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Encyclopedia > Russian Navy
Военно-морской флот
Voyenno-morskoy flot


Naval jack (top) and ensign of the Russian Navy
Active December 17, 1959 - present
Country Russian Federation (earlier - Soviet Union)

The Russian Navy or VMF (Russian: Военно-Морской Флот (ВМФ) - Voyenno- Morskoy Flot (VMF) or Military Maritime Fleet) is the naval arm of the Russian armed forces. The international designation of Russian naval vessels is "RFS" - "Russian Federation Ship". Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Russia. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The present Russian Navy was formed from the Soviet Navy after the dissolution of the Soviet Union at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Russian Navy possesses most of the former Soviet naval forces, which is currently composed of the Northern Fleet, the Russian Pacific Fleet, the Black Sea Fleet, the Baltic Fleet, the Caspian Flotilla, Naval Aviation, Naval Infantry (marines) and coastal artillery. Northern Fleet patch featuring the Andreyevsky ensign It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Soviet Red Banner Northern Fleet. ... Pacific Fleet (Тихоокеанский флот in Russian, or Tikhookeanskiy flot), a part of the Soviet Navy stationed in the Pacific Ocean, which secured the Far Eastern borders of the USSR. The fleet headquarters was located at... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... Caspian Flotilla (Каспийская флотилия in Russian, or Kaspiyskaya flotiliya), the oldest Russian military flotilla, which would later become part of the Soviet Navy. ... Insignia of Russian Air Force The Russian Air Force or VVS (transliterated from Russian: Военно-воздушные силы (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily)) is the air force of the Russian Federation, , the official designation of the former Soviet Air Force. ... Russian Marines emblem and slogan Naval Infantry of Russia: Victory follows us! The Russian Marines, perhaps better translated as the Russian Naval Infantry, (Russian: Морская пехота ) are an elite force of the Russian Armed Forces. ... 19th century coastal artillery guns preserved in Suomenlinna fortress in Helsinki Coastal artillery is the branch of armed forces concerned with operating mobile anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications. ...


Recently approved, a rearmament program until 2015 for the first time in Soviet and Russian history puts the development of the navy on an equal footing with strategic nuclear forces. The program covering the period until 2015 is expected to replace 45% of the military inventory in the army and navy.[1] Out of 4.9 trillion rubles ($192.16 billion) allocated for military rearmament, 25% will go into building new ships. "We are already building practically as many ships as we did in Soviet times," First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov said during a visit to Severodvinsk. "The problem now is not lack of money, but how to optimize production so that the navy can get new ships three, not five, years after laying them down."[2] For other people known as Sergei Ivanov, see Ivanov. ...

Contents

Origins

Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
Services (Vid)
Air Force Russian Air Force
Ground Forces Russian Ground Forces
Navy Russian Navy
Independent troops
Ground Forces Strategic Rocket Forces
Ground Forces Russian Space Forces
Ground Forces Russian Airborne Troops
Other troops
Naval Infantry
Naval Aviation
Missiles and Artillery Command
Anti-Air Defense
Ranks of the Russian Military
Air Force ranks and insignia
Army ranks and insignia
Navy ranks and insignia
History of the Russian Military
Military History of Russia
History of Russian military ranks
Military ranks of the Soviet Union
Russian Navy Big Emblem.

The origins of the Russian navy may be traced to the period between the 4th and the 6th century, when Early East Slavs were engaged in a struggle against the Byzantine Empire. The first Slavic flotillas consisted of small sailing ships and rowboats, which had been seaworthy and able to navigate in riverbeds. In the 9th-12th century, there were flotillas in Kievan Rus' consisting of hundreds of vessels with one, two or three masts. The citizens of Novgorod are known to have conducted military campaigns in the Baltic Sea (e.g., the siege of Sigtuna in 1187). Lad'ya (ладья in Russian, or sea boat) was a typical boat used by the army of Novgorod (length - 30 m, width - 5 to 6 m, 2 or 3 masts, armament - battering rams and catapults, complement - 50 to 60 men). There were also smaller sailboats and rowboats, such as ushkuys (ушкуи) for sailing in rivers, lakes and skerries, kochis (кочи), and nosads (носады), used for cargo transportation. In the 16th-17th century, the Cossacks conducted military campaigns against the Crimean Khanate and Ottoman Empire, using sailboats and rowboats. The Don Cossacks called them strugs (струг). These boats were capable of transporting up to 80 men. The Cossack flotillas numbered 80 to 100 boats. The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (UTC) (Russian: Transliteration: Vooruzhyónniye síly Rossíyskoy Federátsii) is the military of Russia, established after the break-up of the Soviet Union. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Russian Air Force (Russian: Военно-воздушные cилы России, transliteration: Voyenno-vozdushnye sily Rossii) is the air force of Russia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Russian Ground Forces (Russian: ) are the land forces of the Russian Federation, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Strategic Rocket Forces of Russia (Russian: Ракетные войска стратегического назначения (РВСН), transliteration: Raketnye voyska strategicheskogo naznacheniya) are a major division of the Russian armed forces that controls Russias land-based ICBMs. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Russian Airborne minor emblem Russian Airborne major emblem The Russian Airborne Troops or VDV ( from Vozdushno-Desantnye Voyska Russian: Воздушно-десантные войска = ВДВ) is an arm of service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, on a par with the Strategic Rocket Forces and the Russian Space Forces. ... Russian Marines emblem and slogan Naval Infantry of Russia: Victory follows us! The Russian Marines, perhaps better translated as the Russian Naval Infantry, (Russian: Морская пехота ) are an elite force of the Russian Armed Forces. ... Insignia of Russian Air Force The Russian Air Force or VVS (transliterated from Russian: Военно-воздушные силы (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily)) is the air force of the Russian Federation, , the official designation of the former Soviet Air Force. ... Main Agency of Missiles and Artillery of the Ministry of Defense of the Soviet Union (Главное ракетно-артиллерийское управление МО РФ, ГРАУ) is a department of Soviet/Russian Ministry of Defense which is subordinated to the Chief of Armament and Munition of the Armed Forces, vice-minister of defense (начальник вооружения ВС РФ - заместитель Министра обороны РФ). In particular, the GRAU is responsible for assignment... Voyska PVO (Russian: Войска ПВО, or PVO Strany until 1981) was the air defense branch of the Soviet military. ... Emblem of the Russian Air Force The following table presents images of the rank insignia used by the Russian Federation Air Force (VVS). ... Emblem of Armed forces of the Russian Federation Emblem of the Land forces of the Russian Federation The independent Russia inherited the ranks of the Soviet Union, although the insignia and uniform was altered a little. ... Insignia of the Russian Navy. ... The military history of Russia may refer to the following things: Military history of Muscovy Military history of Imperial Russia Military history of the Soviet Union Military history of the Russian Federation This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Modern Russian military ranks trace their roots to Table of Ranks established by Peter the Great. ... The military ranks of the Soviet Union were those introduced after the October Revolution of 1917. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Traditional wooden cutter under sail. ... The GB coxless pair of Toby Garbett & Rick Dunn at Henley Royal Regatta 2004. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... mizzen mast, mainmast and foremast Grand Turk The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical pole which supports the sails. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Sigtuna is a city in central Sweden in the metropolitan area of Stockholm. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Replica battering ram at Ch teau des Baux, France A battering ram is a weapon used from ancient times. ... Replica catapult at Château des Baux, France For the handheld Y-shaped weapon, see slingshot. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ...


