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Encyclopedia > Russian Federation
Российская Федерация
Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
Russian Federation
Flag of Russia Coat of arms of Russia
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: none
Anthem: Hymn of the Russian Federation



Capital Moscow
55°45′N 37°37′E
Largest city Moscow
Official language(s) Russian
Government Semi-presidential Federal republic
 - President of Russia Vladimir Putin
 - Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov
Independence From the Soviet Union 
 - Declared June 12, 1991 
 - Finalized December 25, 1991 
Area  
 - Total 17,075,400 km² (1st)
  (6,592,800 sq mi) 
 - Water (%) 13
Population  
 - 2006 est. 142,400,000 (7th)
 - 2002 census 145,164,000
 - Density 8.3/km² (209th)
(21.8/sq mi) 
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 - Total $1.576 trillion (10th1)
 - Per capita $11,041 (62nd)
HDI (2003) 0.795 (62nd) – medium
Currency Ruble (RUB)
Time zone (UTC+2 to +12)
 - Summer (DST) (UTC+3 to +13)
Internet TLD .ru, (.su reserved)
Calling code +7
1 Rank based on April 2006 IMF data

Russia (Russian: Росси́я, Rossiya; pronounced [rʌ'sʲi.jə]), also[1] the Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, Rossiyskaya Federatsiya; pronounced [rʌ'sʲi.skə.jə fʲɪ.dʲɪ'ra.ʦɪ.jə], listen ), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of Europe and Asia. With an area of 17,075,200 square kilometres, it is the largest country in the world by land mass, covering almost twice the territory of the next-largest country, Canada. It ranks as the world's eighth largest population. Russia shares land borders with the following countries (counter-clockwise from NW to SE): Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It is also close to the United States (Alaska), Canada, Turkmenistan, Iran, Turkey, Sweden, and Japan across relatively small stretches of water. Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Russian coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Flag of the Russian Federation The flag of Russia is a tricolour of three equal horizontal fields, white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom. ... Coat of Arms of Russian Federation. ... This page lists state and national mottos for the worlds independent states and if applicable, their component states. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognzed either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Flag of the Russian Federation The Hymn of the Russian Federation (, Gosudarstvenny Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the national anthem of Russia. ... Download high resolution version (1357x628, 21 KB) Russia is cool. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Russias area is about 17 million square kilometers (6. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government that features both a prime minister and a president who are active participants in the day to day functioning of government. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... The President of Russia (ru: Президент России is the highest position within the Government of Russia. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is a Russian politician, and the current President of the Russian Federation. ... The Prime Minister of Russia is the current Head of Government of the Russian Federation. ... Mikhail Fradkov (Photo: Ricardo Stuckert/PR, 2006) Mikhail Yefimovich Fradkov (Russian: Михаи́л Ефи́мович Фрадко́в) (born September 1, 1950) is a Russian politician, and the current Prime Minister of Russia. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, using the most recently available official figures. ... World map of the population density in 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries/dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The figures in the following table are based on areas including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). ... In economics, purchasing power parity (PPP) is a theory which says that the long-run equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies is the rate that equalizes the currencies purchasing power. ... Map of world GDP (PPP) by country using the IMF and World Bank lists for 2004 There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, based on the 2005 IMF data. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2003) HDI redirects here. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2003)  High human development Medium human development Low human development Unavailable This is a list of countries by Human Development Index (2003), as included in the United Nations Development Programme Report 2005. ... The ruble or rouble (Russian: , plural ; see note on spelling below) is the name of the currencies of the Russian Federation and Belarus (and formerly, of the Soviet Union and the Russian Empire). ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... It has been suggested that leap second be merged into this article or section. ...  Areas that observe daylight saving time  Areas that once observed daylight saving time  Areas that have never observed daylight saving time A public service announcement for turning the clock back one hour at the end of daylight saving time Daylight saving time (DST), also known as summer time and sometimes... It has been suggested that leap second be merged into this article or section. ... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... .ru is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Russia. ... .su was assigned as the country code top-level domain for the Soviet Union in 1990. ... A telephone dial This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Image File history File links Ru-Rossiyskaya_Federatsiya_Rossiya. ... Look up country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, using the most recently available official figures. ...


Formerly the dominant republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Russia is now an independent country and an influential member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, since the Union's dissolution in December 1991. During the Soviet era, Russia was officially called the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). Russia is considered the Soviet Union's successor state in diplomatic matters. Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics Establishment October Revolution  - Declared 30 December 1922   - Recognized 1... Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total ( 1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the... The succession of states theory asserts that all possessions and territory held by a state are automatically transferred to the successor state, the state which succeeds it. ...


Most of the area, population, and industrial production of the Soviet Union, then one of the world's two superpowers, lay in Russia. After the breakup of the USSR, Russia's global role was greatly diminished compared to that of the former Soviet Union. In October 2005, the federal statistics agency reported that Russia's population has shrunk by more than half a million people dipping to 143 million, although Russia remains the second country in the world by the number of immigrants from abroad.[2] An American B-2 bomber in flight. ...

Contents


History

Main article: History of Russia

The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ...

Ancient Russia

Prior to the Christian era, the vast lands of South Russia were home to disunited tribes, such as Proto-Indo-Europeans and Scythians. Between the third and sixth centuries AD, the steppes were overwhelmed by successive waves of nomadic invasions, led by warlike tribes which would often move on to Europe, as was the case with Huns and Turkish Avars. A Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled South Russia through the 8th century. They were important allies of the Byzantine Empire and waged a series of successful wars against the Arab Califates. Anno Domini (Latin: In the year of the Lord), or more completely Anno Domini Nostri Jesu Christi (in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ), commonly abbreviated AD or A.D., is the designation used to number years in the dominant Christian Era in the world today. ... A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states, though some modern theorists hold that contemporary tribes can only be understood in terms of their relationship to states. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... The Huns were a confederation of Eurasian tribes of diverse origin who appeared in Europe in the 4th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... The site of the Khazar fortress at Sarkel. ... Byzantine Empire (native Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, rather than a pure ethnic group, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...

An approximative map of the cultures in European Russia at the arrival of the Varangians
Enlarge
An approximative map of the cultures in European Russia at the arrival of the Varangians

The Early East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western Russia from the 7th century onwards and slowly assimilated the native Finno-Ugric tribes, such as the Merya, the Muromians and the Meshchera. In the mid-9th century, a group of Scandinavians, the Varangians, assumed the role of a ruling elite at the Slavic capital of Novgorod. Although they were quickly assimilated by the predominantly Slavic population, the Varangian dynasty lasted several centuries, during which they affiliated with the Byzantine, or Orthodox church and moved the capital to Kiev in A.D. 882. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (610x622, 144 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (610x622, 144 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ... The Meryas were a probably Finno-Ugric tribe which lived in the region of Moscow, Rostov, Kostroma, Jaroslavl and Vladimir. ... The Muromians were a Finno-Ugric tribe in what is today the Murom region in Russia. ... An approximative map of the non-Varangian cultures in European Russia, in the 9th century The Meshchera (Russian: , Meshchyora) were a Finno-Ugric tribe which lived in the territory between the Oka River and the Klyazma river. ... The Varangians or Varyags (Russian: Варяги, Varyagi) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards and southwards, mainly from the present areas of Denmark and Sweden. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Orthodox Church of Constantinople is one of the fifteen autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ...


In this era the term "Rhos", or "Rus", first came to be applied to the Varangians and later also to the Slavs who peopled the region. In the 10th to 11th centuries this state of Kievan Rus became the largest in Europe and one of the most prosperous, due to diversified trade with both Europe and Asia. The opening of new trade routes with the Orient at the time of the Crusades contributed to the decline and fragmentation of Kievan Rus by the end of the 12th century. Originally Rus (Русь, Rus’) was a medieval country and state that comprised mostly Early East Slavs. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (ru: Ки́ев, Kiev; uk: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ...


In the 11th and 12th centuries, the constant incursions of nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchaks and the Pechenegs, led to the massive migration of Slavic populations from the fertile south to the heavily forested regions of the north, known as Zalesye. The medieval states of Novgorod Republic and Vladimir-Suzdal emerged as successors to Kievan Rus on those territories, while the middle course of the Volga River came to be dominated by the Muslim state of Volga Bulgaria. Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Zalesye (literally: over the woods) or Opolye (literally: in the fields) is a historical region of Russia, comprising the north and west parts of Vladimir Oblast, the north-east of Moscow Oblast and the south of Yaroslavl Oblast. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су́здальское кня́жество) was one of major principalities within the Kievan Rus and after its collapse. ... The Volga river in Western Russia, Europes longest river, with a length of 3,690 km (2,293 miles), provides the core of the largest river system in Europe. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ...


Like many other parts of Eurasia, these territories were overrun by the Mongol invaders, who formed the state of Golden Horde which would pillage the Russian principalities for over three centuries. Later known as the Tatars, they ruled the southern and central expanses of present-day Russia, while the territories of present-day Ukraine and Belarus were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland, thus dividing the Russian people in the north from the Belarusians and Ukrainians in the west. Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the landmass composed of Europe and Asia. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... The Golden Horde was a Mongol state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Prince Albert of Monaco on the left represents a principality where he wields adminisitrative authority. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and Pogoń in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie) was an... Russians (Russian: Русские - Russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries. ...


