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Encyclopedia > Russian Empire
Российская империя (ru-Cyrl)
Rossiyskaya Imperiya (translit)
Russian Empire
1721 – 1917
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Russian Empire's Great Coat of Arms
Motto
Съ нами Богъ!
Sʺ nami Bogʺ!
(God is with us!)
Anthem
"God Save the Tsar!"
The Russian Empire in 1914
Capital Saint Petersburg
Language(s) Russian
Religion Russian Orthodoxy
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 1721–1725 Peter the Great
 - 1894–1917 Nicholas II
Legislature State Duma
History
 - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS,
April 27, 1682 OS²
 - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS,
October 11, 1721 OS
 - Decembrist revolt December 26, 1825 NS,
December 14, 1825 OS
 - Abolition of feudalism March 3, 1861 NS,
February 19, 1861 OS
 - Revolution of 1905 January–December 1905
 - Constitution April 23, 1906
 - February Revolution March 15, 1917 NS,
March 2, 1917 OS
 - October Revolution November 7, 1917 NS,
October 25, 1917 OS
Area
 - 1916 22,400,000 km² (8,648,688 sq mi)
Population
 - 1916 est. 181,537,800 
     Density 8.1 /km²  (21 /sq mi)
Currency Ruble
1.Flag from 1914—1917[1].
2. Russia continued to use the Julian calendar until after the collapse of the empire; see Old Style and New Style dates.

The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian: Pоссiйская Имперiя, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia, and the predecessor of the Soviet Union. It was one of the largest empires the world had seen. At one point in 1866, it stretched from eastern Europe, across northern Asia, and into North America. At the beginning of the 19th century, Russia was the largest country in the world, extending from the Arctic Ocean to the north to the Black Sea on the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east. Across this vast realm were scattered the Tsar's 150 million subjects, from poor, illiterate peasants to the noble families of great wealth. Its government, ruled by the Czar, was one of the last absolute monarchies left in Europe. The word Russia has been used to refer to several Russian states: Russian Federation, the modern successor state of Russian SFSR and the Soviet Union The Soviet Union, albeit only informally and inaccurately describing a multinational union of Soviet republics Russian SFSR, a Soviet republic in the union Bolshevik Russia... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , IPA: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... For romanization of Russian on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Romanization of Russian. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Image File history File links Russian_Empire_1914_17. ... Image File history File links Russian_Empire's_Big_Coat_of_Arms. ... Flag of the Russian Federation. ... The National emblems of the Russian Empire were the state coat of arms and the state seal in three variants: big, medium and small. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: God Save the Tsar!, in Russian God Save the Tsar! (Russian: Боже, Царя храни!) was the national anthem of the late Russian Empire. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 352 pixel Image in higher resolution (1426 × 628 pixel, file size: 28 KB, MIME type: image/png) The Russian Empire in 1914. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Nicholas II redirects here. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... State Duma of the Russian Empire was a legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... Decembrists at the Senate Square The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (Russian: ) was attempted in Imperial Russia by army officers who led about 3,000 Russian soldiers on December 14 (December 26 New Style), 1825. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia was the first and most important of liberal reforms effected during the reign of Alexander II. The reform amounted to the liquidation of serf dependence previously suffered by Russian peasants. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Old Style redirects here. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , IPA: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... For romanization of Russian on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Romanization of Russian. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... This is a list of the largest empires in world history. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Russia

The Russian Empire was a natural successor to the Tsardom of Muscovy. Though the empire was only officially proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad (1721), some historians would argue that it was truly born when Peter acceeded to the throne in early 1682. The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs. ... The Tsardom of Rus (Russian: Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden...