The centralized Russian state had been fighting for its own access to the Baltic Sea, Black Sea and Sea of Azov since the 17th century. By the end of this century, the Russians had accumulated some valuable experience in using riverboats together with land forces. Under Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich construction of the first three-masted ship, actually built within Russia, was completed in 1636. It was built in Balakhna by Danish shipbuilders from Holstein according to European design and was christened the Frederick. In 1667-1669, the Russians tried to build naval ships in a village of Dedinovo on the shores of the Oka River for the purpose of defending the trade routes along the Volga, which led to the Caspian Sea. In 1668, they built a 26-cannon ship Oryol (Орёл, or Eagle), a yacht, a boat with a mast and bowsprit and a few rowboats. For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Mikhail at the Ipatiev Monastery by Grigory Ugryumov Michael Romanov redirects here. ... Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Balakhna (Балахна in Russian) is a town in the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in Russia. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... Oka (Russian: Ока́) is a great river in Russia, the biggest right confluent of the Volga. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... “Volga” redirects here. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... 1668 (MDCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Bowsprit of the Falls of Clyde, showing the dolphin striker, the use of chain for the bobstays, and three furled jibs. ...


During much of the seventeenth century Russian merchants and Cossacks, using koch boats, sailed across the White Sea, exploring the Rivers Lena, Kolyma and Indigirka, and founding settlements in the region of the upper Amur. Unquestionably the most celebrated Russian explorer was Semyon Dezhnev, who, in 1648, sailed the entire length of present-day Russia by way of the Arctic Ocean. Rounding the Chukotsk Peninsula, Dezhnev passed through the Bering Sea and sailed into the Pacific Ocean. The Koch was a special type of small two-mast wooden sailing ships designed and used in Russia for transpolar voyages in ice conditions of the Arctic seas, popular among the Pomors. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... The Lena (Russian: Ле́на) in Siberia is the 10th longest river in the world and has the 9th largest watershed. ... The Kolyma River (Колыма́) is a river in northeastern Siberia, whose basin covers parts of the Republic of Sakha, Chukotka, and Magadan oblast. ... The Indigirka River (Индигирка in Russian), a river in Sakha in Russia. ... The Amur River or Heilong Jiang (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: , Khar Mörön or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is the worlds eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. ... Semion Ivanovich Dezhnev (Семён Ива́нович Дежнёв) (circa 1605 – 1673), Russian explorer who led the expedition that doubled the known extent of the easternmost promontory of the Eurasian continent in 1648, discovering that... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Chukchi Peninsula, Chukotski Peninsula or Chukotsk Peninsula, at about 66° North, 169° East, is the northeastern extremity of Asia. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Sea Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean Bearing Sea with Kamchatka Peninsula and Alaska The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water north of, and separated from, the north Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. ...


The Imperial Russian Navy

Main article: Imperial Russian Navy

The regular Russian Navy was created at the behest of Peter the Great. During the Second Azov campaign of 1696 against Turkey, the Russians employed for the first time 2 battleships, 4 fireships, 23 galleys and 1300 strugs, built on the Voronezh River. After the Azov fortress was taken, the Boyar Duma understood the vital importance of the Navy for successful warfare and passed a decree on commencing the construction of the navy on October 20, 1696. This date is considered the official birthday of the regular Russian Navy. Russian Navy Jack Russian Navy Ensign The Imperial Russian Navy refers to the Navy of Imperial Russia, before the Soviet Union. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Azov campaigns of 1695-1696 (Азовские походы in Russian), two Russian military campaigns during the Russo-Turkish War of 1686-1700, led by Peter the Great and aimed at capturing the Turkish fortress of Azov (garrison - 7,000... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... This article is not about the fireboats that fight fire Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts Drakes fire ship attack on the Spanish Armada. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... Voronezh (Воро́неж in Russian) is a river in Tambov, Lipetsk, and Voronezh Oblasts in Russia, a left tributary of the Don. ... Azov (Russian: ) is a town in Rostov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Don River just three kilometers from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town. ... A Duma (Ду́ма in Russian) is any of various representative assemblies in modern Russia and Russian history. ... Naval redirects here. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ...

Eugene Lanceray. Fleet of Peter the Great (1709).
Eugene Lanceray. Fleet of Peter the Great (1709).

