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Encyclopedia > Russian Far East
Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red)

Russian Far East (Russian: Да́льний Восто́к Росси́и; IPA: [ˈdalʲnʲɪj vʌˈstok rʌˈsʲiɪ]) is a term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i.e., extreme east parts of Russia, between Siberia and the Pacific Ocean. The Russian Far Eastern Federal District should not be confused with the Siberian Federal District, which does not stretch all the way to the Pacific. Image File history File links RussiaFarEast. ... Image File history File links RussiaFarEast. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Siberian Federal District (Russian: Сиби́рский федера́льный о́круг; tr. ...

Contents

Terminology

In Russia

In Russia, the region is usually referred to as just "Far East", creating potential confusion with the international meaning of Far East in translation. The latter is usually referred to in Russia as "the Asia-Pacific Region" (Азиатско-тихоокеанский регион, abbreviated to АТР), or "East Asia" (Восточная Азия). The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ...


Geographic Features

Beyenchime-Salaatin is a meteor crater in Russia. ... Klyuchevskaya Sopka (Russian: ) is the highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia. ... The Kuril-Kamchatka Trench or Kuril Trench is an oceanic trench with a maximum depth of 10500 m (34000 ft). ...

History

Early history

Russia reached the Pacific coast in 1647 with the establishment of Okhotsk, and consolidated control over the Far East in the 19th century. Okhotsk (Охо́тск) is a townlet and seaport at the mouth of the Okhota River on the Sea of Okhotsk, Russia. ...


Territory

Until 2000, the Russian Far East lacked officially defined boundaries. A single term "Siberia and the Far East" (Сибирь и Дальний Восток) was often used to refer to Russia's regions east of the Urals without drawing a clear distinction between "Siberia" and "the Far East." Several entities with the name "Far East" had existed in the first half of the 20th century, all with rather different boundaries: Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ...

From 1938 to 2000, there was no official entity with this name and the term "Far East" was used loosely, much like "the West" in the United States. Flag of the Far Eastern Republic The Far Eastern Republic (Russian: Дальневосто́чная Респу́блика (ДВР); English transliteration: Dalnevostochnaya Respublika (DVR)) was a nominally independent state established in the former Russian Far East and Siberia east of Lake Baikal on April 6, 1920. ... Transbaikal (Забайкалье in Russian) is a mountainous region to the east of the Lake Baikal in Russia. ... Administrative center Blagoveshchensk Area - total - % water Ranked 14th - 363,700 km² - Population - Total - Density Ranked 59th - est. ... For other uses, see Primorsky. ... Sakhalin Oblast on the map of Russia Flag of Sakhalin Oblast Sakhalin Oblast (Russian: , Sakhalinskaya Oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Kamchatka Oblast, an oblast in Russia. ... The Buryat Republic (Russian: ; Buryat: Буряад Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Administrative center Blagoveshchensk Area - total - % water Ranked 14th - 363,700 km² - Population - Total - Density Ranked 59th - est. ... For other uses, see Primorsky. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... Kamchatka Oblast, an oblast in Russia. ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... For other uses, see Primorsky. ... Khabarovsk Krai (Russian: ) (1995 pop. ...


In 2000, Russia's federal subjects were grouped into larger federal districts, and Far Eastern Federal District was created, comprising Amur Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Kamchatka Oblast, Koryak Autonomous Okrug, Khabarovsk Krai, Magadan Oblast, Primorsky Krai, Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, and Sakhalin Oblast. Since 2000, the term "Far East" has been increasingly used in Russia to refer to the district, though it is often also used more loosely. Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Far Eastern Federal District (Russian: Дальневосто́чный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... Administrative center Blagoveshchensk Area - total - % water Ranked 14th - 363,700 km² - Population - Total - Density Ranked 59th - est. ... Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (Russian: , transliteration: Chukotsky avtonomny okrug; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ), or Chukotka (), is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug) located in the Far Eastern Federal District. ... , Capital Birobidzhan Area - total - % water Ranked 61st - 36,000 km² - no data Population - Total - Density Ranked 80th - est. ... Kamchatka Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Koryak Autonomous Okrug (Russian: ), or Koryakia, is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Kamchatka Oblast). ... Khabarovsk Krai (Russian: ) (1995 pop. ... Magadan Oblast (Russian: , Magadanskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), in the Far Eastern Federal District. ... For other uses, see Primorsky. ... The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Russian: ; Sakha: Саха Республиката) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Sakhalin Oblast on the map of Russia Flag of Sakhalin Oblast Sakhalin Oblast (Russian: , Sakhalinskaya Oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ...


Defined by the boundaries of the federal district, the Far East has an area of 6.2 million square kilometers—over one-third of the Russia's total area.


Demographics

Population

According to the 2002 Census, Far Eastern Federal District had a population of 6,692,865. Most of it is concentrated in the southern parts. Given the vast territory of the Russian Far East, 6.7 million people translates to slightly more than one person per square kilometer, making the Russian Far East one of the most sparsely populated areas in the world. The population of the Russian Far East has been rapidly declining since the dissolution of the Soviet Union (even more so than for Russia in general), dropping by 14% in the last fifteen years. The Russian government has been discussing a range of re-population programs to avoid the forecast drop to 4.5 million people by 2015, hoping to attract in particular the remaining Russian population of the near abroad. Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Far Eastern Federal District (Russian: Дальневосто́чный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... This article covers the foreign relations of Russia since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. ...


Ethnic Russians and Ukrainians make up majority of population. According to the latest statistics, there are currently about 100,000 Muslims living in the Russian Far East.[1] According to the United States Department of State, there are an estimated 14 to 20 million Muslims in Russia, constituting approximately 14 percent of the population and forming the largest religious minority. ...


