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Encyclopedia > Russian Enlightenment
Mikeshin's Monument to Catherine the Great in front of the Alexandrine Theatre in St. Petersburg.
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Mikeshin's Monument to Catherine the Great in front of the Alexandrine Theatre in St. Petersburg.

The Russian Age of Enlightenment was a period in the seventeenth century in which the government began to actively encourage the proliferation of arts and sciences. This time gave birth to the first Russian university, library, theatre, public museum, and relatively independent press. Like other enlightened despots, Catherine the Great played a key role in fostering the arts, sciences, and education. The national Enlightenment differed from its Western European counterpart in that it promoted further Europeanisation of all aspects of Russian life and was concerned with attacking the institution of serfdom in Russia. The Pugachev Rebellion and French Revolution may have shattered the illusions of rapid political change, but the intellectual climate in Russia was altered irrevocably. Russia's place in the world was debated by Denis Fonvizin, Mikhail Shcherbatov, Andrey Bolotov, Ivan Boltin, and Alexander Radishchev; these discussions precipitated the divorce between the radical, Westernizing and conservative, Slavophile traditions of Russian thought. Mikeshins monument to the Millennium of Russia, in Veliky Novgorod. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to either the eighteenth century in European philosophy, or the longer period including the seventeenth century and the Age of Reason. ... Enlightened Absolutism (also known as benevolent despotism or enlightened despotism) is a term used to describe the actions of absolute rulers who were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period of the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... Initially conceived as the process by which the political and buraucratic élites of the member-states of the European Union become more pro-European by virtue of their frequent interactions with European institutions and the élites of the other member-states. ... The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ... Denis Fonvizin (1744?–92). ... Portrait of Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov Prince Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov (July 22, 1733 - December 12, 1790) was a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov. ... Bolotovs watercolour representing the chateau and park in Bogoroditsk (1786). ... Portrait and signature of Alexander Radishchev Aleksandr Nikolaevich Radishchev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Ради́щев) (September 2, 1749 – September 24, 1802) was a Russian author and social critic who was arrested and exiled under Catherine the Great. ... A Slavophile was an advocate of the supremacy of Slavic culture over that of others, especially Western European culture. ...

Contents


Early developments

The ideas of the Russian Enlightenment were first espoused by the "learned druzhina" of Peter the Great. It is the spirit which animates the sermons of Feofan Prokopovich, the satires of Antiokh Kantemir, and the historiography of Vasily Tatishchev. Housecarls were household troops, personal warriors and equivalent to a royal bodyguard to Scandinavian kings. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Feofan/Theophan Prokopovich (1681-1736) was a Ukrainian archbishop and statesman, who elaborated and implemented Peter the Greats reform of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev (1686-1750) was a prominent Russian statesman, historian and ethnographer. ...


During the reign of Peter's daughter Elizaveta Petrovna the ideas of the Enlightened Absolutism found their way into Russia. Elizaveta's favourite, Ivan Shuvalov, was an ideal enlightened courtier: he was instrumental in the establishment of the Moscow University and the Imperial Academy of Arts, which would spawn the careers of most intellectuals active during the last quarter of the 18th century. Empress Elizaveta Petrovna (1709-62) Yelizaveta Petrovna (Елизаве́та Петро́вна) (December 29, 1709 - January 5, 1762) was an Empress of Russia (1741 - 1762) who took the country into the War of Austrian succession (1740... Enlightened Absolutism (also known as benevolent despotism or enlightened despotism) is a term used to describe the actions of absolute rulers who were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period of the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Ivan Shuvalov in 1760, as painted by Fyodor Rokotov. ... Courtiers follow an ancient profession. ... Moscow State University campus M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Московский Государственный Университет име&#1085... The edifice for the academy was built in 1764-89 to a design by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe and Alexander F. Kokorinov. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Shuvalov was also the patron of the greatest Russian polymathMikhail Lomonosov — who left his mark in various branches of natural science, religious philosophy, poetry, and fine arts. Although his research inevitably eroded the authority of religious doctrines, Lomonosov himself was a devout Christian. Leonardo da Vinci is seen as an epitome of the Renaissance man or polymath. ... Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов) (November 19 (November 8, Old Style), 1711 – April 15 (April 4, Old Style), 1765) was a Russian writer and polymath who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. ...


Catherine the Great

View of Ivan Shuvalov's art gallery.
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View of Ivan Shuvalov's art gallery.