During the Great Northern War of 1700-1721, the Russians built the Baltic Fleet. In 1703-1723, the main base of the Baltic Fleet was located in St. Petersburg and then in Kronstadt. Other bases were later established in Vyborg, Helsingfors, Revel and Åbo. At first, Vladimirsky Prikaz was in charge of shipbuilding. Later on, these functions were transferred to the Russian Admiralty. Image File history File links Lansereships. ... Image File history File links Lansereships. ... Portrait of Lanceray (1907), by Konstantin Somov. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by and/or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... 1888 map of the Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (German: for Crown and Stadt for City) is a Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. ... A view of Vyborg from the castle tower Vyborg (Russian: ; Finnish: ; Swedish: ; German: ) is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of the Bay of Vyborg, 130 km to the northwest of St. ... Helsinki (pronounced with the stress on the first syllable in Finnish — think Helsin Ki), or Helsingfors in Swedish, is the capital of Finland. ... Revel is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Revel, in the Haute-Garonne département Revel, in the Isère département Revel-Tourdan, in the Isère département Reval is the German name of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia This is a... Location of Turku in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Western Finland Region Finland Proper Sub-region Turku sub-region Government  - Mayor Mikko Pukkinen Area  - City 306. ... Prikaz (Russian: ) was an administrative (palace, civil, military, or church) or judicial office in Muscovy and Russia of 15th-18th centuries. ... The Admiralty tower (1806-23) is the focal point of St Petersburg downtown: three main avenues converge nearby. ...


Basic principles of the Russian Navy, its educational and training methods, as well as methods for conducting military action were all summarized in the Naval Charter (1720). Peter the Great, Feodor Apraksin, Alexey Senyavin, Naum Senyavin, Mikhail Golitsyn are generally credited for the development of the Russian art of naval warfare. Main principles of naval warfare were further developed by Grigory Spiridov, Feodor Ushakov, and Dmitry Senyavin. Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Count Theodore Apraxin Count Fyodor Matveyevich Apraksin (also Apraxin, Russian: Фёдор Матвеевич Апраксин) (October 27, 1661 - November 10, 1728, Moscow) was one of the first Russian admirals who governed Estonia and Karelia from 1712 to 1723, general admiral (1708), presided over the Russian Admiralty since 1718 and commanded the Baltic Fleet since 1723. ... Naum Akimovich Senyavin (Наум Акимович Сенявин in Russian) (c. ... Peter I permitted the Galitzines to take an emblem of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as their coat of arms The Galitzines, more correctly the Golitsyns (Russian: Голицын), are one of the largest and noblest princely houses of Russia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Grigory Andreyevich Spiridov (Григорий Андреевич Спиридов in Russian) (1713 - April 8(19), 1790, Moscow) was a leading Russian naval commander and admiral (1769). ... Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov (1744 – October 2, 1817) was the most illustrious Russian naval commander and admiral of the 18th century. ... Dimitry Nikolayevich Senyavin or Seniavin (17 August 1763 — 5 April 1831) was a Russian admiral who ranks among the greatest seamen of the Napoleonic Wars. ...


The Russo-Turkish Wars of Catherine the Great resulted in the establishment of the Black Sea Fleet, with its bases in Sevastopol and Kherson. It was at that time that Russian warships started to venture into the Mediterranean on a regular basis. In 1770, Grigory Spiridov’s squadron gained supremacy in the Aegean Sea by destroying the Turkish fleet in the Battle of Chesma. After having advanced to the Danube, the Russians formed the Danube Military Flotilla for the purpose of guarding the Danube estuary from the Turks. The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of eleven wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Kherson (Ukrainian and Russian Херсон) is a city in southern Ukraine, the capital of Kherson Oblast, with 303,900 inhabitants (2004). ... Grigory Andreyevich Spiridov (Григорий Андреевич Спиридов in Russian) (1713 - April 8(19), 1790, Moscow) was a leading Russian naval commander and admiral (1769). ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Seal of the Turkish Navy The Turkish Navy (Turkish: ) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Combatants Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Count Orlov Kapudan Pasha Hüsameddin Strength 9 ships of the line, 3 frigates, 1 bomb, 4 fireships, 4 supply ships About 16 ships of the line, 6 frigates, 6 xebecs, 13 galleys, 32 smaller; about 1300 guns The naval Battle of Chesma took... This article is about the Danube River. ...


During the Mediterranean expedition of 1799, Fyodor Ushakov single-handedly carved out the Greek Republic of Seven Islands, proceeding to clear from the French Corfu and all the Ionian islands. His squadron then blocked the French bases in Italy, notably Genoa and Ancona, and successfully assaulted Naples and Rome. Ushakov, proclaimed a patron saint of the Russian Navy in the 21st century, was succeeded in command by Dmitry Senyavin who reasserted Russian control of the southern Adriatic, disrupted Dubrovnik's sea trade, and destroyed the Ottoman Fleet in the Battle of Athos (1807). Between 1803 and 1855, Russian sailors undertook over 40 circumnavigations and distant voyages, which played an important role in exploration of the Far East and culminated in Faddei Bellingshausen's discovery of Antarctica. Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov (1744 – October 2, 1817) was the most illustrious Russian naval commander and admiral of the 18th century. ... A republic that existed from 1800 to 1807 under joined Russian-Turkish sovereignity in the Ionian Islands. ... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek: , Ionioi NÄ“soi) are a group of islands in Greece. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101,909 (2005). ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Dimitry Nikolayevich Senyavin or Seniavin (17 August 1763 — 5 April 1831) was a Russian admiral who ranks among the greatest seamen of the Napoleonic Wars. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... Nickname: 1995 map of Dubrovnik The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia Coordinates: , Country County Government  - Mayor Dubravka Å uica (HDZ) Area  - City 143. ... The Battle of Mount Athos, also known as the Battle of Monte Sancto and Battle of Lemnos, was a key naval battle of the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... “Round the world” redirects here. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Fabian Gottlieb Thaddeus von Bellingshausen (Russian: ; Faddey Faddeyevich Bellinsgauzen) (September 20, 1778–January 13, 1852) served as a naval officer of the Russian Empire and commanded the second Russian expedition to circumnavigate the globe. ...