The eighteenth century

Main article: Russian history, 1682-1796

Peter I, the Great (1672–1725), consolidated autocracy in Russia and played a major role in bringing his country into the European state system. From its modest beginnings in the 14th century principality of Moscow, Russia had become the largest state in the world by Peter's time. It spanned the Eurasian landmass from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. Much of its expansion had taken place in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian settlement of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the reconquest of Kiev, and the pacification of the Siberian tribes. However, this vast land had a population of only 14 million. Grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling almost the entire population to farm. Only a small fraction of the population lived in the towns. Slavery remained a major institution in Russia until the 1723, when the Peter the Great converted the household slaves into house serfs. Russian agricultural slaves were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679.[2] // Note on naming The territory ruled by the Romanov dynasty was often called Muscovy in Western Europe until well into the eighteenth century. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The history of Siberia may be traced to the sophisticated nomadic civilizations of the Scythians (Pazyryk) and the Xiongnu, both flourishing before the Christian era. ... The Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667, also called the War for Ukraine, was the last major conflict between Muscovite Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Slave redirects here. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov. ...

Peter the Great officially proclaimed the existence of the Russian Empire in 1721.
Peter the Great officially proclaimed the existence of the Russian Empire in 1721.

Peter was deeply impressed by the advanced technology, warcraft, and statecraft of the West. He studied Western tactics and fortifications and built a strong army of 300,000 made up of his own subjects, whom he conscripted for life. In 1697-1698, he became the first Russian prince to ever visit the West, where he and his entourage made a deep impression. In celebration of his conquests, Peter assumed the title of emperor as well as tsar, and Muscovite Russia officially became the Russian Empire late in 1721. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... A statue of Peter I working incognito at a Dutch wharf. ...


Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks. His attention then turned to the north. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport except at Archangel on the White Sea, whose harbor was frozen nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden, whose territory enclosed it on three sides. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him in 1699 to make a secret alliance with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War. The war ended in 1721 when an exhausted Sweden sued for peace with Russia. Peter acquired four provinces situated south and east of the Gulf of Finland, thus securing his coveted access to the sea. There he built Russia's new capital, St. Petersburg, to replace Moscow, long Russia's cultural center. Ottoman redirects here. ... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


Peter reorganized his government on the latest Western models, molding Russia into an absolutist state. He replaced the old boyar Duma (council of nobles) with a nine-member senate, in effect a supreme council of state. The countryside was also divided into new provinces and districts. Peter told the senate that its mission was to collect tax revenues. In turn tax revenues tripled over the course of his reign. As part of the government reform, the Orthodox Church was partially incorporated into the country's administrative structure, in effect making it a tool of the state. Peter abolished the patriarchate and replaced it with a collective body, the Holy Synod, led by a lay government official. Meanwhile, all vestiges of local self-government were removed, and Peter continued and intensified his predecessors' requirement of state service for all nobles. Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person, who is often generally a monarch, should hold all power. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod. ...


Peter died in 1725, leaving an unsettled succession and an exhausted realm. His reign raised questions about Russia's backwardness, its relationship to the West, the appropriateness of reform from above, and other fundamental problems that have confronted many of Russia's subsequent rulers. Nevertheless, he had laid the foundations of a modern state in Russia.

The capital of Imperial Russia was St. Petersburg.
The capital of Imperial Russia was St. Petersburg.

Nearly forty years were to pass before a comparably ambitious ruler appeared on the Russian throne. Catherine II, the Great, was a German princess who married Peter III, the German heir to the Russian crown. She contributed to the resurgence of the Russian nobility that began after the death of Peter the Great. State service had been abolished, and Catherine delighted the nobles further by turning over most government functions in the provinces to them. Image File history File links Beggrov3. ... Image File history File links Beggrov3. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until her death. ...