Similarly to the Balkans and Asia Minor, long-lasting nomadic rule retarded the country's economic and social development. However, the Novgorod Republic together with Pskov retained some degree of autonomy during the time of the Mongol yoke and was largely spared the atrocities that affected the rest of the country. Led by Alexander Nevsky, the Novgorodians repelled the Germanic crusaders who attempted to colonize the region. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mongol invasion of Rus. ... Statue in Pereslavl, just in front of the cathedral Alexander was baptised in. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ...

Main article: Muscovy

Unlike its spiritual leader the Byzantine Empire, Russia under the leadership of Moscow was able to revive and organized its own war of reconquest, finally subjugating its enemies and annexing their territories. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453 Muscovite Russia remained the only more or less functional Christian state on the Eastern European frontier, allowing it to claim succession to the legacy of the Eastern Roman Empire. Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Byzantine Empire (native Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI† Mehmed II Strength 7,000 100,000 Casualties Entire garrison killed or captured Unknown, but heavy The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of the Byzantine capital by the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... New Rome is a term that can be applied to a city or a country. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ...


While still under the domain of the Mongols and with their connivance, the duchy of Moscow began to assert its influence in Western Russia in the early 14th century. Assisted by the Russian Orthodox Church and Saint Sergius of Radonezh's spiritual revival, Muscovy inflicted a defeat on the Mongols in the Battle of Kulikovo (1389). Ivan the Great (ruled 1456-1505) eventually tossed off the control of the invaders, consolidated surrounding areas under Moscow's dominion and first took the title "grand duke of all the Russias". A legal finding of connivance may be made when an accuser has assisted in the act about which they are complaining. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) was the predecessor of the Russian Empire and the successor of Kievan Rus in its northern lands. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia) (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Venerable Sergii Radonezhsky (Сергий Радонежский) (born Varfolomei – Варфоломей, corresponds to Bartholomew), also translated as Sergey Radonezhsky and Sergius of Radonezh (1322 – 1392), was the greatest spiritual leader and monastic reformer of medieval Russia. ... Single combat of Peresvet and Temir-murza. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 - October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of...


In the beginning of the 16th century the Russian state set the national goal to return all Russian territories lost as a result of the Mongolian invasion, and to protect the southern borderland against attacks of Crimean Tatars and other Turkic peoples. The noblemen, receiving a manor from the sovereign, were obliged to serve in the military. The manor system became a basis for the nobiliary horse army. The Crimean Tatars (Qırımtatar (aka Qırım, Qırımlı and Qırım türkü), Pl. ...


In 1547, Ivan the Terrible was officially crowned the first Tsar of Russia. During his long reign, Ivan annexed the Muslim polities along the Volga River and transformed Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state. By the end of the century, Russian Cossacks established the first settlements in Western Siberia. In the middle of the 17th century there were Russian settlements in Eastern Siberia, on Chukchi Peninsula, along the Amur River, on the Pacific coast, and the strait between North America and Asia was first sighted by a Russian explorer in 1648. The colonization of the Asian territories was largely peaceful, in sharp contrast to the build-up of other colonial empires of the time. Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is the official Slavonic title designating Emperor in the following states: Bulgaria in 913–1422 (for later usage in 1908–1946, see below) Serbia in... The Volga river in Western Russia, Europes longest river, with a length of 3,690 km (2,293 miles), provides the core of the largest river system in Europe. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Chukchi Peninsula, Chukotski Peninsula or Chukotsk Peninsula, at about 66° North, 169° East, is the northeastern extremity of Asia. ... The Amur River (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江; Hanyu Pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is one of the world’s ten longest rivers, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Manchuria in China. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...


Imperial Russia

Main article: Imperial Russia
Three generations of a Russian family, ca. 1910
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Three generations of a Russian family, ca. 1910

Muscovite control of the nascent nation continued after the Polish intervention of 1605-1612 under the subsequent Romanov dynasty, beginning with Tsar Michael Romanov in 1613. Peter the Great (ruled in 1689-1725) defeated Sweden in the Great Northern War, forcing it to cede Ingria, Estland, and Livland. It was in Ingria that he founded a new capital, Saint Petersburg. Peter succeeded in bringing ideas and culture from Western Europe to a severely underdeveloped Russia. After his reforms, Russia emerged as a major European power. Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x611, 122 KB) Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x611, 122 KB) Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced Ro-MAH-nof), the second and last royal dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Mikhail at the Ipatiev Monastery by Grigory Ugryumov Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov (In Russian Михаи́л Фёдорович Рома́нов) (July 12, 1596 – July 13, 1645) was the first Russian tsar of the house of Romanov, being the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov, afterwards the Patriarch Filaret, and Xenia (of disputed family), afterwards the great nun Martha. ... Peter was a tall figure, with an extremely striking build of 1. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire Russia Denmark Norway Poland Saxony later also Prussia Hannover (England) Commanders Karl XII of Sweden Ahmed III Peter the Great August II Frederik VI of Denmark Battle of Poltava as painted by Denis Martens the Younger in 1726 The Great Northern War was the war fought... The Ingrian flag Map of Karelia giving an idea of where Ingria lies. ... National motto: None Official language Estonian Capital Tallinn President Arnold Rüütel Prime Minister Andrus Ansip Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 129th 45,226 km² 4. ... This article is about the region in Europe. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


Catherine the Great, ruling from 1762 to 1796, continued the Petrine efforts at establishing Russia as one of the great powers of Europe. Examples of its 18th-century European involvement include the War of Polish Succession and the Seven Years' War. In the wake of the Partitions of Poland, Russia had taken territories with the ethnic Belarusian and Ukrainian population, earlier parts of Kievan Rus'. As a result of the victorious Russian-Turkish wars, Russia's borders expanded to the Black Sea and Russia set its goal on the protection of Balkan Christians against a Turkish yoke. In 1783 Russia and the Georgian Kingdom (which was almost totally devastated by Persian and Turkish invasions) signed the treaty of Georgievsk according to which Georgia received the protection of Russia. Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from June 28, 1762, to her death on November 6, 1796. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... The War of the Polish Succession (1733-1738) was a European war and a Polish civil war, with considerable interference from other countries, to determine the succession to Augustus II, King of Poland, as well as an attempt by the Bourbon powers to check the power of Austria in western... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of eleven wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Motto: Georgian: ძალა ერთობაშია (English: Strength is in Unity) Anthem: Tavisupleba (Freedom) Capital Tbilisi Largest city Tbilisi Official language(s) Georgian Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Mikheil Saakashvili  - Prime Minister Zurab Noghaideli Independence From the Soviet Union   - Declared March 11, 1990   - Recognized September 6, 1991   - Establishment of first Georgian Kingdoms of Colchis and... The Treaty of Georgievsk established the protectorate of the Russian Empire on the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti (in the eastern Georgia) and an alliance between the two countries in 1783. ...


In 1812, having gathered nearly half a million soldiers from France, as well as from all of its conquered states in Europe, Napoleon invaded Russia but, after taking Moscow, was forced to retreat back to Europe. Almost 90% of the invading forces died as a result of on-going battles with the Russian army, guerillas and winter weather. The Russian armies ended their pursuit of the enemy by taking his capital, Paris. The officers of the Napoleonic wars brought back to Russia the ideas of liberalism and even attempted to curtail the tsar's powers during the abortive Decembrist revolt (1825), which was followed by several decades of political repression. Another result of the Napoleonic wars was the incorporation of Bessarabia, Finland, and Congress Poland into the Russian Empire. The perseverance of Russian serfdom and the conservative policies of Nicholas I of Russia impeded the development of Imperial Russia in the mid-19th century. As a result, the country was defeated in the Crimean War, 1853–1856, by an alliance of major European powers, including Britain, France, Ottoman Empire, and Piedmont-Sardinia. Nicholas's successor Alexander II (1855–1881) was forced to undertake a series of comprehensive reforms and issued a decree abolishing serfdom in 1861. The Great Reforms of Alexander's reign spurred increasingly rapid capitalist development and Sergei Witte's attempts at industrialization. The Slavophile mood was on the rise, spearheaded by Russia's victory in the War of 1877-1878, which forced the Ottoman Empire to recognize the independence of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro and autonomy of Bulgaria. La Grande Armée (French the Big, Great or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Département Paris (75) Région ÃŽle-de-France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS) City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 86. ... Combatants Allies: • Great Britain/United Kingdom, • Prussia, • Austria, • Sweden, • Russia, • and Others • France • Denmark-Norway • Poland Casualties Full list The Napoleonic Wars consisted of a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Decembrists at the Senate Square The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (Russian: ) was attempted in Imperial Russia by army officers who led about 3,000 Russian soldiers on December 14 (December 26 New Style), 1825. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish) was the name by which the Imperial Russia designated the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia ceded by the Ottoman Empire to Russia in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish... Kingdom of Poland 1815-31 The Congress Poland is an unofficial term for the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831), a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ... The origins of serfdom in Russia are traced to Kievan Rus in the 11th century. ... Nicholas I of Russia (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855 and king of Poland from 1825 until 1831. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Strength 250,000 British 400,000 French 10,000 Sardinian 2,200,000 Russian Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 110,000 killed, wounded and died... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont, with Savoia upper left (pink) and Nizza (Nice) lower left (brown) both now French, and Sardinia in the inset The Kingdom of Sardinia is a former kingdom in Italy. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevitch (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born April 17, 1818 in Moscow; died March 13, 1881 in St. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Sergei Witte Count Sergei Yulyevich Witte (Серге́й Ю́льевич Ви́тте) (June 29, 1849 – March 13, 1915), also known as Sergius Witte, was a highly influential policy-maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire. ... A Slavophile was an advocate of the supremacy of Slavic culture over that of others, especially Western European culture. ... Combatants Russia, Romania Ottoman Empire The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and liberating the Orthodox Christian Slavic peoples of the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgarians, Serbians) from the Islamic-ruled Ottoman Empire. ... Motto: none Anthem: Bože Pravde Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Official language(s) Serbian1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Formation and independence    - Formation of Serbia 814   - Formation of the Serbian Empire 1345   - Independence from the Ottoman Empire July 13, 1878   - Serbia and Montenegro union... Motto: None Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital Podgorica Largest city Podgorica Official language(s) Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Milo Đukanović Independence From Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area    - Total 14,026 km² (159th)   5,414...