The Russian Admiralty in St. Petersburg is famed for a gilded steeple topped by a golden weather-vane in the shape of a small ship.
The Russian Admiralty in St. Petersburg is famed for a gilded steeple topped by a golden weather-vane in the shape of a small ship.

Notwithstanding these triumphs, Russia’s slow technical and economic development in the first half of the 19th century caused her to fall behind other world powers in the field of steamboat construction. It was in 1826 that the Russians built their first armed steamboat Izhora. At the outbreak of the Crimean War in 1853, steamships were few and sailing ships heavily predominated. The Battle of Sinope, won by Pavel Nakhimov, is remembered in history as the last significant naval battle involving sailing ships. During the Siege of Sevastopol in 1854-1855, Russian sailors set an example of using all means possible for defending their base from land and sea. Although the Russians introduced modern naval mining in the Baltic and repelled the Siege of Petropavlovsk in the Pacific, Sevastopol was finally surrendered on honourable terms. In accordance with the Treaty of Paris, Russia lost its right to have a military fleet in the Black Sea. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 74 KB) This file was downloaded from the site walks. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 74 KB) This file was downloaded from the site walks. ... The Admiralty tower (1806-23) is the focal point of St Petersburg downtown: three main avenues converge nearby. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... For other uses, see Steamboat (disambiguation). ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Steamboat (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Tsarist Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders Osman Pasha Strength 6 battleships, 2 frigates, 3 steamers 7 frigates, 5 corvettes Casualties none 7 frigates, 4 corvettes sunk {{{notes}}} The naval Battle of Sinope (or Sinop) occurred on 30 November 1853 at Sinop, a sea port in northern Turkey, when Imperial Russian... Admiral Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov (June 23, 1802 - June 28, 1855) was one of the most famous admirals in Russian naval history, best remembered as the commander of naval and land forces during the Siege of Sevastopol (Sevastopol) in the Crimean War. ... Combatants Great Britain France Russia Commanders General François Canrobert (later replaced by General Pélissier) Lord Raglen Admiral Kornilov (later replaced by Admiral Pavel Nakhimov) Lt. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Siege of Petropavlovsk was the main operation on the Pacific Theatre of the Crimean War. ... The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and Ottoman Empire and its allies France and Britain. ...


As a consequence, the Russian sailing fleet lost its significance and was rapidly replaced by steamboats, including the first steel armored gunship Opyt and one of the first seafaring ironclads Pyotr Velikiy. On January 16, 1877 Admiral Stepan Makarov became the first to launch torpedoes from a boat in combat. He also proposed the idea and oversaw the construction of the world's first ocean-going icebreaker "Yermak", commanding it in two arctic expeditions in 1899 and 1901. At about the same time, Aleksey Krylov elaborated the modern floodability theory. For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... The term gunship is used in several contexts, all sharing the general idea of a light vessel armed with heavy guns. ... The Petr Velikyy (Петр Великий - Peter the Great) was a Russian ironclad turret battleship. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Stepan Osipovich Makarov (Russian: Степа́н О́сипович Мака́ров) (January 8, 1848/1849 — March 31, 1904) was a famous Russian vice-admiral, a highly accomplished and decorated commander of the... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... For other uses, see Icebreaker (disambiguation). ... Yermak on the Baltic Sea. ... Alexei Nikolaevich Krylov (Russian: ) (August 15, 1863 N.S. - October 26, 1945) was a Russian Naval engineer, applied mathematician and memoirist. ... Floodability may refer to one of the following. ...


The Russian Navy was considered the third strongest in the world on the eve of the Russo-Japanese War, which turned to be a catastrophe for the Russian military in general and the Russian Navy in particular. Although neither party lacked courage, the Russians were defeated by the Japanese in the Battle of Port Arthur, which was the first time in warfare that mines were used for offensive purposes. The battleships of the Baltic Fleet sent to the Far East were lost in the Battle of Tsushima. Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Admiral Heihachiro Togo Vice Admiral Shigeto Dewa Oskar Victorovich Stark Strength 15 battleships and cruisers with escorts 12 battleships and cruisers with escorts Casualties 90 men and slight damage 150 men and seven ships damaged The Battle of Port Arthur (Japanese: 旅順港閉塞作戦, Ryojunkō Heisoku... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski # Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships 27 cruisers destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships 3 coastal battleships 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead 583 injured 3 torpedo boats sunk 4,380 dead 5,917 captured 21 ships sunk 7 captured 6...


Soon after the war Russia devoted a significant portion of its military spending to an ambitious shipbuilding program aimed at replacing lost battleships with modern dreadnoughts. During World War I, the fleets played a limited role in the Eastern Front, due to heavy defensive and offensive mining on both sides. Characteristically, the Black Sea Fleet succeeded in mining the Bosporus, thus preventing the Ottoman Fleet from entering the Black Sea. After the revolution forced Russia to quit the war, the Baltic Fleet was evacuated from Helsinki and Tallinn to Kronstadt during the Ice Cruise of the Baltic Fleet. HMS Audacious, a British super-dreadnought launched in 1912 A dreadnought was a battleship of the early 20th century, of a type modelled after the revolutionary HMS Dreadnought of 1906. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... County Area 159. ... Ice Cruise of the Baltic Fleet (Russian: Ледовый поход Балтийского флота) was an operation on shifting the ships of the Baltic Fleet from Revel (Tallinn) and Helsingfors (Helsinki) to Kronstadt in 1918 caused by the proposed threat of German offensive. ...


