous attempt on his life, resulting in increased censorship, the use of the secret police and the exile of liberals. Alexander II was succeeded by Alexander III, a deeply conservative and narrow-minded individual, heavily influenced by Constantin Pobedonostsev, a devotee of autocratic governance. is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born 29 April 1818 in Moscow; died 13 March 1881 in St. ... Narodnaya Volya (Народная воля in Russian, known as People’s Will in English) was a Russian revolutionary organization in the early 1880s. ... Zemlya i volya (Земля и воля in Russian, or Land and Liberty), a Russian clandestine revolutionary organization of Narodniki in the 1870s, founded in Petersburg in 1876. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born 29 April 1818 in Moscow; died 13 March 1881 in St. ... Alexander III (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev (Константин Иванович Победоносцев in Russian) (1827 - 1907) was a Russian jurist, statesman, and thinker. ...


The new Tsar avenged his father's death with repression. Local government was restricted, and the operations of the Russian secret police political service (the Okhrana) intensified; the police acted very effectively to suppress both revolutionaries and proto-democratic movements across the country (although many of these simply took their activities underground). The Okhrana scattered the revolutionary groups through imprisonment and exile. Members of revolutionary organisations often emigrated to avoid persecution. It was this emigration into Western Europe that first brought Russian thinkers into contact with Marxism. The first Russian Marxist group was formed in 1884, although it did not reach any significant size until 1898. Alexander III (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... The Okhrannoye otdeleniye (Russian: , meaning Security Section or Security Station), also the Okhrana or Tsarist Okhranka in Western sources, or diminutive Okhranka by those dissatisfied with the tsarist regime, was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in late 1800s... Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In sharp contrast to the social stagnation of the 1880s and 1890s, there were the huge modernising leaps in industrialisation, which was relative to Russia's rather low technological level at the time. The rise of urbanisation and the proletariat continued and intensified in the 1890s with the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway and the reforms brought about by the "Witte system". Sergei Witte, who became Minister of Finance in 1892, had been faced with a constant budget deficit. He sought to increase revenues by boosting the economy and attracting foreign investment. In 1897 he put the ruble on the gold standard. Economic growth was concentrated in a few regions, including Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Ukraine, and Baku. Roughly one third of all the capital invested was foreign, and foreign experts and entrepreneurs were vital. There were, nevertheless, disadvantages that stemmed from this growth: the rich became richer, while the poor became poorer as cheap labour was exploited. // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelt Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial state (see... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... Trans-Siberian line in red; Baikal Amur Mainline in green. ... Count Sergei Yulyevitch Witte (Russian: , Sergej Julevič Vitte) (June 29, 1849 – March 13, 1915), also known as Sergius Witte, was a highly influential policy-maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... For other uses, see Baku (disambiguation). ...


Nicholas II came to power in 1894. Like his predecessors, he stubbornly refused to allow any political change, eliminating unfavourable ideas, persecuting the Jewish minority, censoring the press and universities, and exiling political prisoners. Nicholas II of Russia (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


By 1905, revolutionary groups had recovered from the oppressive 1880s. The Marxist Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) was formed in 1898 and then split in 1903, forming the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks. Vladimir Illyich Ulyanov (Lenin) published his work What Is To Be Done? in 1902. The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs) was founded in Kharkov in 1900, and its 'Combat Organisation' (Boevaia Organizatsiia) assassinated many prominent political figures up to 1905 and beyond; this included two Ministers of the Interior, Dmitry Sergeyevich Sipyagin in 1902 and his successor, the hated Vyacheslav von Plehve, in 1904. These killings drove the government to grant more draconian powers to the police. Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́ча&#1103... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... What Is to Be Done? (Russian: ) was a political pamphlet, written by Vladimir Lenin at the end of 1901 and early 1902. ... Socialist-Revolutionary election poster, 1917. ... Kharkov (rus: Ха́рьков) or Kharkiv (ukr: Ха́рків) is the second largest city in Ukraine, a center of Kharkivska oblast. It is situated in the northeast of the country and has a population of two million. ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Modern emblem of Russian MVD Russian Gendarme officers in the 1860s The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del (MVD) (Министерство внутренних дел) was the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the imperial Russia, later USSR, and still bears the same name in the Russian Federation. ... Dmitry Sergeyevich Sipyagin (Дмитрий Сергеевич Сипягин) (1853, Kiev - 1902, St Petersburg), a Russian statesman. ... Vyacheslav Konstantinovich von Plehve (Вячесла́в Константи́нович фон Пле́ве), also Pléhve, or Pleve (OS) April 8, (NS) April 20, 1846 Meshchovsk, Kaluga Guberniya – (OS) July 15, (NS) 28 July 1904 St Petersburg) was the director of the tsarist Russian Police and later Minister of the Interior. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The war with Japan in 1904-05, while initially popular, was now feeding discontentment, as military failures and unclear war aims alienated the people. The deep inequality of the emancipation was being re-examined, and the peasants were burning farms all across Russia. The boom of the 1890s had fallen into a slump and workers were expressing their grievances at their abysmal conditions. In 1903 one-third of the Russian army in western Russia had engaged in "repressive action" upon the enemy. Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over...