The failure of agrarian reforms and suppression of the growing liberal intelligentsia were continuing problems however, and on the eve of World War I, the position of Tsar Nicholas II and his dynasty appeared precarious. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in the Russo-Japanese War and World War I and the resultant deterioration of the economy led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the Romanovs. Agrarian has two meanings: It can mean pertaining to Agriculture It can also refer to the ideology of Agrarianism and Agrarian parties. ... The word intelligentsia came into the modern global vocabulary from Russia. ... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire The Dominion of Canada France Italy Russian Empire United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Sir Arthur Currie John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Nicholas II Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Oskar Potiorek İsmail Enver... Nicholas II of Russia (May 6 (O.S.)/May 18 (N.S.) 1868–July 17, 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Insert non-formatted text here Combatants Imperial Russia Empire of Japan Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 25,331 Killed 146,032 Wounded 47,387 Killed 173,425 Wounded Greater Manchuria, Russian (outer) Manchuria is region to upper right in lighter Red; Liaodong Peninsula is the wedge extending... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ...


At the close of this Russian Revolution of 1917, a Marxist political faction called the Bolsheviks seized power in Petrograd and Moscow under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin. The Bolsheviks changed their name to the Communist Party. A bloody civil war ensued, pitting the Bolsheviks' Red Army against a loose confederation of anti-socialist monarchist and bourgeois forces known as the White Army. The Red Army triumphed, and the Soviet Union was formed in 1922. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Lenin redirects here. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the All... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, and immediately after and because of Lenins dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly, between Communist forces known as the Red Army and loosely allied anti-Communist forces known as the White Army. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share...


The descendants of the Imperial line are all members of the Princedom of Schwarzenberg (House of Schwarzenberg) in Germany and the Czech Republic, but no longer have any control in Russia but continue to style themselves Imperial Highnesses as is their right under International Law. Imperial is a term that is used to describe something that relates to an Empire, Emperor, or the concept of Imperialism. ... There are things that have the name Schwarzenberg: Places In Austria Schwarzenberg (Vorarlberg) , a locality of Vorarlberg Schwarzenberg am Böhmerwald, Upper Austria in Germany Schwarzenberg (Erzgebirge), in Saxony Aue-Schwarzenberg, a district in Germany Schwarzenberg (Erzgebirge) Schwarzenberg, a part of Schömberg im Schwarzwald, in the [[(district)|]] district, Saxony A part... Schwarzenberg (ze Å varzenberka in Czech) is the name of a Frankish and Bohemian aristocratic family which was first mentioned in 1172. ... His/Her Imperial Highness (abbreviation HIH) is a title used by members of an Imperial family to denote Imperial - as opposed to royal - status to show that the holder in question is descended from an Emperor rather than a King (compare His/Her Royal Highness). ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


Russia as part of the Soviet Union

Main articles: History of the Soviet Union, Russian SFSR.
Saint Basil's Cathedral and Spasskaya Tower of Moscow Kremlin at Red Square in Moscow
Saint Basil's Cathedral and Spasskaya Tower of Moscow Kremlin at Red Square in Moscow

The Soviet Union was meant to be a trans-national worker's state free from nationalism. The concept of Russia as a separate national entity was therefore not emphasized in the early Soviet Union. Although Russian institutions and cities certainly remained dominant, many non-Russians participated in the new government at all levels. The History of the Soviet Union begins with the Russian Revolution of 1917 in an effort to implement socialism, eventually leading to communism by Vladimir Lenin on a large scale, until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 when its central government was dissolved. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics/ Communist state Last Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0. ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Moscow Red Square ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Moscow Red Square ... St. ... For other uses, see Kremlin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology [1] that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. ...


One of these was a Georgian named Joseph Stalin. After Lenin's death in 1924, a brief power struggle ensued, during which Stalin gradually eroded the various checks and balances which had been designed into the Soviet political system and assumed dictatorial power by the end of the decade. Leon Trotsky and almost all other Old Bolsheviks from the time of the Revolution were killed or exiled. As the 1930s began, Stalin launched the Great Purges, a massive series of political repressions. Millions of people whom Stalin and local authorities suspected of being a threat to their power were executed or exiled to Gulag labor camps in remote areas of Siberia. Stalin redirects here. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... The separation of powers (or trias politica, a term coined by French political thinker Montesquieu) is a model for the governance of the state. ... Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... An Old Bolshevik (Russian: ) is an unofficial designation of a member of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... The Great Purge (Russian: ) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Siberia (Russian: , Sibir’; Tatar: Seber) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ...


Stalin forced rapid industrialization of the largely rural country and collectivization of its agriculture. In 1928, Stalin introduced his "First Five-Year Plan" for modernizing the Soviet economy. Most economic output was immediately diverted to establishing heavy industry. Civilian industry was modernized and heavy weapon factories were established. The plan worked, in some sense, as the Soviet Union successfully transformed from an agrarian economy to a major industrial powerhouse in an unbelievably short span of time, but widespread misery and famine ensued for many millions of people as a result of the severe economic upheaval. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... Five-Year Plans for the National Economy of the USSR or Piatiletkas (пятилетка) were a series of nation-wide centralized exercises in rapid economic development in the Soviet Union. ... Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... A famine is a phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country is so undernourished that death by starvation or other related diseases becomes increasingly common. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ...


In 1936 the USSR was in strong opposition to Nazi Germany, and supported the republicans in Spain who struggled against German and Italian troops. However, in 1938 Germany and the other major European powers signed the Munich treaty following which Germany divided Czechoslovakia with Poland and the German plans for the further eastward expansion as well as the lack of the opposition to it from the Western powers became more apparent. The Soviet government, afraid of a German attack on the USSR, began diplomatic maneuvers. In 1939 after Poland's refusal to participate in any measures of collective deterrence the USSR signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany which in effect divided Eastern Europe between the two countries. Soviet Union would have Baltic states and Finland and Germany would have the Balkan. Each country would occupy a portion of Poland, which they did, thus obliterating the independent state of Poland. On September 17, 1939, when German armies were within 150 kilometers (93 mi) of the Soviet border, the Soviet army invaded eastern portions of Poland, largely populated by ethnic Ukrainians and Belorussians. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... A mile is the name of a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Later in the same year the Soviet Union invaded Finland, a former Grand Duchy of the Imperial Russia, in an attempt to secure Leningrad against a possible invasion by Germany through Finnish territory. This conflict is now known as the Winter War. The invasion revealed some weaknessess in the Red Army. Superior Russian forces did not manage to occupy the country apart from the eastern parts of Finland (Karelia). Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 200,000 men, 32 tanks, 119 aircraft (In the beginning), 250,000 men, 30 tanks, 130 aircraft (At the end) 460,000 men, 1,500 tanks, 1,000 aircraft (In the beginning), 1,000,000... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ...


In June 17, 1940, the Red Army occupied the whole territory of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and installed new, pro-Soviet governments in all three countries. Following elections, in which only pro-communist candidates were allowed to run, the newly elected parliaments of the three countries formally applied to join USSR in August 1940. June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...


Germany and its allies (Hungary, Italy, Croatia, Romania and Slovakia) invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. Finland considered itself fighting a Continuation war to Winter war parallel to but separate from the German operations. The Continuation War or War of Continuation (Finnish: , Swedish: ) June 25, 1941-September 19, 1944, was the war that was fought between Finland and the Soviet Union during World War II. The United Kingdom declared war on Finland on December 6, 1941, but did not participate actively. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 200,000 men, 32 tanks, 119 aircraft (In the beginning), 250,000 men, 30 tanks, 130 aircraft (At the end) 460,000 men, 1,500 tanks, 1,000 aircraft (In the beginning), 1,000,000...


Although the Wehrmacht had considerable success in the early stages of the campaign, they suffered defeat when they reached the outskirts of Moscow. The Red Army then stopped the Nazi offensive at the Battle of Stalingrad in 1943, which became the decisive turning point for Germany's fortunes in the war. The Soviets drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin before Germany surrendered in 1945 (see Great Patriotic War). During the war Soviet Union lost more than 27 million citizens (including eighteen million civilians). German cavalry and motorized units entering Poland from East Prussia during the Polish Campaign of 1939 Wehrmacht (Defence force) was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Friedrich Paulus Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis-allies Stalingrad... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union (incl. ... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern European regions from June 1941 to May 1945. ...