The Soviet Navy

Main article: Soviet Navy

For the most part, Russian sailors welcomed the Russian Revolution of 1917, in which they participated. Earlier, in 1905, sailors of the Imperial Russian battleship Potemkin in the Black Sea Navy revolted. In 1906 rebellious soldiers gained control of some Helsinki coastal fortifications during events known as the Viapori Rebellion, which was subsequently put down, following bombardments from ships of the Baltic Fleet which remained loyal to the Tsarist government. The first ship of the Soviet Navy could be considered to be the rebellious Imperial Russian cruiser Aurora, whose blank shot from a forecastle gun signaled the October Revolution. In March 1921, the sailors of Kronstadt rebelled against the Bolsheviks, demanding freedom of speech and closing of concentration camps, but this belated revolt was ruthlessly suppressed by Leon Trotsky. After the Revolution, the Navy's restoration was slow, and only with the beginning of industrialisation in 1930 was a large shipbuilding program developed, but not accomplished before the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. As a result, the Soviet Navy during World War II was comprised of some old World War I-era ships, some modern pre-war built cruisers and destroyers, as well as a number of torpedo boats. The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... Battleship Potemkin The Potemkin (Russian: , ‘Prince Potyomkin of Tauris’) was a pre-dreadnought battleship (Bronenosets) of the Russian Black Sea Fleet. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... The Viapori Rebellion was a rebellion which started June 30 in 1906 in Suomenlinna as part of the Russian Revolution of 1905-1907. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... The Aurora (Russian: Авро́ра; English transliteration: Avrora) is a Russian protected cruiser, currently preserved as a museum ship in St. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... 1888 map of the Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (German: for Crown and Stadt for City) is a Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. ... Combatants Soviet Sailors Red Army Commanders Stepan Petrichenko Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky Strength c. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ...


Unfortunately for the Soviets, much of their fleet on the Baltic Sea was blocked in Leningrad and Kronstadt by Finnish and German minefields during 19411944 and maimed by mines and air attacks, nevertheless numerous sorties by attack boats and submarines actions were held. On the Black sea with the loss of main naval base - Sevastopol, and effective actions of axis aviation as well as minefields navy limited the efficiency of large surface ships. The Northern Fleet, composed mostly of destroyers (World War I Novik-class and more modern project 7 and 7u vessels), played a major role in anti-aircraft and anti-submarine defence of allied convoys heading to Murmansk. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... 1888 map of the Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (German: for Crown and Stadt for City) is a Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During the Cold War, the Soviets gave their navy a number of missions, in addition to its role as one of the legs of the nuclear triad, the navy was supposed to destroy American SSBNs and carrier groups, interdict NATO lines of communications, and assist the ground forces in continental theatre offensives.[3] They were quick to equip their surface fleet with missiles of various sorts. In fact, it became a hallmark of Soviet design to place large anti-ship missiles onto relatively small and fast missile boats. The Soviet Navy also possessed several very large guided missile cruisers with great firepower, such as those of the Kirov class and the Slava class cruisers. In the 1980s the Soviet Navy acquired its first true aircraft carrier, Tbilisi (subsequently renamed Admiral Kuznetsov).[4] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A missile (British English: miss-isle; U.S. English: missl) is, in general, a projectile—that is, something thrown or otherwise propelled. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... Radars: Voskhod MR-800 (Top Pair) 3D search radar on foremast Fregat MR-710 (Top Steer) 3D search radar on main mast 2 × Palm Frond navigation radar on foremast Sonar Horse Tail VDS (Variable Deep Sonar) Fire control: 2 × Top Dome for SA-N-6 fire control 4 × Bass Tilt... The Slava class cruiser, Soviet designation Project 1164 Atlant, is a large conventionally-powered warship, currently operated by Russia and Ukraine. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (originally named Tbilisi and then Leonid Brezhnev[1]) is an aircraft carrier (heavy aircraft carrying cruiser (TAVKR) in Russian classification) serving as the flagship of the Russian Navy. ...


In some respects, including speed and reactor technology Soviet submarines were, and remain, some of the world's best. Their primary shortcomings were insufficient noise dampening (American boats were quieter) and sonar technology. The Soviets possessed numerous purpose-built guided missile submarines, such as the Oscar class, as well as many ballistic missile submarines and attack submarines. The Soviet navy's Typhoon class boats are the world's largest submarines. The Soviet attack submarine force was, like the rest of the navy, geared towards the interception of NATO convoys, but also targeted American aircraft carrier battle groups. This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... SSGN is the United States Navy hull classification symbol for a cruise missile submarine. ... Oscar class submarine The Soviet Union’s Project 949 (Granit) and Project 949A (Antey) submarines are known in the West by their NATO reporting names: the Oscar-I and Oscar-II classes respectively. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... The Typhoon-class submarine is a ballistic missile-carrying, nuclear-powered submarine (SSBN) deployed by the Soviet Navy in the 1980s. ... The Abraham Lincoln battle group during the 2000 RIMPAC exercises A carrier battle group (CVBG) consists of an aircraft carrier (CV) and its escorts. ...


The Modern Russian Navy

The Collapse of the Soviet Union led to a severe decline in the Russian Navy. Defence expenditure was severely reduced. Many ships were scrapped or laid up as accommodation ships at naval bases, and the building programme was essentially stopped. However Sergey Gorshkov's buildup during the Soviet period had emphasised ships over support facilities, and Gorshkov had also retained ships in service that were beyond their effective lifetimes, so a reduction was due anyway.[5] What made matters worse was the impractical variety of vessels which the Soviet military-industrial complex, with the support of the leadership, forced on the navy - taking modifications into account, the Soviet Navy in the mid 1980s had nearly 250 different ship types. [6]The Kiev class aviation cruisers and many other ships were prematurely retired. Funds were only allocated for the completion of ships ordered prior to the collapse of the USSR, as well as for refits and repairs on fleet ships taken out of service since. However, the construction times for these ships tended to stretch out extensively: in 2003 it was reported that the Akula class SSN Nerpa had been under construction for fifteen years.[7] Storage of decommissioned nuclear submarines in ports such as Murmansk became a significant issue, with the Bellona Foundation reporting details of lowered readiness. Naval bases outside Russia, such as Cam Rahn Bay in Vietnam, were gradually closed, with the exception of the bases in the Crimea, leased from Ukraine to support the Black Sea Fleet. Naval Aviation declined as well from its height as Soviet Naval Aviation, dropping from an estimated 60,000 personnel with some 1,100 combat aircraft in 1992 to 35,000 personnel with around 270 combat aircraft in 2006.[8] In 2002, out of 584 naval aviation crews only 156 were combat ready, and 77 ready for night flying. Average annual flying time was 21.7 hours, compared to 24 hours in 1999.[9] However since 2002 these figures may have improved. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1405x893, 274 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Aircraft carrier Soviet aircraft carrier Kuznetsov List of Russian Navy cruisers ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1405x893, 274 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Aircraft carrier Soviet aircraft carrier Kuznetsov List of Russian Navy cruisers ... Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (originally named Tbilisi and then Leonid Brezhnev[1]) is an aircraft carrier (heavy aircraft carrying cruiser (TAVKR) in Russian classification) serving as the flagship of the Russian Navy. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... Sergey Georgyevich Gorshkov (b. ... President Dwight Eisenhower famously referred to the military-industrial complex in his farewell address. ... Aircraft carrier Kiev, USSR, 1975-1996 The Kiev class carriers (also know as Project 1143 or as the Krechyet class) were the first class of fixed-wing aircraft carriers build in Russia. ... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and... The Bellona Foundation is an international environmental organization established in 1986 as a Norwegian organization and based in Oslo. ... Cam Ranh Bay is a deep-water seaport in Vietnam. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ... Soviet Naval Aviation (Авиация военно-морского флота in Russian, or Aviatsiya Voenno-Morskogo Flota, literally aviation of the military sea fleet) was a part of the Soviet Navy. ...