Bloody Sunday

Main article: Bloody Sunday (1905)

At the beginning of the 20th century the Russian industrial employee worked on average an 11 hour day (10 hours on Saturday). Conditions in the factories were extremely harsh and little concern was shown for the workers' health and safety. Attempts by workers to form trade unions were resisted by the factory owners and in 1903, a priest, Father George Gapon, formed the Assembly of Russian Workers. Within a year it had over 9,000 members. Demonstrators march to the Winter Palace. ...


1904 was a bad year for Russian workers. Prices of essential goods rose so quickly that real wages declined by 20 per cent. When four members of the Assembly of Russian Workers were dismissed at the Putilov Iron Works, Gapon called for industrial action. Over the next few days over 110,000 workers in St. Petersburg went out on strike.


In an attempt to settle the dispute, George Gapon decided to make a personal appeal to Nicholas II. He drew up a petition outlining the workers' sufferings and demands. This included calling for a reduction in the working day to eight hours, an increase in wages and an improvement in working conditions. Gapon also called for the establishment of universal suffrage and an end to the Russo-Japanese War.


Over 150,000 people signed the petition and, on 22 January 1905, Gapon led a large procession of workers to the Winter Palace in order to present the petition to Nicholas II. When the procession of workers reached the Winter Palace it was attacked by the police and the Cossacks. Over 100 workers were killed and some 300 wounded. The incident, known as Bloody Sunday, signalled the start of the 1905 Revolution. January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Outcome of Bloody Sunday

The government responded fairly quickly. The Tsar had hoped to resist any major change, and he dismissed the Minister of the Interior, Pyotr Sviatopolk-Mirskii, on January 18, 1905 O.S.. Following the assassination of his relative, the Grand Duke Sergei Aleksandrovich, on February 4 O.S. he agreed to certain concessions. On February 18 O.S. he published the Bulygin Rescript, which promised the formation of a 'consultative' assembly, religious tolerance, freedom of speech (in the form of language rights for the Polish minority) and a reduction in the peasants' redemption payments. These concessions failed to restore order, and on August 6 O.S. he agreed to the creation of a consultative state duma parliament. When the slight powers of this and the limits to the electorate were revealed, unrest redoubled and culminated in a general strike in October. Pyotr Dmitrievich Image:Pyotr dmitrievich svyatopolk. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... Sergei Alexandrovich Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich Romanov (April 29, 1857 - February 4, 1905, Old Style) was the seventh child and fifth son of Emperor Alexander II of Russia and his first Empress-consort Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ...

Ilya Repin, 17 October 1905
Ilya Repin, 17 October 1905

On October 30, the October Manifesto was written by Witte and Alexis Obolenskii and presented to the Tsar. It closely followed the demands of the Zemstvo Congress in September, granting basic civil rights, allowing the formation of political parties, extending the franchise towards universal suffrage, and establishing the Duma as the central legislative body. The Tsar waited and argued for three days, but finally signed the manifesto on October 30 [O.S. October 17] 1905), owing to his desire to avoid a massacre, and a realization that there was insufficient military force available to do otherwise. He regretted signing the document, saying that he felt "sick with shame at this betrayal of the dynasty". Image File history File links Repin_17October. ... Image File history File links Repin_17October. ... Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: October Manifesto (in English) Ilya Repin 17 October 1905 The October Manifesto (Russian: ) was issued on October 17, 1905; October 30 in the Gregorian calendar) by Emperor Nicholas II of Russia under the influence of Count Sergei Witte as a response to... Zemstvo was a form of local government instituted during the great liberal reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...