Catherine the Great is often regarded as a model of the benevolent despot. Famous for her cordial relations with Voltaire and Diderot, she founded the Hermitage Museum, Free Economic Society and the Imperial Public Library — three pioneering institutions which aimed at spreading education and enlightenment in Russia. Foreign celebrities — Denis Diderot, Leonhard Euler, Peter Simon Pallas, Giacomo Casanova, Alessandro Cagliostro — flocked to her court from all parts of Europe. When the Encyclopedie was about to be banned in France, Catherine proposed to Diderot that he should complete his great work in Russia under her protection. Ivan Shuvalov in 1760, as painted by Fyodor Rokotov. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... Voltaire by 24 years of age by Nicolas de Largillière. ... Denis Diderot Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 - July 31, 1784) was a French writer and philosopher. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Государственный Эрмитаж) in St. ... this entire page is full of crap, actually i dont know but hey i can try right? ... Visit of Alexander I to the library in 1812. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... 1937 portrait of Leonhard Euler by Johann Georg Brucker. ... Peter Simon Pallas (September 22, 1741 - September 8, 1811) was a German-born Russian zoologist. ... Giacomo Casanova Giacomo Girolamo Casanova (born April 2, 1725, in Venice – died June 4, 1798, in Dux, Bohemia, now Duchcov, Czech Republic) was a famous Venetian adventurer and writer. ... Count Alessandro di Cagliostro (June 2, 1743 – August 26, 1795) was a traveller, occultist and Freemason. ... Fig. ...


At the advice of her learned correspondents, Catherine introduced a number of reforms, ranging from the vast secularisation of monastic properties to the municipal reform which envisioned more rational planning for the Russian towns. The Legislative Commission, convened at her suggestion in 1767, brought out the Instruction, with more than 400 articles copied verbatim from the works of Beccaria and Montesquieu. Although the Instruction did not entail any practical consequences, this legislative activity contributed to the upsurge of liberal ideas, which culminated in Radishchev's publication of A Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow (1790), a work hailed by Lenin as anticipating the revolutionary tradition of Russian thought. This article concerns secularism, the exclusion of religion and supernatural beliefs. ... The title page of the Nakaz. ... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria (or the Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana) (March 11, 1738 - November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician. ... Montesquieu can refer to: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Several communes of France: Montesquieu, in the Hérault département Montesquieu, in the Lot-et-Garonne département Montesquieu, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a...

Quarenghi's design for the Smolny Institute.
Quarenghi's design for the Smolny Institute.

Catherine's enthusiasm for the Encyclopedie did not prevent her from ruthlessly suppressing dissenters at home, especially after the French Revolution demonstrated to her the Enlightenment's "bitter fruits". Nikolai Novikov, a liberal journalist and prolific publisher who dared to argue with her, was eventually committed to prison, while Radishchev, who called for the abolition of serfdom, barely escaped the capital punishment. His copies of his work were publicly destroyed, and eventually he committed suicide. [1] Image File history File links Quarenghi_smolny. ... Image File history File links Quarenghi_smolny. ... The Smolny Institute is the Neoclassical edifice in St Petersburg, which has played an important part in the Russian history. ... Fig. ... The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ... Portrait of Nikolay Novikov, by Dmitry Levitzky. ...


Education

A more conservative approach was taken by Mikhail Shcherbatov, a publicist and historian whose notion of liberty was influenced by the works of Rousseau. Shcherbatov delivered a scathing criticism of the existing social institutions, maintaining that mass education — rather than far-reaching political reforms and the abolution of serfdom — may be more effective in improving the morals of Russian society. Portrait of Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov Prince Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov (July 22, 1733 - December 12, 1790) was a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov. ... Rousseau is a French surname. ...


On a related note, Ivan Betskoy campaigned for the comprehensive reform of education which would result in the development of a "new breed of citizens". His proposals have been implemented in part, e.g., the Smolny Institute was inaugurated for noble maidens, in keeping with Fenelon's doctrine that girls' education was key to moral regeneration of the corrupt modern society. Portrait of Ivan Betskoy, by Alexander Roslin (1777). ... The Smolny Institute is the Neoclassical edifice in St Petersburg, which has played an important part in the Russian history. ... François de Salignac de la Mothe, more commonly known as François Fénelon (1651 - 1715), was a French Roman Catholic theologian, poet and writer. ...