Training and readiness also suffered severely. In 1995 only two missile submarines at a time were being maintained on station, from the Northern and Pacific Fleets.[10] The decline culminated in the loss of the Kursk submarine during the Northern Fleet summer exercise that was intended to back up the publication of a new naval doctrine.[11] The exercise, involving some 30 submarines and surface ships, was to have culminated with the deployment of the Admiral Kuznetsov battle group to the Mediterranean. K-141 Kursk was a Russian nuclear cruise missile submarine which was lost with all hands when it sank in the Barents Sea on August 12, 2000. ... Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (originally named Tbilisi and then Leonid Brezhnev[1]) is an aircraft carrier (heavy aircraft carrying cruiser (TAVKR) in Russian classification) serving as the flagship of the Russian Navy. ...


As of 2006, The Russian Navy has 50 nuclear submarines, compared to 170 vessels in 1991, but only 26 of them are operational. The Navy plans to reduce the number to 20 submarines, including ten strategic missile submarines and ten multi-purpose (attack) submarines, according to unofficial reports.[12]


Shipbuilding

The recent improvement in the Russian economy has led to a rise in defence expenditure and an increase in numbers of ships under construction, focusing on submarines, such as the conventional Lada class and nuclear Graney class. Some older ships have been refitted as well. Jane's Fighting Ships commented in 2004 that the construction programme was too focused on Cold War scenarios, given the submarine emphasis. [13] The Steregushchy class corvettes, the lead ship of which was laid down on 21 December 2001, is the first new surface construction since the collapse of the Soviet Union.[14] In 2005 plans were announced for a class of two new aircraft carriers which would start construction in 2013-14 for initial service entry in 2017. [15] Jane's said it was not clear whether 'this was a funded programme'. New amphibious ships are planned as well. The economic situation 'makes most of these plans look unrealistic for the immediate and mid term future',[16] and even the nuclear deterrent force is in trouble. Three new SSBNs are now under construction, (the Borei class SSBNs), but the first has been under construction since 1996- its completion is now expected in 2008. The mainstay of the SSBN force, the Delta IVs, joined the fleet in 1985-91. Apparently while the service life of an SSBN normally is twenty to twenty-five years, without maintenance, it may be as short as ten to fifteen years.[17] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Saint-Petersburg class submarine. ... Project 885 Graney (Yasen) is a new Russian attack submarine class, first vessel Severodvinsk will be commissioned about the year 2010. ... Janes Fighting Ships is an annual reference book (also published online, on CD and microfiche) of information on all the worlds warships arranged by nation, including information on ships names, dimensions, armaments, silhouettes and photographs, etc. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Designated Project 2038. ... Two aircraft carriers, USS (left), and HMS Illustrious (right), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier and a light V/STOL aircraft carrier. ... The Borei class (or Borey; Russian: Борей, named after Boreas) is a nuclear-powered ballistic missile-carrying submarine (SSBN) currently in development by Russia. ...


Increase in Activity

In the last years of the 1990s naval activity was very low. Even at the height of the Kosovo war crisis a planned battlegroup deployment to the Mediterranean was reduced to the dispatch of the intelligence ship Liman. 2003 saw a major increase in activity, including several major exercises. A May joint exercise with the Indian Navy saw two Pacific Ocean Fleet destroyers and four vessels from the Black Sea Fleet, led by Moskva, deploy for three months into the Indian Ocean. The largest out of area deployment for a decade, the INDRA 2003's exercise highlight was a series of missile launches by two Tu-160s and four Tu-95s which made a 5,400 mile round trip flight from Engels-2 air base near Saratov to the exercise area. [18] In August 2003 the Navy also participated in the Far Eastern exercise Vostok-2003, which saw the Varyag and the Sovremenny class destroyer Bystry active, as well as an amphibious landing carried out by three Pacific Ocean Fleet Ropucha class LSTs. Warships and helicopters from the Japanese and South Korean navies also took part. The Northern Fleet followed in January 2004 when thirteen ships and seven submarines took part in exercises in the Barents Sea. The involvement of Admiral Kuznetsov and Pytor Veliky was overshadowed however by two ballistic missile launch failures, made more embarrassing because President Vladimir Putin was afloat aboard the Typhoon-class SSBN Arkhangelsk to witness the tests. Neither Novomoskovsk nor Karelia were able to successfully launch what were apparently RSM-54 SLBMs.[19] Former Navy Commander-in-Chief Vladimir Kuroyedov's early dismissal may have resulted from these gaffes. He was replaced by Admiral Vladimir Masorin in September 2005. The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. ... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ... Tupolev Tu-160 The Tupolev Tu-160 (NATO reporting name Blackjack) is a supersonic, swing-wing heavy bomber designed in the Soviet Union. ... The Tupolev Tu-95 (NATO reporting name Bear) is the most successful Tupolev strategic bomber and missile carrier from the times of the Soviet Union. ... Engels-2 (also given as Engels, Engels, or Zngyelse) is a strategic air base in Russia located 14 km east of Saratov. ... Saratov (Russian: ) is a major city in Russia. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Ropucha, or Project 775 class landing ships are classified in the Russian Navy as large landing ships(Bolshoy Desatnyy Korabl). ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... Novomoskovsk (K-407) is a Projekt 667BDRM Delfin-class ballistic missile submarine (NATO reporting name Delta-IV) of the Russian Navys Northern Fleet. ... The SS-N-23 is a liquid propellant, submarine-based intercontinental ballistic missile in use by the Russian Federation. ... French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... Vladimir Ivanovich Kuroyedov (Russian: Владимир Иванович Куроедов; born September 5, 1944) is a former long-serving Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy. ... Vladimir V. Masorin Vladimir Vasilievich Masorin (Russian: Владимир Васильевич Масорин) (born August 24, 1947) is a Russian admiral who commanded the Caspian Flotilla in 1996-2002 and the Black Sea Fleet in 2002-2005. ...