Although ravaged by the war, the Soviet Union emerged from the conflict as an acknowledged superpower. The Red Army occupied Eastern Europe after the war, including the eastern half of Germany. Stalin installed loyal communist governments in these satellite states. The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... GDR redirects here. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Satellite state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ...


During the immediate postwar period, the Soviet Union first rebuilt and then expanded its economy, with control always exerted exclusively from Moscow. The Soviets extracted heavy war reparations from the areas of Germany under their control, mostly in the form of machinery and industrial equipment. The Soviet Union consolidated its hold on Eastern Europe (see Eastern bloc). The United States helped the Western European countries establish democracies, and both countries sought to achieve economic, political, and ideological dominance over the Third World. The ensuing struggle became known as the Cold War, which turned the Soviet Union's wartime allies, the United Kingdom and the United States, into its foes. Reparations refers to two distinct ideas: Reparations for slavery of groups or individuals War reparations: Payments from one country to another as compensation for starting a war under a peace treaty, such as those made by Germany to France under the Treaty of Versailles. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between capitalism and communism, centering around the global superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union, and their military alliance partners. ...


Stalin died in early 1953 presumably without leaving any instructions for the selection of a successor. His closest associates officially decided to rule the Soviet Union jointly, but the secret police chief Lavrenty Beria appeared poised to seize dictatorial control. General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev and other leading politicians organized an anti-Beria alliance and staged a coup d'état. Beria was arrested in June of 1953 and executed later that year; Khrushchev became the undisputed leader of the USSR. Lavrenty Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; (29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953), was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Hruščëv; surname commonly romanized as Khrushchev, IPA: ; April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment, that mostly replaces just the top power figures. ...

Yuri Gagarin, the first human in space
Yuri Gagarin, the first human in space

Under Khrushchev, the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, and the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to orbit the Earth. Khrushchev's reforms in agriculture and administration, however, were generally unproductive, and foreign policy toward China and the United States suffered reverses, notably the Cuban Missile Crisis, when he began installing nuclear missiles in Cuba (after the United States installed Jupiter missiles in Turkey which nearly provoked a war with the Soviet Union). Over the course of several angry outbursts at the United Nations, Khrushchev was increasingly seen by his colleagues as belligerent, boorish, and dangerous. The remainder of the Soviet leadership removed him from power in 1964. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1475, 144 KB) de: Der sowjetische Kosmonaut Oberst Juri Alexejewitsch Gagarin war der erste Mensch im Weltall. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1475, 144 KB) de: Der sowjetische Kosmonaut Oberst Juri Alexejewitsch Gagarin war der erste Mensch im Weltall. ... Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (Russian: Юрий Алексеевич Гагарин; March 9, 1934 – March 27, 1968), was a Soviet cosmonaut who in 1961 became the first human to survive space flight and the first human to orbit the Earth. ... It has been suggested that Satellite orbit be merged into this article or section. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite 1) was the first artificial satellite to be put into orbit, on October 4, 1957. ... U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit (MMU) outside the Challenger in 1984. ... Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (Russian: Юрий Алексеевич Гагарин; March 9, 1934 – March 27, 1968), was a Soviet cosmonaut who in 1961 became the first human to survive space flight and the first human to orbit the Earth. ... Earth (often referred to as the Earth, or the earth) whose Latin name is Tellus (often incorrectly referred to as Terra, meaning soil) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... Sino-Russian Relations refers to the relations between Russia and China. ... Drink a niggas bucket of cum. ... Jupiter IRBM mobile missile The Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile, first tested in 1957, was the United States second Intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Following the ousting of Khrushchev, another period of rule by collective leadership ensued, lasting until Leonid Brezhnev established himself in the early 1970s as the pre-eminent figure in Soviet political life. Brezhnev is frequently derided by historians for stagnating the development of the Soviet Union (see "Brezhnev stagnation"). In contrast to the revolutionary spirit that accompanied the birth of the Soviet Union, the prevailing mood of the Soviet leadership at the time of Brezhnev's death in 1982 was one of aversion to change. Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev Russian: ; December 19 [O.S. January 1 1907] 1906 – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership with others. ... Leonid Brezhnev. ...


In the mid 1980s, the reform-minded Mikhail Gorbachev came to power. He introduced the landmark policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring), in an attempt to modernize Soviet communism. Glasnost meant that the harsh restrictions on free speech that had characterized most of the Soviet Union's existence were removed, and open political discourse and criticism of the government became possible again. Perestroika meant sweeping economic reforms designed to decentralize the planning of the Soviet economy. However, his initiatives provoked strong resentment amongst conservative elements of the government, and an unsuccessful military coup that attempted to remove Gorbachev from power instead led to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Boris Yeltsin came to power and declared the end of exclusive Communist rule. The USSR splintered into fifteen independent republics, and was officially dissolved in December of 1991 (see History of the Soviet Union (1985-1991)). (Russian: , Mihail Sergeevič Gorbačëv, IPA: , commonly anglicized as Gorbachev; born March 2, 1931) was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Poster showing Mikhail Gorbachev Perestroika ( , Russian: ) is the Russian word (which passed into English) for the economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. ... A public anti-war demonstration in Liverpool, England Freedom of speech is the concept of being able to speak freely without censorship. ... During the Soviet Coup of 1991, also known as the August Putsch, Vodka Putsch or August Coup, a group of hardliners within the Soviet Communist party briefly deposed Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // The rise of Gorbachev Although reform in the Soviet Union stalled between 1969 and 1982, a generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ...


Since then, Russia has struggled in its efforts to build a democratic political system and a market economy to replace the strict centralized social, political, and economic controls of the Soviet era. A market economy (aka free market economy and free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services takes place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system rather than by the state in a planned economy. ...


Post-Soviet Russia

Main article: History of post-Soviet Russia
See also Politics of Russia

Prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Boris Yeltsin had been elected President of Russia in June 1991 in the first direct presidential election in Russian history. In October 1991, as Russia was on the verge of independence, Yeltsin announced that Russia would proceed with radical market-oriented reform along the lines of "shock therapy". With the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, the Russian Federation became an independent country. ... The politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) take place in a framework of a federal presidential republic, whereby the President of Russia is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In economics, shock therapy refers to the sudden release of price and currency controls, withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country. ...


After the disintegration of the USSR, the Russian economy went through a crisis. Russia took up the responsibility for settling the USSR's external debts, even though its population made up just half of the population of the USSR at the time of its dissolution. The largest state enterprises (petroleum, metallurgy, and the like) were controversially privatized for the small sum of $US 600 million, far less than they were worth, while the majority of population plunged into poverty.


Russia's Congress of People's Deputies, in which the Communist presence was the strongest, attempted to impeach Yeltsin on March 26, 1993. Yeltsin's opponents gathered more than 600 votes for impeachment, but fell 72 votes short. On September 21, 1993, Yeltsin disbanded the Supreme Soviet and the Congress of People's Deputies by decree, which was illegal under the constitution. On the same day there was a military showdown, the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993. With military help, Yeltsin held control. The conflict resulted in a number of civilian casualties, but was resolved in Yeltsin's favor. According to different sources total number of deceased was from 300 to 2,000 people. Elections were held and the current Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted on December 12, 1993. The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Boris Yeltsin was President of the Russian Federation at the time of the crisis. ... The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации) was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993 replacing the previous Soviet-era Constitution of April 12, 1978 of Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


The 1990s were plagued by armed ethnic conflicts in the North Caucasus. Such conflicts took a form of separatist insurrections against federal power (most notably in Chechnya), or of ethnic/clan conflicts between local groups (e.g., in North Ossetia-Alania between Ossetians and Ingushs, or between different clans in Chechnya). Since the Chechen separatists declared independence in the early 1990s, an intermittent guerrilla war (First Chechen War, Second Chechen War) has been fought between disparate Chechen groups and the Russian military. Some of these groups have grown increasingly Islamist over the course of the struggle. Total number of refugees and internally displaced persons from these territories today is about 100,000 people. The North Caucasus, also called Ciscaucasus, Forecaucasus, or Front Caucasus (Russian: ), is the northern part of the Caucasus region. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... Capital Grozny Area - total - % water Ranked 80th - 15,300 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 49th - est. ... Capital Vladikavkaz Area - total - % water 84th - 8,000 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density 68th - est. ... The Ossetians live in the region of Ossetia, a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains in Europe. ... The Ingush are a people of the northern Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia. ... Capital Grozny Area - total - % water Ranked 80th - 15,300 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 49th - est. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Aslan Maskhadov Strength Peaking at 45,000 3,000 regulars, thousands of irregulars The First Chechen War (Russian: первая чеченская война) occurred when Russian forces attempted to stop the southern republic of Chechnya from seceding in a two year period lasting from 1994... now. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Tailor in Labuje IDP camp in Uganda An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as religious or political persecution or war, but has not crossed an international border. ...


After Yeltsin's presidency in the 1990s, the former head of the FSB Vladimir Putin was elected in 2000. Although President Putin is still the most popular Russian politician, with a 70% approval rating, his policies raised serious concerns about civil society and human rights in Russia. The West and particularly the United States expressed growing worries about the state control of the Russian media through Kremlin-friendly companies, government influence on elections, and law enforcement abuses.[1] FSB may stand for one of the following. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is a Russian politician, and the current President of the Russian Federation. ... Civil society or civil institutions refers to the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations or institutions which form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For the band, see The Police. ...