Catherine's friend Ekaterina Dashkova — sometimes viewed as a precursor of feminism — led the Russian Academy of Sciences for many years. In 1783, she instituted the Russian Academy, which she modeled after the French Academy. Seeking to promote knowledge and study of the Russian language, the Russian Academy prepared the first comprehensive dictionary of the Russian language. Portrait of Princess Dashkov from the Hermitage Museum. ... Feminism is a diverse collection of social theories, political movements and moral philosophies, largely motivated by or concerned with the experiences of women. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... The Académie française (French Academy) is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... Russian (Russian: русский язык, russkiy yazyk, ) is the most widely spoken language of Eurasia and the most widespread of the Slavic languages. ...


Even the monolith of the Russian Orthodox Church seemed to succumb to the influences of the Enlightenment. The teachings of Platon Levshin, Metropolitan of Moscow, underlined the need for tolerance and encouraged the advancement of ecclesiastical education. The Russian Orthodox Church (also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia) (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Plato II by unknown author, 1780-1790 Plato II or Platon II (29 June 1737 – 11 November 1812) was the Metropolitan of Moscow in 1775-1812. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


Theatre

Ideas of the Enlightenment were popularized by the nascent Russian theatre. The first Russian troupe was established in Yaroslavl by Fyodor Volkov and Ivan Dmitrievsky during Elizaveta's reign. Aleksandr Sumarokov was responsible for the repertory of their theatre. A public building in Yaroslavl Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... Fyodor Grigorievich Volkov (1729-1763) is known as the father of Russian theatre. ... Ivan Afanasievich Dmitrievsky (1734-1821) was the greatest actor of Russian Neoclassicism. ...


During Catherine's reign the leading playwrights included Denis Fonvizin, who ridiculed the rusticity of provincial gentry and their thoughtless imitation of all things French; Vladislav Ozerov, who authored a great number of Neoclassical tragedies with touches of sentimentalism; and Yakov Knyazhnin, whose drama about a popular uprising against Rurik's rule was declared jacobin and publicly burnt in 1791. Denis Fonvizin (1744?–92). ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Sentimentalism (literally, appealing to the sentiments), as a literary and political discourse, has occurred much in the literary traditions of all regions in the world, and is central to the traditions of Indian literature, Chinese literature, and Vietnamese literature (such as Ho Xuan Huong). ... Yakov Knyazhnin Yakov Borisovich Knyazhnin (Russian: Яков Борисович Княжнин, November 3, 1742 or 1740, Pskov – January 1, 1791, St Petersburg) was Russias foremost tragic author during the reign of Catherine the Great. ... Rurik or Riurik (Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Rurikovo Gorodische) in Novgorod. ... The term Jacobin may refer to: Members of the Jacobin Club, a political group during the French Revolution. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Parasha Zhemchugova, a serf actress-turned-countess.
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Parasha Zhemchugova, a serf actress-turned-countess.

Even Catherine's favourite poet, Gavrila Derzhavin — who sought in his odes to combine amusement with instruction — would see some of his poems banned from print during the last years of her reign. Gavrila Romanovich Derzhavin (Гаврила Романович Державин, 1743 – 1816) was the greatest Russian poet before Alexander Pushkin. ... Ode is a form of stately and elaborate lyrical verse. ...


Opera

See also: Russian opera

Opera reached Russia in 1731, when Empress Anna invited the Italian opera troupe to show Calandro by Giovanni Alberto Ristori during the celebration of her coronation in Moscow. In 1735 another Italian opera troupe led by composer Francesco Araja was invited to work in St. Petersburg. Araja spent 25 year in Russia and wrote 14 operas for the Russian Court including Tsefal i Prokris (1755), the first opera written in Russian to the libretto by Alexander Sumarokov. A Russian Warrior, Bilibins costume design for Borodins Prince Igor, 1930) See also Russian opera articles for the details and additional information Russian opera (Russian: Ру́сская о́пера) is the art of opera in Russia. ... Sydney Opera House: one of the worlds most recognisable opera houses and landmarks. ... Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... H.I.M. Anna Ioannovna, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias, Duchess of Courland Anna Ioannovna (In Russian: Анна Иоанновна) (February 7, 1693 - October 28, 1740) reigned as Duchess of Courland from 1711 to 1730 and as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. ... Schloss Pillnitz, near Dresden Calandro is three-act opera buffa by Giovanni Alberto Ristori (1692-1753) to a libretto by Stefano Benedetto Pallavicini. ... Giovanni Alberto Ristori - Calandro CD cover KammerTon (KT 22005) Giovanni Alberto Ristori (born Bologna? 1692 - died Dresden 7 February 1753) was an Italian opera composer and conductor. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... Francesco Araja Francesco Domenico Araja (or Araia, Russian: Арайя) (Born: June 25, 1709, Naples, Kingdom of Sicily, died between 1762 and 1770, Bologna, States of the Church) was an Italian composer who spent 25 year in Russia and wrote at least 14 operas for the Russian Imperial Court including Tsefal i... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Giuseppe Valeriani: Sketch of sets for the opera Tsefal i Prokris by Francesco Araja, 1755 Tsefal i Prokris (Russian: Цефал и Прокрис – Cephalus and Prokris), is an opera seria in three acts by the Italian composer Francesco Araja. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A libretto is the complete body of words used in an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, sacred or secular oratorio and cantata, musical, and ballet. ... Alexander P. Sumarokov Aleksandr Petrovich Sumarokov (Александр Петрович Сумароков) (1717 - 1774) was a Russian poet and playwright who single-handedly created Neoclassical theatre in Russia. ...