Embarrassments for the Navy have unfortunately continued, with a mine accident during rehearsals for the Baltic Fleet's celebration of Navy Day in July 2005 and the Priz class mini-submarine AS-28 having to be rescued by a Royal Navy submarine in the Far East in early August 2005. However exercises and operations continue - Peace Mission 2005 in August 2005 involved a new level of cooperation between the Russian and the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy. Two months later Varyag led Russian participation in INDRA 2005, which was held off Vishakapatnam between 14 and 20 October 2005. It included surface firings, air defence, and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) exercises.[20] АС-28 The Priz class (Project 1855) is a type of Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle (DSRV) operated by the government of Russia. ... Mini-submarine AS-28 Priz after surfacing in the Bering Sea AS-28 is a miniature submarine of the Russian Navy belonging to the Project 1855 Priz class. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Peace Mission 2005 was the first ever joint military exercise between Russia and China. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in August August 31: Michael Sheard August 26: Lord Fitt August 24: Jack Slipper August 24: Maurice Cowling August 24: Dr. Tom Pashby August 23: Brock Peters August 22: Lord Lane August 21: Robert Moog August... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Visakhapatnam (Also Vishākhapatnam, shortened and Anglicized: Vizag) is a large city in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... “A/S” redirects here. ...


Structure

Recruitment is a mixture of conscripts serving two year terms and volunteers (Officers and Ratings). In 2004 the Navy had about 160,000 sailors. By 2006 the IISS estimate of strength was 142,000. The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs. ...


The Russian Navy consists of four fleets and one flotilla:

Northern Fleet patch featuring the Andreyevsky ensign It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Soviet Red Banner Northern Fleet. ... Severomorsk (Russian: Северомо́рск) is a town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located about 25 km north of Murmansk. ... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and... The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs. ... Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (originally named Tbilisi and then Leonid Brezhnev[1]) is an aircraft carrier (heavy aircraft carrying cruiser (TAVKR) in Russian classification) serving as the flagship of the Russian Navy. ... Radars: Voskhod MR-800 (Top Pair) 3D search radar on foremast Fregat MR-710 (Top Steer) 3D search radar on main mast 2 × Palm Frond navigation radar on foremast Sonar Horse Tail VDS (Variable Deep Sonar) Fire control: 2 × Top Dome for SA-N-6 fire control 4 × Bass Tilt... The Slava class cruiser, Soviet designation Project 1164 Atlant, is a large conventionally-powered warship, currently operated by Russia and Ukraine. ... Marshal Shaposhnikov transitting the channel into Pearl Harbor in 2003 The Udaloy class are a series of anti-submarine destroyers built for the Soviet Navy - The Russian designation is Project 1155 Fregat (Frigate bird) // History and design The Project 1155 dates to the 1970s when it was concluded that it... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A Krivak I class frigate at anchor. ... Russian Pacific Navy sleeve ensign The Pacific Ocean Fleet (Тихоокеанский флот in Russian, or Tikhookeanskiy flot) is part of the Russian Navy stationed in the Pacific Ocean, which formerly secured the Far Eastern borders of the USSR. The fleet headquarters is located at Vladivostok. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Russian: ) is the city and the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Krai (Russia). ... The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs. ... The Slava class cruiser, Soviet designation Project 1164 Atlant, is a large conventionally-powered warship, currently operated by Russia and Ukraine. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Marshal Shaposhnikov transitting the channel into Pearl Harbor in 2003 The Udaloy class are a series of anti-submarine destroyers built for the Soviet Navy - The Russian designation is Project 1155 Fregat (Frigate bird) // History and design The Project 1155 dates to the 1970s when it was concluded that it... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Novorossiysk (Russian Новороссийск) is a city in southern Russia, one of the main Russian ports on the Black Sea, in Krasnodar Krai. ... Kilo class is the NATO reporting name for a type of military diesel-electric submarines that are made in Russia. ... The Slava class cruiser, Soviet designation Project 1164 Atlant, is a large conventionally-powered warship, currently operated by Russia and Ukraine. ... The Kara is a class of Cold War era Soviet guided missile cruisers. ... A Kashin class destroyer in October 1985. ... A Krivak I class frigate at anchor. ... The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... 1888 map of the Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (German: for Crown and Stadt for City) is a Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. ... Baltiysk (Балтийск) – known prior to 1945 by its German name, Pillau (Polish PiÅ‚awa, Lithuanian Piliava)– is a Russian sea port in the strait between Vistula Bay and Gdansk Bay, called Strait of Baltiysk on the territory of Kaliningrad Oblast with about 20,000 inhabitants. ... Kilo class is the NATO reporting name for a type of military diesel-electric submarines that are made in Russia. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A Krivak I class frigate at anchor. ... Neustrashimy class frigate. ... Caspian Flotilla (Каспийская флотилия in Russian, or Kaspiyskaya flotiliya), the oldest Russian military flotilla, which would later become part of the Soviet Navy. ... For other uses, see Astrakhan (fur). ... Makhachkala (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the capital of the Republic of Dagestan. ...