Catherine the Great extended Russian political control over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with actions including the support of the Targowica confederation, although the cost of her campaigns, on top of the oppressive social system that required lords' serfs to spend almost all of their time laboring on the lords' land, provoked a major peasant uprising in 1773, after Catherine legalized the selling of serfs separate from land. Inspired by another Cossack named Pugachev, with the emphatic cry of "Hang all the landlords!" the rebels threatened to take Moscow before they were ruthlessly suppressed. Catherine had Pugachev drawn and quartered in Red Square, but the specter of revolution continued to haunt her and her successors. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Categories: Stub | Polish confederations ... Emelyan Pugachov Yemelyan Ivanovich Pugachev (Russian: ), born in 1740 or 1742 and executed in 1775, was a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great Cossack insurrection during the reign of Catherine II. Alexander Pushkin wrote a remarkable history of the rebellion; and he recounted some of the events... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ...


While suppressing the Russian peasantry, Catherine successfully waged war against the Ottoman Empire and advanced Russia's southern boundary to the Black Sea. Then, by plotting with the rulers of Austria and Prussia, she incorporated territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Partitions of Poland, pushing the Russian frontier westward into Central Europe. By the time of her death in 1796, Catherine's expansionist policy had made Russia into a major European power. This continued with Alexander I's wresting of Finland from the weakened kingdom of Sweden in 1809 and of Bessarabia from the Ottomans in 1812. The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of eleven wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777 – December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ...


First half of the nineteenth century

Main article: Russian history, 1796-1855

Napoleon made a major misstep when he invaded Russia after a dispute with Tsar Alexander I and launched an invasion of the tsar's realm in 1812. The campaign was a catastrophe. Although Napoleon's Grand Armee made its way to Moscow, the Russians' scorched-earth strategy prevented the invaders from living off the country. In the bitterly cold Russian weather, thousands of French troops were ambushed and killed by peasant guerrilla fighters. As Napoleon's forces retreated, the Russian troops pursued them into Central and Western Europe and to the gates of Paris. After Russia and its allies defeated Napoleon, Alexander became known as the 'savior of Europe,' and he presided over the redrawing of the map of Europe at the Congress of Vienna (1815), which made Alexander the monarch of Congress Poland. // Catherine II died in 1796, and her son Paul (r. ... Russian Troops under Suvorov Crossing the Alps in 1799. ... Russian Troops under Suvorov Crossing the Alps in 1799. ... Suvorov Crossing the St. ... Bonaparte as general, by Antoine-Jean Gros. ... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... La Grande Armée (French for the Great Army or the Grand Army) first entered the annals of history when, in 1805, Napoleon I renamed the army that he had assembled on the French coast of the English Channel for the proposed invasion of Britain and re-deployed it East... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors, from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from November 1, 1814, to June 8, 1815. ... Map of Congress Poland. ...


Although the Russian Empire would play a leading political role in the next century, secured by its defeat of Napoleonic France, its retention of serfdom precluded economic progress of any significant degree. As West European economic growth accelerated during the Industrial Revolution, which had begun in the second half of the 18th century, Russia began to lag ever farther behind, creating new problems for the empire as a great power. Russia's great power status obscured the inefficiency of its government, the isolation of its people, and its economic backwardness. Following the defeat of Napoleon, Alexander I had been ready to discuss constitutional reforms, but though a few were introduced, no thoroughgoing changes were attempted. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The early Russian system of government instated by Peter the Great, which consisted of various state committees, each named College with subordinate departments named Prikaz, was largely outdateby by 1800s. ...


The relatively liberal tsar was replaced by his younger brother, Nicholas I (1825–1855), who at the onset of his reign was confronted with an uprising. The background of this revolt lay in the Napoleonic Wars, when a number of well-educated Russian officers traveled in Europe in the course of the military campaigns, where their exposure to the liberalism of Western Europe encouraged them to seek change on their return to autocratic Russia. The result was the Decembrist Revolt (December 1825), the work of a small circle of liberal nobles and army officers who wanted to install Nicholas' brother as a constitutional monarch. But the revolt was easily crushed, leading Nicholas to turn away from the Westernization program begun by Peter the Great and champion the maxim "Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Respect to the People." Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Decembrists at the Senate Square The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (Russian: ) was attempted in Imperial Russia by army officers who led about 3,000 Russian soldiers on December 14 (December 26 New Style), 1825. ... Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and National Character (Самодержа́вие, правосла́вие и наро́дность, Samoderzhavie, Pravoslavie i Narodnost) was the motto of...