Foreign composers like Johann Adolf Hasse, Hermann Raupach, Galuppi, Manfredini, Traetta, Paisiello, Sarti, Cimarosa and Martin y Soler, Ivan Kerzelli, Anton Bullandt, brought important contribution to the Russian opera, to the Italian libretti as well as Russian libretti. There were also extremely popular operas by the Belgian/French André Ernest Modeste Grétry that were widely performed, including in Kuskovo and Ostankino theatres, where they were given with participation of the famous serf-soprano Praskovya Zhemchugova at the private opera of Nikolai Sheremetev. Johann Adolph Hasse. ... Hermann Friedrich Raupach (December 21, 1728, Stralsund - December 12, 1778, St Petersburg) was a German composer. ... Baldassare Galuppi (October 18, 1706 - January 3, 1785) was a Venetian composer noted for his operas, and particularly opera buffa. ... Vincenzo Manfredini: Harpsichord Sonata Cover, Edition of 1765. ... Tommaso Traetta (1727 – April 6, 1779) was an Italian composer. ... Paisiello at the clavichord, by Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, 1791. ... Giuseppe Sarti (December 28, 1729 - July 28, 1802), was an Italian composer. ... Domenico Cimarosa (December 17, 1749-January 11, 1801), Italian opera composer, was born at Aversa, in the kingdom of Naples. ... Vicente Martin y Soler Vicente Martín y Soler (May 2, 1754 - January 30, 1806) was a Valencian composer of opera and ballet. ... Ivan Kerzelli or Cherzelli (also known as I. I. Kerzelli, or Iosif Kertsel, Russian: Иван Керцелли, И. И. Керцелли, or Иосиф Керцель) was an opera composer and conductor in Imperial Russia of 18th century. ... Anton Bullandt, also Antoine Bullant (Russian: , born: 1750 in Melník, Bohemia — died: June 25 [OS 13] 1821 St Petersburg) was a Czech musician (bassoon player) and opera composer that worked almost whole his life in Imperial Russia. ... A Russian Warrior, Bilibins costume design for Borodins Prince Igor, 1930) See also Russian opera articles for the details and additional information Russian opera (Russian: Ру́сская о́пера) is the art of opera in Russia. ... André Ernest Modeste Grétry (February 8, 1741 – September 24, 1813), a Belgian composer, who worked from 1767 onwards in France. ... View of Kuskovo in 1839 Kuskovo is an extensive estate, or manor, of the Counts Sheremetev, originally situated several miles to the east of Moscow but now forming a part of the East District of that city. ... Nikolai Argunov (1771-c1829): the portrait of Praskovya Ivanovna Zhemchugova-Sheremeteva, 1803 Praskovya Ivanovna Zhemchugova also Kovaleva or Kovalyova, Kovaleva-Zhemchugova, Zhemchugova-Sheremeteva, and Sheremeteva or Sheremetyeva (Прасковья Ивановна Жемчугова, Ковалёва, Шереметева) (July 20, 1768 – February 23, 1803) was a Russian serf actress and soprano opera singer. ... Nikolai Argunov (1771-c1829): Portrait of Count Nikolai Petrovich Sheremetev c1803 Nikolai Petrovich Sheremetev (Russian: ) (June 28, 1751 (NS: July 9)–January 2, 1809 (NS: January 14)) was a Russian count, the son of Petr Borisovich Sheremetev, notable grandee of the epoch of empresses Anna Ivanovna, Elizabeth Petrovna, and Catherine...