Lists of Russian Navy ships

The Russian Navy has a manpower of 161,000. ... Currently, only the navies of Russia and the United States operate modern vessels classified as cruisers. ... This is a list of the Russian Navy equipment: Aircraft Carrier Kuznetsov class aircraft carrier Ulyanovsk class aircraft carrier (being revised) Large Cruiser Kirov class battlecruiser Submarine Borei class submarine Akula class submarine Typhoon class submarine Delta class submarine Oscar class submarine Kilo class submarine Cruiser Kara class cruiser Slava...

References and sources

  1. ^ http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20071005/82619436.html
  2. ^ Russia's Navy gets ambitious Russian News & Information Agency
  3. ^ B N Makeyev, Voyenno-Morskiye Aspekty Natsionalnoy Bezopasnosti Rossii, Moscow: Komitet po Nerasprostraneniya i Kriticheskim Tekhnologiyam, 1997, p25, cited in Mikhail Tsypkin, Rudderless in a Storm: The Russian Navy 1992-2002, B58, Conflict Studies Research Centre, RMA Sandhurst, December 2002
  4. ^ "The Self-Designing High-Reliability Organization: Aircraft Carrier Flight Operations at Sea." Rochlin, G. I.; La Porte, T. R.; Roberts, K. H. Footnote 39. Naval War College Review. Autumn, 1987, Vol. LI, No. 3.
  5. ^ CSRC B58
  6. ^ Captain First Rank S Topichev, 'What Fleet we had and how it should be reformed today', Morskoi sbornik (in Russian), No.12, 1996, p.13, cited in Greg Austin & Alexey Muraviev, The Armed Forces of Russia in Asia, I.B. Tauris, London, 2000, p.209
  7. ^ Foreword to Jane's Fighting Ships 2003-2004, p.80
  8. ^ IISS Military Balance, 1992-93 and 2006 editions
  9. ^ Mikhail Khodarenok, 'Chernyy god Rossiyskogo Flota', NVO, 23 February 2001, cited in Mikhail Tsypkin, 'Rudderless in a Storm, CSRC B58, December 2002
  10. ^ IISS Military Balance 1997/98, p.102
  11. ^ Foreword to Jane's Fighting Ships 2001-02, p.80
  12. ^ 3rd Atomic Submarine of the 4th Generation to be Ready in 5 years (Kommersant)
  13. ^ Foreword to Jane's Fighting Ships 2004-2005, p.30
  14. ^ Foreword to Jane's Fighting Ships, 2002-2003, p.79
  15. ^ Interfax, Russia Developing New Aircraft Carrier, May 15, 2005, http://www.milavia.net/forum/index.php?PHPSESSID=40ebe4460c357531cef30781524bec37&topic=67.msg340#msg340
  16. ^ Mikhail Tsypkin, Rudderless in a Storm: The Russian Navy 1992-2002, B58, Conflict Studies Research Centre, RMA Sandhurst, December 2002, p.13
  17. ^ Mikhail Tsypkin, Rudderless in a Storm: The Russian Navy 1992-2002, B58, Conflict Studies Research Centre, RMA Sandhurst, December 2002, p.13
  18. ^ Foreword to Jane's Fighting Ships, 2004-05, p.29
  19. ^ Jane's Fighting Ships, 2004-05, p.29
  20. ^ Jane's Fighting Ships , 2006-7, p.33
  21. ^ IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge, 2006, p.162
  22. ^ IISS Military Balance 2006, p.162

The Naval War College Review is a quarterly publication of the United States Navys Naval War College for the discussion of public policy matters of interest to the maritime services, established in 1948. ... Janes Fighting Ships is an annual reference book (also published online, on CD and microfiche) of information on all the worlds warships arranged by nation, including information on ships names, dimensions, armaments, silhouettes and photographs, etc. ... The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs. ... The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs. ... Janes Fighting Ships is an annual reference book (also published online, on CD and microfiche) of information on all the worlds warships arranged by nation, including information on ships names, dimensions, armaments, silhouettes and photographs, etc. ... Janes Fighting Ships is an annual reference book (also published online, on CD and microfiche) of information on all the worlds warships arranged by nation, including information on ships names, dimensions, armaments, silhouettes and photographs, etc. ... Janes Fighting Ships is an annual reference book (also published online, on CD and microfiche) of information on all the worlds warships arranged by nation, including information on ships names, dimensions, armaments, silhouettes and photographs, etc. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Russian Navy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2240 words)
The present Russian Navy was formed from the Soviet Navy after the dissolution of the Soviet Union at the end of the Cold War in 1991.
The origins of the Russian navy may be traced to the period between the 4th and the 6th century, when Early East Slavs were engaged in a struggle against the Byzantine Empire.
The Russian Navy was considered the third strongest in the world on the eve of the Russo-Japanese War, which turned to be a catastrophe for the Russian military in general and the Russian Navy in particular.
THE RUSSIAN NAVY'S FUTURE ROLE AND RELATIVE IMPORTANCE (2625 words)
Navies are costly and one of the main contributors to the collapse of the Soviet Union was spending a huge amount on defence, like Soviet military spending, estimated by western sources to be 12-17% of GDP during the mid-eighties3, which ultimately weakened the economy.
The current state of the Russian Navy and the outlook for its future development are the cause of some concern to her sailors, due to, firstly, Russia's Naval power is diminishing, the shipbuilding industry will be incapable of turning out nuclear submarines and ocean going vessels.
The Russian Navy has decommissioned a lot of units and it is expected that the future navy will be smaller and relatively more modern, but it is highly unlikely that it will emerge as the technological equal of Western navies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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