At the same time, high oil prices and growing internal demand boosted Russian economic growth, stimulating significant economic expansion abroad and helping to finance increased military spending. Putin's presidency has shown improvements in the Russian standard of living, as opposed to the 1990s[2].Even with these economic improvements, the government is criticized for lack of will to fight wide-spread crime and corruption and to renovate deteriorated urban infrastructure throughout the country. Natural olive oil Synthetic motor oil Oil, in a general sense, is a chemical compound that is not miscible with water, and is in a liquid state at ambient temperatures. ...


Despite the economic distress and decreased military funding following the fall of the Soviet Union, the country retains its large weapons and especially nuclear weapons arsenal. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


Politics

Main articles on politics and government of Russia can be found at the Politics and government of Russia series.

The politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) take place in a framework of a federal presidential republic, whereby the President of Russia is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. The politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) take place in a framework of a federal presidential republic, whereby the President of Russia is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Republics with presidential systems are shown in blue A presidential system, or a congressional system, is a system of government of a republic where the executive branch is elected separately from the legislative. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... The President of Russia (ru: Президент России is the highest position within the Government of Russia. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The head of government is the leader of the government or cabinet. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Federal Assembly of Russia (Russian: Федеральное Собрание, transliteration:Federalnoye Sobraniye or Federalnoje Sobranije) is the name of the legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation, 1993. ...


Administrative divisions

Federal subjects Federal subjects of the Russian Federation Being the largest country in the world, and one of the most populated, Russia incorporates several types and levels of subdivisions. ...


The basic subdivision of the Russian Federation is that of the federal subject. There are 88 federal subjects. Each federal subject is a constituent part of the federation. Russia is a federation which consists of 88 subjects (Russian: ; English transliteration: subyekty, sing. ...

Federal subjects of the Russian Federation
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Federal subjects of the Russian Federation

There are many different types of federal subject. There are 21 republics within the federation that enjoy a high degree of autonomy on most issues and these correspond to some of Russia's numerous ethnic minorities. The other subjects consist of 48 oblasts (provinces) and 7 krais (territories), as well as 9 autonomous okrugs (autonomous districts), and 1 autonomous oblast. Beyond these there are two federal cities (Moscow and St. Petersburg). Image File history File links Russian-regions. ... Image File history File links Russian-regions. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 88 subjects (Russian: ; English transliteration: subyekty, sing. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... Krai (Russian: край; British English transliteration: kray), is a term used to refer to several of Russias 89 administrative regions (federal subjects). ... Okrug is a term to denote administrative subdivision in some Slavic states. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


Federal districts


There are also seven large federal districts (four in Europe, three in Asia). These have been added as a new layer between the above subdivisions and the national level. Unlike the federal subjects, the federal districts are not as such a subnational level of government, but are a level of administration of the national government. All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ...


See also:

Russia is a federation which consists of 88 subjects (Russian: ; English transliteration: subyekty, sing. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 89 subjects (administrative units), 49 of which are oblasts: Amur Arkhangelsk Astrakhan Belgorod Bryansk Chelyabinsk Chita Irkutsk Ivanovo Kaliningrad Kaluga Kamchatka Kemerovo Kirov Kostroma Kurgan Kursk Leningrad Lipetsk Magadan Moscow Murmansk Nizhny Novgorod Novgorod Novosibirsk Omsk Orenburg Oryol Penza Perm Pskov Rostov Ryazan Sakhalin... The Russian Federation is divided into 89 subjects (administrative units), 6 of which are krais: Altai Krai Khabarovsk Krai Krasnodar Krai Krasnoyarsk Krai Primorsky Krai Stavropol Krai 1. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 89 subjects (administrative units), 1 of which is an autonomous oblast: Jewish Autonomous Oblast See also Republics of Russia Krais of Russia Oblasts of Russia Autonomous Districts of Russia Federal cities of Russia Categories: Subdivisions of Russia | Autonomous Oblasts of Russia ... Russia is divided into 88 federal subjects (subjekty), of which nine are avtonomnyye okruga (autonomous districts, sing. ... This article is being considered for deletion, in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ...

Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of Russia

The Russian Federation stretches across much of the north of the supercontinent of Eurasia. Although it contains a large share of the world's Arctic and sub-Arctic areas, and therefore has less population, economic activity, and physical variety per unit area than most countries, the great area south of these still accommodates a great variety of landscapes and climates. Russia is the coldest country in the world. The mid-annual temperature is −5.5°C (22°F). For comparison, the mid-annual temperature in Iceland is 1.2°C (34°F) and in Sweden is 4°C (39°F), although the variety of climates within Russia makes such a comparison somewhat misleading. Map of Russia with cities including Kaliningrad, Vyborg, Murmansk, Saint Petersburg, Petrozavodsk, Arkhangelsk, Moscow, Nizhniy Novgorod, Kazan, Yekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk, Volgograd, Rostov, Novorossiysk, Tuapse, Sochi, Astrakhan, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarak, Irkutsk, Norilsk, Yakutsk, Magadan, Anadyr, Provideniya, Petropaviovsk-Kamchatskiy, Khabarovsk, Kholmsk, Nevelsk, Nakhodka, Vostochnyy, Vladivostok. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 1218 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Russia ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 1218 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Russia ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Siberia (Russian: , Sibir’; Tatar: Seber) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Avachinsky_Volcano. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Avachinsky_Volcano. ... Kamchatka Oblast, an oblast in Russia. ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the landmass composed of Europe and Asia. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border The Arctic is the area around the Earths North Pole. ... The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the extreme north of Heilongjiang. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ...


Most of the land consists of vast plains, both in the European part and the part of asian territory, that is largely known as Siberia. These plains are predominantly steppe to the south and heavily forested to the north, with tundra along the northern coast. The permafrost (areas of Siberia and the Far East) occupies more than half of territory of Russia. Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus (containing Mount Elbrus, Russia's and Europe's highest point at 5,642 m / 18,511 ft) and the Altai, and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range or the volcanoes on Kamchatka. The more central Ural Mountains, a north-south range that form the primary divide between Europe and Asia, are also notable. World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Siberia (Russian: , Sibir’; Tatar: Seber) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - step, Ukrainian: - step), pronounced in English as step, is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil that stays in a frozen state for more than two years in a row. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... For the Soviet-era computer, see Elbrus (computer). ... A foot (plural: feet) is any of several old units of distance or length, measuring around a quarter to a third of a meter. ... The Altai is a mountain range in central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and where the great rivers Irtysh, Ob and Yenisei have their sources. ... The Verkhoyansk Range (also Cherskiy Range) is a mountain chain of eastern Siberia, spanning ca. ... A smoke plume from Mount Ubinas, Peru, the most historically active volcano in that nation. ... Kamchatka is the land of volcanoes. ... Map of Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: Уральские горы = Урал) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


Russia has an extensive coastline of over 37,000 kilometres (23,000 mi) along the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, as well as more or less inland seas such as the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas. Some smaller bodies of water are part of the open oceans; the Barents Sea, White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea are part of the Arctic, whereas the Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan belong to the Pacific Ocean. A mile is the name of a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Arctic Ocean is used by both marine mammals and nuclear submarines. ... Map of the Baltic Sea. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ... Location of the Barents Sea. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... The Kara Sea (Russian: Ка́рское мо́ре) is part of the Arctic Ocean (in the area sometimes called the Arctic Mediterranean Sea) off northern Siberia, bound by the Kara Strait (West, connecting to the Barents Sea) and the Severnaya Zemlya Islands and the Northern Land Archipelago (East, and the Laptev Sea). ... A map showing the location of the Laptev Sea. ... East Siberian Sea (Russian: ) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean. ... Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water above, and separated from, the north Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. ... Map of the Sea of Okhotsk. ... The Sea of Japan (East Sea) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. ...


Major islands found in them include Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. (See List of islands of Russia). The Diomede Islands (one controlled by Russia, the other by the United States) are just three kilometres (1.9 mi) apart, and Kunashir Island (controlled by Russia but claimed by Japan) is about twenty kilometres (12 mi) from Hokkaido. Novaya Zemlyas position on the map. ... Location of Franz Josef Land Franz Josef Land (Russ. ... New Siberian Islands (Russian: Новосиби́рские острова), an archipelago, located to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... This article is about the Russian island. ... The Kuril Islands The Kuril Islands (Russian: Кури́льские острова́), also known as Kurile Islands, stretch northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. ... Location of Sakhalin in the Western Pacific Sakhalin, GOST transliteration Sahalin, (Russian: , Korean: Traditional Chinese: 庫頁島; Simplified Chinese: 库页岛; pinyin: kùyèdÇŽo Japanese: 樺太 romaji: karafuto), also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45° 50 and 54° 24 N. It is part of the Russian... This is a list of islands of Russia. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait, with the Diomede Islands at center. ... km redirects here. ... A mile is the name of a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Kunashir Island (Кунашир (Kunashir) in Russian, 国後島:Kunashiri in Japanese, Black Island in Ainu language) is the southernmost island in the Kuril chain in Russias Sakhalin Oblast. ... The Kuril Islands with the disputed islands highlighted The Kuril Island conflict is a dispute between Japan and Russia over sovereignty over the southernmost Kuril Islands. ... For the dog breed, see Hokkaido (dog). ...