Catherine II sent some domestic composers like Berezovsky and Bortniansky abroad to study art of music composition and later they produced some operas in Italian and French. And only at the beginning of 1770s the first modest attempts of the composers of Russian origin to compose operas to the Russian librettos were made. Among these were successful one-act opera Anyuta (1772) to the text by Mikhail Popov, and opera Melnik – koldun, obmanshchik i svat (The Miller who was a Wizard, a Cheat and a Match-maker) to the text by Alexander Ablesimov with music by Mikhail Sokolovsky (1779). Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... Maksym Sozontovych Berezovsky (Ukrainian: Максим Созонтович Березовский, circa 1745 to 1777) was a Ukrainian-Russian composer, opera singer and violinist. ... Dmytro Stepanovich Bortniansky (Ukrainian: Дмитро Степанович Бортнянський, or Dmitry Bortnyansky, 1751–1825) was a Ukrainian composer in Imperial Russia. ... A musical composition is a piece of original music designed for repeated performance (as opposed to strictly improvisational music, in which each performance is unique). ... 1770 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Libretto can also refer to a sub-notebook PC manufactured by Toshiba. ... Chinese Theatre in Tsarskoe Selo, ca. ... Catherine IIs soldiers in the Russo-Turkish War, by Alexandre Benois. ... Mikhail Vasilyevich Popov (Russian: Михаи́л Васи́льевич Попов, 1742-1790) was a Russian writer, poet, dramatist and opera librettist of the 18th century. ... Alexander Ablesimov Aleksander Onisimovich Ablesimov, (Russian: Александр Онисимович Аблесимов, born September 9 [OS August 28] 1742 Galichsky district, Kostroma; died 1783) was a Russian opera librettist, poet, dramatist, satirist and journalist. ... Mikhail Matveyevich Sokolovsky (Russian: Михаи́л Матве́евич Соколо́вский, born 1756, died –date unknown) was a Russian opera composer, conductor and violinist of the second half of the 18th century. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The most important contribution in the opera genre were made by Vasily Pashkevich with his The Carriage Accident (Neschastye ot karety, 1779), The Miser to the text by Yakov Knyazhnin after Molière (1782), and Fevey to the libretto by Catherine II (1786), as well as by Italian trained Yevstigney Fomin with his The Coachmen at the Relay Station (Yamshchiki na podstave, 1787), Orfey i Evridika, opera-melodrama to the text by Yakov Knyazhnin (1792), and The Americans (Amerikantsy, comic opera, 1800). The view of the Hermitage, St Petersburg: on a CD cover featuring some music by Vasily Pashkevich Vasily Alexeyevich Pashkevich also Paskevich (Russian: ) (c. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Yakov Knyazhnin Yakov Borisovich Knyazhnin (Russian: Яков Борисович Княжнин, November 3, 1742 or 1740, Pskov – January 1, 1791, St Petersburg) was Russias foremost tragic author during the reign of Catherine the Great. ... Molière, engraved frontispiece to his Works. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The view of the Hermitage, St Petersburg: on a CD cover featuring some fragments from the opera Fevey by Vasily Pashkevich Fevey is an opera by Vasily Pashkevich to a Russian libretto by Catherine II of Russia. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Composer Yevstigney Fomin Yevstigney Ipatyevich Fomin [1] (Russian: Евстигне́й Ипа́тьевич Фоми́н) (born St Petersburg August 16 [O.S. August 5] 1761 – died St. ... 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Yakov Knyazhnin Yakov Borisovich Knyazhnin (Russian: Яков Борисович Княжнин, November 3, 1742 or 1740, Pskov – January 1, 1791, St Petersburg) was Russias foremost tragic author during the reign of Catherine the Great. ... 1800 (MDCCC) was an common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Music

In 1746 the first public concert took place in Russia. This soon became a tradition. Concert life was dominated by foreign musicians before Russian virtuosos appeared in 1780-1790s; these included the violinist Ivan Khandoshkin and singer Elizaveta Sandunova. The senator Grigory Teplov was also an amateur musician who printed in 1751 the collection of his songs entitled Idle Hours Away from Work. Publishing music business, sales of foreign sheet music, and music lovers’ periodicals flourished from the 1770s onward. A classical music concert in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne. ... The word amateur has at least two connotations. ...