Fort Ross, an early 19th century outpost of the Russian-American Company in California.
Fort Ross, an early 19th century outpost of the Russian-American Company in California.

After the Russian armies occupied the allied Georgia in 1802, they clashed with Persia over control of Azerbaijan and got involved into the Caucasian War against mountaneers, which would lumber on for half a century. Russian tsars had also to deal with two uprisings in their newly acquired territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: the November Uprising in 1830 and the January Uprising in 1863. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 489 pixelsFull resolution (1021 × 624 pixel, file size: 219 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 489 pixelsFull resolution (1021 × 624 pixel, file size: 219 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Fort Ross is a former Russian fur trading outpost in what is now Sonoma County, California in the United States. ... The Russian-American Company was a semi-official colonial trading company started by Grigory Shelikhov and Nikolai Rezanov and chartered by tsar Paul I in 1799. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Construction of the Georgian Military Road through disputed territories was a key factor in the eventual Russian success A Scene from the Caucasian War, by Franz Roubaud Russian Invasion of the Caucasus, better known in Russia as the Caucasian War of 1817-1864, was a series of military actions of... Coat-of-arms of the November Uprising. ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ...


The harsh retaliation for the revolt made "December Fourteenth" a day long remembered by later revolutionary movements. In order to repress further revolts, schools and universities were placed under constant surveillance and students were provided with official textbooks. Police spies were planted everywhere. Would-be revolutionaries were sent off to Siberia; under Nicholas I hundreds of thousands were sent to katorga there.-1...


The question of Russia's direction had been gaining steam ever since Peter the Great's programme of Westernization. Some favored imitating Western Europe while others renounced the West and called for a return of the traditions of the past. The latter path was championed by Slavophiles, who heaped scorn on the "decadent" West. The Slavophiles were opponents of bureaucracy, preferred the collectivism of the mediaeval Russian mir, or village community, to the individualism of the West. Alternative social doctrines were elaborated by such Russian radicals as Alexander Herzen, Mikhail Bakunin, and Peter Kropotkin. A Slavophile was an advocate of the supremacy of Slavic culture over that of others, especially Western European culture. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Russian word mir (мир), besides its direct meanings of peace and world, had some other meanings related to social organization in Imperial Russia. ... The Russian word mir (мир), besides its direct meanings of peace and world, had some other meanings related to social organization in Imperial Russia. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) (April 6 [O.S. 25 March] 1812 in Moscow - January 21 [O.S. 9 January] 1870 in Paris) was a major Russian pro-Western writer and thinker known as the father of Russian socialism. He is held responsible for creating a political climate leading to the emancipation... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian: Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814 – June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism. Born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian... Prince Peter (Pyotr) Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: ) (December 9, 1842–February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. ...


Second half of the nineteenth century

Main article: Russian history, 1855-1892

Tsar Nicholas died with his philosophy in dispute. One year earlier, Russia had become involved in the Crimean War, a conflict fought primarily in the Crimean peninsula. Since playing a major role in the defeat of Napoleon, Russia had been regarded as militarily invincible, but, once pitted against a coalition of the great powers of Europe, the reverses it suffered on land and sea exposed the decay and weakness of Tsar Nicholas' regime. // Economic development The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of crisis for Russia. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ...

The Monument to the Tsar Liberator in Sofia commemorates Alexander II's decisive role in the Liberation of Bulgaria from Ottoman rule.
The Monument to the Tsar Liberator in Sofia commemorates Alexander II's decisive role in the Liberation of Bulgaria from Ottoman rule.