Many rivers flow across Russia. See Rivers of Russia. Notable rivers of Russia in Europe are the Volga, Don, Kama, Oka and the Northern Dvina, while several other rivers originate in Russia but flow into other countries, such as the Dniepr and the Western Dvina. ...


Major lakes include Lake Baikal, Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega. See List of lakes in Russia. Lake Baikal The Yenisei River basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Lake Baikal is the largest (by volume), deepest and oldest freshwater lake in the world. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Onezhskoe ozero (from Russian, Онежское озеро), and Onezhskoe lake) is a lake in the Russian Federation. ... View of Lake Seliger near Ostashkov in 1910. ...


Borders

Map of the Russian Federation
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Map of the Russian Federation

The most practical way to describe Russia is as a main part (a large contiguous portion with its off-shore islands) and an exclave, Kaliningrad, (at the southeast corner of the Baltic Sea). map of Russia, converted directly from CIA World Factbook GIF File links The following pages link to this file: Russia Geography of Russia Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... map of Russia, converted directly from CIA World Factbook GIF File links The following pages link to this file: Russia Geography of Russia Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Government Russia District Subdivision Russia Northwestern Federal District Kaliningrad Oblast Mayor Yuri Savenko (2005) Geographical characteristics Area  - City 215. ...


The main part's borders and coasts (starting in the far northwest and proceeding counter-clockwise) are:

The exclave, constituted by the Kaliningrad Oblast, Map of the Baltic Sea. ... Map of the Baltic Sea. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ... The Sea of Japan (East Sea) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. ... Location of Sakhalin in the Western Pacific Sakhalin, GOST transliteration Sahalin, (Russian: , Korean: Traditional Chinese: 庫頁島; Simplified Chinese: 库页岛; pinyin: kùyèdÇŽo Japanese: 樺太 romaji: karafuto), also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45° 50 and 54° 24 N. It is part of the Russian... Map of the Sea of Okhotsk. ... Location of Sakhalin in the Western Pacific Sakhalin, GOST transliteration Sahalin, (Russian: , Korean: Traditional Chinese: 庫頁島; Simplified Chinese: 库页岛; pinyin: kùyèdÇŽo Japanese: 樺太 romaji: karafuto), also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45° 50 and 54° 24 N. It is part of the Russian... The Kuril Islands The Kuril Islands (Russian: Кури́льские острова́), also known as Kurile Islands, stretch northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. ... Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water above, and separated from, the north Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05 W) of the American continent, with... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait, with the Diomede Islands at center. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait, with the Diomede Islands at center. ... United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... A state of the United States (a U.S. state) is any one of the fifty states (four of which officially favor the term commonwealth) which, along with the District of Columbia, form the United States of America. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Chukchi Sea (Russian: Чуко́тское мо́ре) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, between Chukotka and Alaska. ... This article is about the Russian island. ... East Siberian Sea (Russian: ) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean. ... New Siberian Islands (Russian: Новосиби́рские острова), an archipelago, located to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... A map showing the location of the Laptev Sea. ... The Kara Sea (Russian: Ка́рское мо́ре) is part of the Arctic Ocean (in the area sometimes called the Arctic Mediterranean Sea) off northern Siberia, bound by the Kara Strait (West, connecting to the Barents Sea) and the Severnaya Zemlya Islands and the Northern Land Archipelago (East, and the Laptev Sea). ... Novaya Zemlyas position on the map. ... Location of the Barents Sea. ... Franz Josef Land (russ. ... Murmansk, Archangelsk, Dikson, Tiksi, on the Arctic Ocean Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ) is a city in the extreme northwest of Russia (north of the Arctic circle) with a seaport on the Kola Gulf, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Location of the Kaliningrad Oblast Map of the Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: ; German: or Nordostpreussen), informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning Amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast, with no land connection to the rest of Russia; it is a non-contiguous exclave...

  • shares borders with
  • has a northwest coast on the Baltic Sea.

The Baltic and Black Sea coasts of Russia have less direct and more constrained access to the high seas than its Pacific and Arctic ones, but both are nevertheless important for that purpose. The Baltic gives immediate access to the nine other countries sharing its shores, and between the main part of Russia and its Kaliningrad Oblast exclave. Via the straits that lie within Denmark, and between it and Sweden, the Baltic connects to the North Sea and the oceans to its west and north. The Black Sea gives immediate access to the five other countries sharing its shores, and via the Dardanelles and Marmora straits adjacent to Istanbul, Turkey, to the Mediterranean Sea with its many countries and its access, via the Suez Canal and the Straits of Gibraltar, to the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The salt waters of the Caspian Sea, the world's largest lake, provide no access to the high seas. Map of the Baltic Sea. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Government Russia District Subdivision Russia Northwestern Federal District Kaliningrad Oblast Mayor Yuri Savenko (2005) Geographical characteristics Area  - City 215. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανελλια), formerly known as the Hellespont, is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. ... The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that separates the Black Sea from the Aegean Sea (thus the Asian part of Turkey from its European part) by Bosporus and... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural, and economic centre. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ...


Spatial extent

The two most widely separated points in Russia are about 8,000 km (5,000 mi) apart along a geodesic (i.e. shortest line between two points on the Earth's surface). These points are: the boundary with Poland on a 60-km-long (40-mi-long) spit of land separating the Gulf of Gdańsk from the Vistula Lagoon; and the farthest southeast of the Kurile Islands, a few miles off Hokkaido Island, Japan. In mathematics, a geodesic is a generalization of the notion of a straight line to curved spaces. Definition of geodesic depends on the type of curved space. If the space carries a natural metric then geodesics are defined to be (locally) the shortest path between points on the space. ... The Bay of Gdańsk (also known as the Gdańsk Bay or Gulf of Gdańsk; in Polish Zatoka Gdańska; in German Danziger Bucht) is a southeastern bay of the Baltic sea enclosed by a large curve of the shores of Gdańsk Pomerania in Poland (Cape Rozewie, Hel Peninsula) and the Kaliningrad... Landsat photo Vistula Lagoon Vistula Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf) is the sweet water lagoon on the Baltic Sea that is cut off from Gdansk Bay by the Vistula Spit. ... The Kuril Islands The Kuril Islands (Russian: Кури́льские острова́), also known as Kurile Islands, stretch northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. ... Hokkaidō (Japanese: 北海道, literal meaning: North Sea Route, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, is the second largest island of Japan. ...


The points which are furthest separated in longitude are "only" 6,600 km (4,100 mi) apart along a geodesic. These points are: in the West, the same spit; in the East, the Big Diomede Island (Ostrov Ratmanova). Satellite photo of the Bering Strait, with the Diomede Islands at center. ...


The Russian Federation spans eleven time zones. A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ...


Cities

As of 2005 Russia has 13 cities with over a million inhabitants (from largest to smallest): Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Omsk, Kazan, Chelyabinsk, Rostov-on-Don, Ufa, Volgograd and Perm. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Night view of Taipei City. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Official website: http://www. ... Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were executed. ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny and also transliterated into English as Nizhniy Novgorod or Nizhni Novgorod, is the fourth largest city of Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... Samara (Russian: ), from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev (), is a major city situated on the Volga River in the southeastern part of European Russia, Volga Federal District, the administrative center of Samara Oblast. ... Serafimo-Alekseevskaya chapel, Oktyabr (formerly Rossiya) hotel, and Organ music hall Omsk (Russian: ) is a city in southwest Siberia in Russia, the administrative center of Omsk Oblast. ... Kazan (Russian: ; Tatar: Qazan, Казан) is the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and one of Russias largest cities. ... Chelyabinsk Theatre. ... Central market and Church in Rostov. ... Ufas coat of arms Ufa (Russian: ; Bashkir Өфө; Tatar Ufa, Öfä; Chuvash Ěпхӳ) is the capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. ... (Russian: ), formerly called () (1598–1925) and () (1925–1961) is a city in and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ... City of Perm, Church of Ascension Perm (Russian: ) is a city in and administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia. ...


See also: List of cities in Russia and List of cities and towns in Russia by population. Cities in Russia: Abakan Almetyevsk (Älmät) Arkhangelsk Asino Astrakhan Baltiysk Barnaul Belgorod Birobidzhan Blagoveshchensk Bratsk Bryansk Buy Cheboksary Chelyabinsk Cherepovets Cherkessk Chernyakhovsk Chita Elista Gorno-Altaisk Grozny Gusev Irbit Irkutsk Izhevsk Ivanovo Kaliningrad Kaluga Kamsko-Votkinsk Kazan (Qazan) Kedrovy Kemerovo Khabarovsk Kirov (formerly Vyatka) Kolomna Kolpashevo Komsomolsk-na-Amure... This is a list of cities and towns in Russia with population over 50,000, grouped by federal subject and sorted by population. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Russia

The economy of Russia experienced a dramatic transformation in the 1990s. ...

Introduction

Map of the electric grid during the Soviet era.
Map of the electric grid during the Soviet era.

More than a decade after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia is now trying to further develop a market economy and achieve more consistent economic growth. Russia saw its comparatively developed centrally planned economy contract severely for five years, as the executive and the legislature dithered over the implementation of reforms and Russia's aging industrial base faced a serious decline. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1468x1064, 461 KB)US Government work in the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1468x1064, 461 KB)US Government work in the public domain. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... A market economy (aka free market economy and free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services takes place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system rather than by the state in a planned economy. ... A planned economy most often refers to an economic system that is under comprehensive control and regulation by a government in accordance with a plan of economic development. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ...