The overture and songs from Ivan Kerzelli’s opera Derevenskiy vorozheya (The Village Wizard) were printed in Moscow 1778; they were the first opera fragments printed in Russia. Sales of musical instruments (like keyboards, guitars and harps) were also growing. Sacred music genres were transformed under the foreign influences. The Italian operatic composers such as Galuppi and Sarti were involved in producing liturgies for the church service. The genre of the choral concerto (the cycle of three–four contrast movements) became traditional in liturgic music of Degtyaryov, Vedel, Bortnyansky, Berezovsky, Davydov, and Turchaninov. Overture (French ouverture, meaning opening) in music is the instrumental introduction to a dramatic, choral or, occasionally, instrumental composition. ... Ivan Kerzelli or Cherzelli (also known as I. I. Kerzelli, or Iosif Kertsel, Russian: Иван Керцелли, И. И. Керцелли, or Иосиф Керцель) was an opera composer and conductor in Imperial Russia of 18th century. ... Sydney Opera House: one of the worlds most recognisable opera houses and landmarks. ...


Aftermath

By 1796, when Emperor Paul succeeded his mother on the Russian throne, the Russian Enlightenment was very much on the wane. Although the new monarch was fiercely opposed to the French libertarian influences, he set free the radical writers imprisoned by his mother, including Novikov and Radishchev. Paul's family enjoyed recitals of didactic fables by Ivan Krylov, a fabulist whose journalistic activity had been denounced by his mother. 1796 was a leap year starting on Friday. ... Paul I of Russia Paul I of Russia (Russian: Pavel Petrovich, Павел I Петрович) (October 1, 1754 - March 23, 1801) was an Emperor (Tsar) of Russia (1796 - 1801). ... Ivan Andreyevich Krylov (Иван Андреевич Крылов in Russian) (February 13, 1769 - November 21, 1844) was a famous Russian fabulist. ...


The Informal Committee, instituted by Alexander I of Russia in 1801, may be viewed as the last attempt to implement the ideals of the Enlightenment in the Russian Empire. Mikhail Speransky proceeded to outline an ambitious program of political reform, but his chief propositions were not put into execution until the great reforms of Alexander II half a century later. Aleksander I Pavlovich Romanov (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), was Emperor of Russia from March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825 and King of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... Count Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky (1772-1839) was probably the greatest of Russian reformers in the period between Peter the Great and Alexander the Liberator. ... A number of historical people were named Alexander II: Alexander II of Macedon was King of Macedon from 370 to 368 B.C. Alexander II of Epirus was the King of Epirus in 272 B.C. Pope Alexander II was Pope from 1061 to 1073. ...

References

  • Макагоненко Г. Н. [Makagonenko G.N.] Новиков и русское просвещение XVIII в. [Novikov and the Russian Enlightenment]. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
  • Каменский З. А. [Kamensky Z.I.] Философские идеи русского Просвещения [Philosophical Ideas of the Russian Enlightenment]. Moscow, 1971.
  • Орлов В. [Orlov V.] Русские просветители 1790-1800-х гг. [Russian Lumières in the 1790s and 1800s], 2nd ed. Moscow, 1953.
  • Келдыш Ю. В. [Keldysh Yu. V.] Русская музыка XVIII века Moscow 1965
  • Ливанова Т. Н.[Livanova T. N.] Русская музыкальная культура XVIII века в ее связях с литературой, театром и бытом в 2-х томах 1952-1953 гг. т.1, т.2
  • Taruskin, Richard: Russia in 'The New Grove Dictionary of Opera', ed. Stanley Sadie (London, 1992) ISBN 0-333-73432-7
  • Frolova-Walker, Marina: Russian Federation, 1730-1860, (Opera, Concert life, Domestic music making, Sacred music), The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, vol. 21 ISBN 0-333-60800-3

1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Richard Taruskin is an American musicologist and music historian specializing in theory of performance, Russian music, twentieth-century music, nationalism, theory of modernism, and analysis. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Opera is an encyclopedia (or encyclopedic dictionary) of opera, considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject. ... Stanley Sadie, CBE, (October 30, 1930-March 21, 2005) was a British musicologist, music critic, and editor. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is a dictionary of music and musicians, generally considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject. ...

External links

  • 1000 Years of Music: Music in Peter the Great Time
  • 1000 Years of Music: 18th Century Panorama
  • 1000 Years of Music: The First Half of 18th Century
  • 1000 Years of Music: 18th Century Russian Chamber Music

 
 

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