75% of the population is urban. The largest cities are (all population figures are as of the 2002 Census):

Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... Government Country District Krai Russia Far Eastern Federal District Khabarovsk Krai Established 1858 Mayor Alexandr Sokolov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 372 km² Population  - City (2005) 579,000 Coordinates Other Information Postal Code 680xxx Dialing Code +7 4212 Website: www. ... this is the coolest town u have to visit this town i visited it and it completely changed my life from now i love russia Komsomolsk-on-Amur (Russian: ; often transliterated directly as Komsomolsk-na-Amure) is a city located in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia on the left bank of Amur... Blagoveshchensk (Russian: Благовещенск) (pop. ... Yakutsk (Russian: ; Yakut: ) is a city in the Russian Far East, located about 4° (450 kilometres) below the Arctic Circle. ... Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Russian: ) is the city and the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Krai (Russia). ... Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Ю́жно-Сахали́нск) is a city in Sakhalin, Russia, administrative center of the Sakhalin Oblast. ... Nakhodka is a port city in Primorsky Krai (Maritime Region) in the Far Eastern part of Russia, at 42°49′ N 132°53′ E The city has approximately 200,000 inhabitants. ... The city of Ussuriysk (Russian: Уссурийск) sits in the middle of a fertile valley at the junction of three rivers in Primorsky Krai, Russia, at 43. ...

Traditional ethnic groups

The original population groups of the Russian Far East include (grouped by language group):

The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... Languages English, Russian, Aleut Religions Christianity, Shamanism Related ethnic groups Inuit, Yupik The Aleuts (self-denomination: , Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Siberian Yupik are an indigenous people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and the St. ... The term Chukotko-Kamchatkan peoples is used to describe a peoples speaking a Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages. ... Chukchi, or chukchee (Russian: чукчи (plural), chukcha, чукча (singular)) are an indigenous people inhabiting the northeasternmost portion of the Russian Federation on the shores of the Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea. ... See also: Koryakia Autonomous District Koryaks, a Mongoloid people of northeastern Siberia, inhabiting the coastlands of the Bering Sea to the south of the Anadyr basin and the country to the immediate north of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the southernmost limit of their range being Tigilsk. ... Alutor is a language of Russia that belongs to the Chukchi-Koryak group of the Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages. ... According to the 2002 census, there were only 8 Kereks in Russia. ... The Itelmen are an ethnic group that live on the Kamchatka peninsula in the Russian Federation. ... The term Tungusic peoples is used to describe a peoples speaking a Tungusic languages. ... The Evenks or Evenki (obsolete: Tungus or Tunguz, autonym: Эвэнки, Evenki) are a nomadic Tungusic people of Northern Asia. ... The Evens or Eveny (formerly known as the Lamuts a term meaning ocean people in Even) (Эвены in Russian) are a people in Siberia and the Russian Far East. ... The Nanais (sing. ... Orochs or Orochons (self designation: Nani) are a small people of Russia that speak the Oroch (Orochon) dialect of the Southern group of Tungusic languages. ... The Ulchis or Ulchs (Ульчи, ольчи in Russian; self designation: пани, or pani) are an indigenous people of Siberia. ... Udege (Удэгейцы in Russian; ethnonym: удээ and удэхе, or udee and udehe correspondingly) are a people who live in the Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai regions in Russia. ... Oroks (Ороки in Russian; self designation: ульта, or ulta) are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly, eastern part of the island) in Russia. ... A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ... The Yukaghir, or Yukagirs (Юкагиры in Russian; self-designation: одул (odul), деткиль (detkil)) are a people in East Siberia, living in the basin of the Kolyma River. ... The Nivkhs (also Nivkh or Gilyak; ethnonym: Nivxi; language, нивхгу - Nivxgu) are an indigenous people inhabiting the region of the region of the Amur River estuary and on nearby Sakhalin Island. ... Ainu ) IPA: (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern HonshÅ«, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ...

Chinese diaspora

18 million Russians scattered across the vast expanse of the Far East and Siberia face 250 million Chinese coming across the common border with China’s northern provinces. Russia’s main Pacific port and naval base of Vladivostok, once closed to foreigners, today is bristling with Chinese markets, restaurants and trade houses.[2] Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ...


Experts predict that the Chinese diaspora in Russia will increase to 10 million by 2010 and half of the population of Russia would be Chinese by 2050.[3][4] Chinese historians continue to denounce the current borders as unfair and imposed on China by Russia in the 19th century, and Chinese children are still being taught in school that Russia took away the Far East from China by force.[5][6] Overseas Chinese (華僑 in pinyin: huáqiáo, or 華胞 huábāo, or 僑胞 qiáobāo) are ethnic Chinese who live outside of Hong Kong, Taiwan. ...


Asian Tungusic tribes like Evenks or Udegeys had settled in the Far East long before the Russians came there.[7] The Evenks or Evenki (obsolete: Tungus or Tunguz, autonym: Эвэнки, Evenki) are a nomadic Tungusic people of Northern Asia. ... Udege (Удэгейцы in Russian; self designation: удээ and удэхе, or udae and udekhe correspondingly) are a people in the Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai in Russia. ...


External links

References

  1. ^ Mosque and chapel to preach tolerance – Vladivostok News
  2. ^ Chinese Come To Russia
  3. ^ Alekseev 2006: 98
  4. ^ Vitkovskaya 1999
  5. ^ Vladivostok's Chinese puzzle
  6. ^ Chinese Presence Grows in Russian Far East
  7. ^ A Chinese `Invasion`

See also


 
 

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