Crash

After the breakup of the USSR, Russia's first slight recovery, showing signs of open-market influence, occurred in 1997. That year, however, the Asian financial crisis culminated in the August depreciation of the ruble. This was followed by a debt default by the government in 1998, and a sharp deterioration in living standards for most of the population. Consequently, 1998 was marked by recession and an intense capital flight. The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... Declining-balance depreciation of a $50,000 asset with $6,500 salvage value over 20 years. ... The ruble or rouble (Russian: , plural ; see note on spelling below) is the name of the currencies of the Russian Federation and Belarus (and formerly, of the Soviet Union and the Russian Empire). ... In finance, default occurs when a debtor has not met its legal obligations according to the debt contract, e. ... Seen in Asian markets in the 1990s capital flight is when assets and/or money rapidly flow out of a country. ...


Recovery

Alexei Kudrin, Russian finance minister

Nevertheless, the economy started recovering in 1999. The recovery was greatly assisted by the weak ruble, which made imports expensive and boosted local production. Then it entered a phase of rapid economic expansion, the GDP growing by an average of 6.7% annually in 1999-2005 on the back of higher petroleum prices, a weaker ruble, and increasing service production and industrial output. The country is presently running a huge trade surplus, which has been helped by protective import barriers, and rampant corruption which ensures that it is almost impossible for foreign and local SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises) to import goods without the help of local specialist import firms, such as the Russia Import Company. Some import barriers are expected to be abolished after Russia's accession to the WTO in 2006. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1917x3000, 871 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Russia Alexei Kudrin User:GeeJo/Gallery ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1917x3000, 871 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Russia Alexei Kudrin User:GeeJo/Gallery ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a black, dark brown or greenish liquid found in porous rock formations in the earth. ... Balance of trade figures are the sum of the money gained by a given economy by selling exports, minus the cost of buying imports. ... SME may stand for: Small and Medium-sized Enterprise(es), a synonym for Small and Medium-sized Business(es) (SMB) Spontaneous Music Ensemble Subject Matter Expert Structure Mapping Engine — analogy-based AI technology by Ken Forbus based on Dedre Gentners[1] structure-mapping theory [2] Sony Music Entertainment - record... Russia Import Company ([1]) is one of Russia’s oldest facilitators of import into the country. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ...


The recent recovery, made possible due to high world oil prices, along with a renewed government effort in 2000 and 2001 to advance lagging structural reforms, has raised business and investor confidence over Russia's prospects in its second decade of transition. Russia remains heavily dependent on exports of commodities, particularly oil, natural gas, metals, and timber, which account for about 80% of exports, leaving the country vulnerable to swings in world prices. Industrial military exports after undergoing sharp contraction is now the major non-commodity export. In recent years, however, the economy has also been driven by growing internal consumer demand that has increased by over 12% annually in 2000-2005, showing the strengthening of its own internal market. Many stoves use natural gas. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


The economic development of the country has been extremely uneven: the Moscow region contributes one-third of the country's GDP while having only a tenth of its population. GDP increased by 7.2% in 2004 and 6.4% in 2005.


GDP

The country's GDP (PPP) shot up to reach €1.2 trillion ($1.5 trillion) in 2004, making it the ninth largest economy in the world and the fifth largest in Europe. If the current growth rate is sustained, the country is expected to become the second largest European economy after Germany (€1.9 trillion or $2.3 trillion) and the sixth largest in the world within a few years.


In 2005, according to State Statistics Committee, GDP reached $765 billion nominally (21.7 trillion rubles), equal to $1.748 trillion in international dollars (PPP; power purchase parity). Inflation was 10.9% percent. The consolidated budget took 38.6% of country's GDP: $675 billion (PPP). The government plans to reduce the tax burden, although the time and scale of such a reduction remains undecided.[3].


By August 17th, 2006, Russia's international reserves reached $277 billion nominally and projected to grow to $320 billion by the end of this year and to $350-450 billion by the end of 2007 [4][5].


Formed by State in 2004, Stabilisation Fund (SF) grew to $75 billion and is projected to achieve $110 billion by the end of the year [6], $173 billion by the end of 2007, and about $300 billion by the end of 2009 [7].


According to the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia, the monthly nominal average salary was about RUR 10,975 (about $408 nominally; about $800 PPP) in June, 25.6 percent higher than in June 2005 and 7 percent more than in May 2006. The word federal in a general sense refers to the nature of an agreement between or among two or more states, nations, or other groups to merge into a union in which control of common affairs is held by a central authority created by and with the consent of the... A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ... In mathematics, there are numerous methods for calculating the average or central tendency of a list of n numbers. ... A salary is a form of periodic payment from an employer to an employee, which is specified in an employment contract. ... The Rur (-German, in Dutch and French: Roer, not to be confused with the Ruhr) is a river in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. ... Look up June in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up June in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up May in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


For 2007 year, GDP is projected to grow to about $1.2 trillion nominally (31.2 billion rubles; about $2-2.5 trillion PPP) [8]


Challenge

Some perceive the greatest challenge facing the Russian economy to be encouraging the development of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in a business climate with a young and less-than-sufficient functional banking system. Few of Russia's banks are owned by oligarchs, who often use the deposits to lend to their own businesses. The 2005 Milken Institute's ratings place Russia at the 51st place in the world, out of 121 countries by the availability of capital. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises or SMEs are companies whose headcount or turnover falls below certain limits. ...


The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank have attempted to kick-start normal banking practices by making equity and debt investments in a number of banks, but with very limited success. Founded in 1991, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in 27 countries from central Europe to central Asia. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means...


However, about 25 biggest banks of Russia get entry into Top 1000 banks of the world by The Banker [9]. Many more Russian banks have very high international ratings by Moodys and Fitch, including "investment" level. Linda de Mol hosts the original version of Deal or No Deal entitled Miljoenenjacht Deal or No Deal is a television game show format owned by Dutch-based production company Endemol, known for creating such shows as Big Brother. ... Rating is a means of classifying things in different categories. ... The Fitch family Coat of Arms There are several historical figures named Fitch: Alva Revista Fitch - U.S. Army Lieutenant General Aubrey Fitch - U.S. Naval Admiral Bill Fitch - basketball coach Brian T. Fitch - French-Canadian nonfiction author Clyde Fitch - American playwright Ezra Fitch, New York lawyer and cofounder of...


Other problems include disproportional economic development of Russia's own regions. While the huge capital region of Moscow is a bustling, affluent metropolis living on the cutting edge of technology with a per capita income rapidly approaching that of the leading Eurozone economies, much of the country, especially its indigenous and rural communities in Asia, lags significantly behind. Market integration is nonetheless making itself felt in some other sizeable cities such as Saint Petersburg, Kaliningrad, and Ekaterinburg, and recently also in the adjacent rural areas. The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Government Russia District Subdivision Russia Northwestern Federal District Kaliningrad Oblast Mayor Yuri Savenko (2005) Geographical characteristics Area  - City 215. ... Photograph of snow-covered Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood, built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were murdered. ...


The arrest of Russia's wealthiest businessman Mikhail Khodorkovsky on charges of fraud and corruption in relation to the large-scale privatizations organized under then-President Yeltsin, contrary to some expectations, has not caused most foreign investors to worry about the stability of the Russian economy. Most of the large fortunes currently prevailing in Russia are the product of either acquiring government assets at particularly low costs or gaining concessions from the government. Other countries have expressed concerns and worries at the "selective" application of the law against individual businessmen, though the government actions have been received positively by most of the aggravated Russians. Khodorkovsky speaking at a conference shortly before his arrest. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... See also Wikipedias Law Portal. ...


Prospect

Encouraging foreign investment is also a major challenge due to legal, some cultural, linguistic, economic and political peculiarities of the country. Nevertheless, there has been a significant inflow of capital in recent years from many European investors attracted by cheaper land, labor and higher growth rates than in the rest of Europe. Amazingly high levels of education and societal involvement achieved by the majority of the population, including women and minorities, secular attitudes, mobile class structure, better integration of various minorities in the mainstream culture set Russia far apart from the majority of the so-called developing countries and even some developed nations. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (593x800, 170 KB) Краткое описание ru:Томский государственный университет, главный корпус, 2004 en:Tomsk State University, Main building, 2004 Photo by Pavel Andryushchenko Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Russia Tomsk Tomsk State University ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (593x800, 170 KB) Краткое описание ru:Томский государственный университет, главный корпус, 2004 en:Tomsk State University, Main building, 2004 Photo by Pavel Andryushchenko Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Russia Tomsk Tomsk State University ... Tomsk State University (TSU) is the first university in Siberia - it was founded in 1878 in Tomsk. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


The country is also benefiting from rising oil prices and has been able to pay off all of its formerly huge debt. Equal redistribution of capital gains from the natural resource industries to other sectors is however a problem. Still, since 2003, exports of natural resources started decreasing in economic importance as the internal market has strengthened considerably largely stimulated by intense construction, as well as consumption of increasingly diverse goods and services. Yet teaching customers and encouraging consumer spending is a relatively tough task for many provincial areas where consumer demand is primitive. However, some laudable progress has been made in larger cities, especially in clothing, food, and entertainment industries. Province is a name for a subnational entity. ...