When the manifesto was proclaimed there were spontaneous demonstrations of support in all the major cities. The strikes in St Petersburg and elsewhere either officially ended or quickly collapsed. A political amnesty was also offered. The concessions came hand-in-hand with renewed, and brutal, action against the unrest. There was also a backlash from the conservative elements of society, notably in spasmodic anti-Jewish attacks; around five hundred were killed in a single day in Odessa. The Tsar himself claimed that 90% of revolutionaries were Jews; they were, in fact, a minority in Russia. Still, Jews ended up playing an important revolutionary role due largely to their above average levels of education (or even literacy, per se) coupled with the pronounced persecution and anti-Semitism of the Tsarist State. Map of Ukraine with Odessa highlighted. ...


The uprisings ended in December with a final spasm in Moscow. Between December 5 and December 7 O.S. there was a general strike by the Russian worker class. The government sent in troops on December 7, and a bitter street-by-street fight began. A week later the Semenovskii Regiment was deployed, and used artillery to break-up demonstrations and shell workers' districts. On December 18 O.S., with around a thousand people dead and parts of the city in ruins, the Bolsheviks surrendered. In the subsequent reprisals the number beaten or killed is unknown. December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Aftermath

Among the political parties formed, or made legal, was the liberal-intelligentsia Constitutional Democratic party (the Kadets), the peasant leaders' Labour Group (Trudoviks), the less liberal Union of October 17 (the Octobrists), and the positively reactionary Union of Land-Owners. The Constitutional Democratic Party (Constitutional Democrats, formally Party of Popular Freedom, informally Cadets) was a liberal political party in Tsarist Russia. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Octobrist Party (Russian Октябристы) was a non-revolutionary conservative-liberal Russian political party also called Union Of October 17 (Союз 17 Октября) whose program of moderate constitutionalism called for the fulfillment...


The electoral laws were promulgated in December 1905—franchise to citizens over 25 years of age, electing through four electoral colleges. The first elections to the Duma took place in March 1906 and were boycotted by the socialists, the SRs and the Bolsheviks. In the First Duma there were 170 Kadets, 90 Trudoviks, 100 non-aligned peasant representatives, 63 nationalists of various hues, and 16 Octobrists.


In April 1906 the government issued the Fundamental Law, setting the limits of this new political order. The Tsar was confirmed as absolute leader, with complete control of the executive, foreign policy, church, and the armed forces. The Duma was shifted, becoming a lower chamber below the tsar-appointed State Council. Legislation had to be approved by the Duma, the Council and the Tsar to become law and in "exceptional conditions" the government could bypass the Duma. The first Russian constitution, known as the Fundamental Laws was enacted on April 23, 1906, on the eve of the opening of the first State Duma. ...


Also in April, after having negotiated a loan of almost 900 million roubles to repair Russian finances, Sergei Witte resigned. Apparently the Tsar had "lost confidence" in him. Later known as "late Imperial Russia's most outstanding politician", Witte was replaced by Ivan Goremykin, an Imperial lackey. Ivan Goremykin Ivan Logginovich Goremykin (Russian: Ива́н Логгинович Горемы́кин) (November 8, 1839 - December 24, 1917) was a Russian politician. ...


Demanding further liberalization and acting as a platform for "agitators", the First Duma was dissolved by the Tsar in July 1906. Despite the hopes of the Kadets and the fears of the government, there was no widespread popular reaction. However, an assassination attempt on Pyotr Stolypin led to the establishment of field trials for terrorists, and over the next eight months over a thousand people were hanged—the hangman's noose earning the nickname "Stolypin's necktie". Pyotr Stolypin Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin (Russian: Пётр Арка́дьевич Столы́пин) (April 14 [O.S. April 2] 1862—September 18 [O.S. September 5] 1911) served as Nicholas IIs Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) from 1906 to 1911. ...


In essence the country was unchanged, political power remained with the tsar, wealth and land with the nobility. The introduction of the Duma and the clamp-down did, however, successfully disrupt the revolutionary groups. Leaders were imprisoned or exiled and the groups were confused and uncertain of whether they should join the Duma or stay outside. The resulting splits and internal divisions kept the radicals disorganized until the stimulus of World War I. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Finland