Additionally, some international firms are investing in Russia. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Russia had nearly $26 billion in cumulative foreign direct investment inflows during the 2001-2004 period (of which $11.7 billion occurred in 2004). The logo of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that oversees the global financial system by monitoring exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ...


Demographics

Despite its comparatively high population, Russia has a low average population density due to its enormous size. Population is densest in the European part of Russia, in the Ural Mountains area, and in the south-western parts of Siberia; the south-eastern part of Siberia that meets the Pacific Ocean, known as the Russian Far East, is sparsely populated, with its southern part being densest. The Russian Federation is home to as many as 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples. As of the Russian Census (2002), 79.8% of the population is ethnically Russian, 3.8% Tatar, 2% Ukrainian, 1.2% Bashkir, 1.1% Chuvash, 0.9% Chechen, 0.8% Armenian. The remaining 10.3% includes those who did not specify their ethnicity as well as (in alphabetical order) Assyrians, Avars, Azeris, Belarusians, Bulgarians, Buryats, Chinese, Cossacks, Estonians, Evenks, Finns, Georgians, Germans, Greeks, Ingushes, Inuit, Jews, Kalmyks, Karelians, Kazakhs, Koreans, Kyrgyz, Lithuanians, Latvians, Maris, Mordvins, Nenetses, Ossetians, Poles, Romanians, Tajiks, Tuvans, Turkmen, Udmurts, Uzbeks, Yakuts, and others. Nearly all of these groups live compactly in their respective regions; Russians are the only people significantly represented in every region of the country. Russias area is about 17 million square kilometers (6. ... Map of Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: Уральские горы = Урал) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Siberia (Russian: , Sibir’; Tatar: Seber) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар) is a collective name applied to the Turkic people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ... // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Assyrians are Aramaic-speaking Christians who consider themselves to be indigenous inhabitants of Mesopotamia, and inheritors of the ancient culture of Assyria. ... Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group. ... Aside from a large Azeri community that is native to Russias Dagestan Republic, the majority of Azeris in Russia are fairly recent immigrants. ... The Buryats, numbering approximately 436,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Siberia and are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... The Evenks (obsolete: Tungus, autonym: Эвэнки) are a nomadic Tungusic people, one of the Northern Indigenous Peoples (pop. ... The Ingush are a people of the northern Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia. ... Inuit (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic coasts of Siberia, Alaska, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Quebec, Labrador and Greenland (see Eskimo). ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Karelians is a name used to denote two related, yet different ethnic groups of Finnic-language speakers. ... The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazak or Qazaq), (in Kazakh: Қазақ []; in Russian: Казах; English term is the transliteration from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Russia and China). ... Kirghiz (also Kyrgyz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... The Mari (also known as Cheremis in Russian and ÇirmeÅŸ in Tatar) are a Volga-Finnic people in the Volga area, the natives of Mari El, Russia. ... The Mordvins (Mordva) are a people who speak languages of the Finno-Permic branch of the Finno-Ugric language family. ... The Nenets people (Russian name: Ненцы - Nentsy (plural)) are an indigenous people in Russia. ... The Ossetians live in the region of Ossetia, a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains in Europe. ... The Tajiks (Persian: تاجيک) are one of the principal ethnic groups of Central Asia, and are primarily found in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Pakistan, and the Xinjiang province of China. ... Tuvans (or Tuvinians) are a group of Turkic people who make up about three fourths of the population of Tuva. ... Udmurts are Finno-Ugric people that speak the Udmurt language. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with Yakutia/Sakha Republic. ...


The Russian language is the only official state language, but the individual republics have often made their native language co-official next to Russian. Cyrillic alphabet is the only official script, which means that these languages must be written in Cyrillic in official texts. Russian (Russian: русский язык, russkiy yazyk, ) is the most widely spoken language of Eurasia and the most widespread of the Slavic languages. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... An official script is a script that is specifically designated to be official in the constitutions or other applicable laws of countries, states, and other territories. ...


The Russian Orthodox Church is the dominant Christian religion in the Federation. Islam is the second most widespread religion. Hindus make up a small but fast-growing minority, particularly followers of the ISKCON movement. Other religions include various Protestant churches, Judaism, Roman Catholicism and Buddhism. Induction into religion takes place primarily along ethnic lines. Ethnic Russians are mainly Orthodox whereas most people of Turkic and Caucasian extraction are Muslim. However, after years of religious suppression under communism, the observation of these religious creeds is very low. The Russian Orthodox Church (also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia) (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) is a new religious movement based on Bengali, or more specifically Gaudiya, Vaishnavism founded by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, referred to by followers as His Divine Grace, in New York in 1966. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Buddhist Flag Buddhism (also known as Buddha Dharma, the teachings of the awakened one) is not a religion, but a way of life, a practical philosophy, and arguably a psychology, focusing on the teachings of Gautama Buddha (Pali: Gotama Buddha), who lived on the Indian subcontinent in or around the... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Russia

The culture of Russia is a hybrid one created from the cultures of the nationalities of this multinational state and the result of development over several distinct epochs. ... Ethnic Russian music includes many varieties of folk, popular and classical traditions. ... This is a list of people associated with Imperial Russia, the Soviet Union, and Russia of today. ... Russia is a large and extremely culturally diverse country, with dozens of ethnic groups, each with their own forms of folk music. ... Saint Basils Cathedral (1555-61) is a showcase of medieval Russian architecture. ... Russian cuisine derives its rich and varied character from the vast and multicultural expanse of Russia. ... Russian humour gains much of its wit from the great flexibility and richness of the Russian language, allowing for plays on words and unexpected associations. ... Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia or its émigrés, and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Russia or the Soviet Union. ... Poets who wrote much of their poetry in the Russian language. ... // Introduction The distinctive feature of Russian Formalism is the emphasis on the functional role of literary devices and the original conception of the evolution of literary history. ... Russian mythical heros See Ilya Muromets, Dobrynya Nikitich, Alyosha Popovich, Svyatogor, Nightingale the Robber, Bogatyr, Bylina Spirits See Koschei, Baba Yaga, Leshiy, Domovoi Categories: Russia-related stubs ...

Etymology

See wiktionary: Russia for the name in various languages.
Main article: Etymology of Rus and derivatives.

The name of the country derives from the name of the Rus' people. The origin of the people itself and of their name is a matter of some controversy. Originally Rus (Русь, Rus’) was a medieval country and state that comprised mostly Early East Slavs. ... Rus’ (Русь, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular but by no means the only theory, took its name from its ruling warrior class with Scandinavian roots. ... Look up Controversy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Miscellaneous topics

Kets (Кеты in Russian) are Siberian people that speak Ket language. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The telecommunications system has undergone significant changes in the 1990s resulting in more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services today. ... This article is about education in Russia. ... Regarding the foreign relations of Russia, Russia has taken important steps to become a full partner in the worlds principal political groupings. ... The primary and fundamental statement of laws in Russian Federation is the Constitution of Russian Federation. ... This is a list of companies from Russia. ... ORT (Channel 1) Russia TVC NTV Kultura (Culture) Sport Stolica (Capital) M1 Ren-TV TNT STS TV-3 DTV 7 TV MTV Muz-TV Satellite: NTV-PLUS that includes such channels as: Our Movies The Cinema Club Premiere Channel Hallmark Sport Football (Soccer) Sport Online List of television channels ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Russia. ... Below is the list of official public holidays recognized by the Russian government. ... The Quartet on the Middle East, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international entities involved in mediating the peace process between Israel and the Palestinian People. ... Membership badge of Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators The Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators (RAS/N; also Российская Ассоциация Навигаторов/Скаутов, РAН/С) is the national Scouting federation of Russia, with a membership of 14,000, and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) in 2004. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Railways: total: 87,157 km broad gauge: 86,200 km 1. ...

References

Russia Portal
  1. ^ From Article 1 of Constitution of Russia: "The names "Russian Federation" and "Russia" shall be equivalent."
  2. ^ (Russian) Влияют ли переселенцы на язык СМИ?. Lenizdat.ru (2006-05-31).

Image File history File links Portal. ... The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации) was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993 replacing the previous Soviet-era Constitution of April 12, 1978 of Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic following the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ...

External links

Find more information on Russia by searching Wikipedia's sister projects:

 Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
 Textbooks from Wikibooks
 Quotations from Wikiquote
 Source texts from Wikisource
 Images and media from Commons
 News stories from Wikinews Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...

Government resources

  • Duma - Official site of the parliamentary lower house (Russian)
  • Federative Council - Official site of the parliamentary upper house
  • Kremlin - Official presidential site
  • Gov.ru - Official governmental portal (Russian)
  • Russian Federation Today - Official issue of the Federal Assembly (Russian)
  • Russian Federal Customs Service
  • Central Bank of Russia

General information

  • Russian News Agency Ria Novosti
  • Culture of Russia - with support of Federal Agency for Culture and Cinematography (Russian)
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica's Country Portal site
  • BBC Country Profile - Russia
  • Russian Space Program
  • CIA World Factbook - Russia
  • News From Russia
  • U.S. State Department Consular Information Sheet: Russia
  • Top Russian Web Resources
  • Russia Energy Resources and Industry from U.S. Department of Energy
  • Russia History Timeline 1533 - 1991
  • Russia Traveblogue


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