Demonstrators in Jakobstad
Demonstrators in Jakobstad

In the Grand Duchy of Finland the Social Democrats organized the general strike of 1905 (October 30November 6). First Red Guards were formed, led by captain Johan Kock. During the general strike the Red Declaration, written by Yrjö Mäkelin, was given in Tampere, demanding dissolution of the Senate of Finland and universal suffrage, political freedoms, and abolition of censorship. Leader of the constitutionalists, Leo Mechelin crafted the November Manifesto, that led to the abolition of the Diet of Finland of the four estates and to the creation of the modern Parliament of Finland. It also resulted in a temporary halt to the russification policy started in 1899. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 774 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1000 × 775 pixel, file size: 323 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of a demonstration in Pietarsaari, Finland, in autumn 1905. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 774 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1000 × 775 pixel, file size: 323 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of a demonstration in Pietarsaari, Finland, in autumn 1905. ... Jakobstad, or Pietarsaari, is a town and municipality in Finland. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... The Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP) is one of the most influential political parties in Finland, along with the Centre Party and the Coalition Party. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Red Guards refer to socialist or communist militia formed to instigate, support, or defend communist revolutions. ... Captain Johan Kock (born June 4, 1861 in Helsinki – died April 13, 1915, Fitchburg, Michigan) was a Finnish soldier who had been decommissioned from the Finnish army in Viipuri in 1897. ... Yrjö Esalas Emanuel Mäkelin (1 June 1875 – September 18, 1923), a shoemaker, was Finnish Left-Socialist, journalist, Member of Parliament 1908–1910, 1913–1917. ... Tampere ( , Tammerfors in Swedish) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... The Senate of Finland combined the functions of cabinet and supreme court in the Grand Duchy of Finland between 1816 to 1917. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Leo Mechelin Leopold Henrik Stanislaus Mechelin (Leo Mechelin, 24 November 1839 — January 26, 1914) was a Finnish professor, statesman, leading defender of Finnish autonomy and the rights a minorities and women, leading opponent of repression and a liberal reformer. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: October Manifesto (in English) Ilya Repin 17 October 1905 The October Manifesto (Russian: ) was issued on October 17, 1905; October 30 in the Gregorian calendar) by Emperor Nicholas II of Russia under the influence of Count Sergei Witte as a response to... The Porvoo Diet is opened by Alexander I The Diet of Finland (Finnish Suomen maapäivät, later valtiopäivät; Swedish Finlands Landtdagar), was the legislative assembly of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906 and the heir of the powers of the Swedish Riksdag of the... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries[] down to the present day, the estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... The Eduskunta (in Finnish), or the Riksdag (in Swedish), is the Parliament of Finland. ... The policy of Russification of Finland, 1899–1917, aimed at the termination of Finland’s autonomy but resulted in fierce Finnish resistance that ultimately led to Finlands declaration of independence in 1917. ...


On July 30, 1906, Russian sailors rose to rebellion in the fortress of Viapori (later called Suomenlinna), Helsinki. The Finnish Red Guards supported rebellion with a general strike, but it was quelled by the Baltic Fleet in sixty hours. is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Viapori Rebellion was a rebellion which started June 30 in 1906 in Suomenlinna as part of the Russian Revolution of 1905-1907. ... Utsikt över Sveaborg (View over Sveaborg), painting by Augustin Ehrensvärd Suomenlinna (Finnish), or Sveaborg (Swedish), is an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands, today within Helsinki, the capital of Finland. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ...


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Russian battleship Potemkin. ... The Battleship Potemkin (Russian: , ), sometimes rendered as The Battleship Potyomkin, is a 1925 silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and produced by Mosfilm. ...

External links

  (Russian: Лёв Давидович Троцкий, Lyov Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Leon Davidovich Bronstein (Лёв Давидович Бронштейн), was a Ukrainian-born Jewish Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Russian Revolution of 1905 - MSN Encarta (931 words)
The 1905 revolution was an empire-wide struggle of violence, both anti-government and undirected, that swept through vast areas of the Russian Empire.
Russian Revolution of 1905, a widespread uprising during most of 1905 against the monarchy of the Russian Empire.
The main sources of discontent therefore remained unresolved, setting the stage for the subsequent revolution of 1917, in which the example of the soviets of 1905 played a central role (see Russian Revolution of 1917).
Russian Revolution of 1905 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2358 words)
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence.
Herzen held that Russian society was still pre-industrial, and espoused an idealised view which considered narod and the obshchina (peasant commune) as the base for revolutionary change; as, in his opinion, the country lacked a significant body of industrial proletariat at the time.
In the Grand Duchy of Finland the general strike of 1905 led to the abolition of the Diet of Finland of the four estates and the creation of the modern Parliament of Finland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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