When Alexander II came to the throne in 1855, desire for reform was widespread. A growing humanitarian movement, which in later years has been likened to that of the abolitionists in the United States before the American Civil War, attacked serfdom. In 1859, there were more than 23 million serfs living under conditions frequently worse than those of the peasants of western Europe on 16th century manors. Alexander II made up his own mind to abolish serfdom from above rather than wait for it to be abolished from below through revolution. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 3832 KB) Monument to the Tsar Liberator, Sofia, Bulgaria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 3832 KB) Monument to the Tsar Liberator, Sofia, Bulgaria. ... The Monument to the Tsar Liberator in front of the Radisson SAS hotel. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... In Bulgarian historiography, the term Liberation of Bulgaria is used to denote the events of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 that led to the establishment of a Bulgarian state with the Treaty of San Stefano of 3 March 1878. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... For the 17th century system in Canada, see Seigneurial system of New France. ...


The emancipation of the serfs in 1861 was the single most important event in 19th century Russian history. It was the beginning of the end for the landed aristocracy's monopoly of power. Emancipation brought a supply of free labor to the cities, industry was stimulated, and the middle class grew in number and influence; however, instead of receiving their lands as a gift, the freed peasants had to pay a special tax for what amounted to their lifetime to the government, which in turn paid the landlords a generous price for the land that they had lost. In numerous instances the peasants wound up with the poorest land. All the land turned over to the peasants was owned collectively by the mir, the village community, which divided the land among the peasants and supervised the various holdings. Although serfdom was abolished, since its abolition was achieved on terms unfavorable to the peasants, revolutionary tensions were not abated, despite Alexander II's intentions. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


In the late 1870s Russia and the Ottoman Empire again clashed in the Balkans. From 1875 to 1877, the Balkan crisis escalated with rebellions against Ottoman rule by various Slavic nationalities, which the Ottoman Turks suppressed with what was seen as great cruelty in Russia. Russian nationalist opinion became a serious domestic factor in its support for liberating Balkan Christians from Ottoman rule and making Bulgaria and Serbia independent. In early 1877, Russia intervened on behalf of Serbian and Russian volunteer forces when it went to war with the Ottoman Empire. Within one year, Russian troops were nearing Constantinople, and the Ottomans surrendered. Russia's nationalist diplomats and generals persuaded Alexander II to force the Ottomans to sign the Treaty of San Stefano in March 1878, creating an enlarged, independent Bulgaria that stretched into the southwestern Balkans. When Britain threatened to declare war over the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, an exhausted Russia backed down. At the Congress of Berlin in July 1878, Russia agreed to the creation of a smaller Bulgaria. As a result, Pan-Slavists were left with a legacy of bitterness against Austria-Hungary and Germany for failing to back Russia. The disappointment as a result of war stimulated revolutionary tensions in the country. Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Plevna Monument near the walls of Kitai-gorod. ... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ... National flag of all Slavs proposed by the Pan-Slav convention in Prague in 1848 Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic people. ...

A provincial Russian town in winter.
A provincial Russian town in winter.

Following Alexander II's assassination by the Narodnya Volya, a Nihilist terrorist organization, in 1881, the throne passed to his son Alexander III (1881–1894), a staunch reactionary who revived the maxim of "Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Respect to the People" of Nicholas I. A committed Slavophile, Alexander III believed that Russia could be saved from chaos only by shutting itself off from the subversive influences of Western Europe. In his reign Russia concluded the union with republican France to contain the growing power of Germany, completed the conquest of Central Asia and exacted important territorial and commercial concessions from China. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 581 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1452 pixel, file size: 901 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Every Christian nation has its variety of Carnival, and Russia is no exception. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 581 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1452 pixel, file size: 901 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Every Christian nation has its variety of Carnival, and Russia is no exception. ... A number of historical people were named Alexander II: Alexander II of Macedon was King of Macedon from 370 to 368 B.C. Alexander II of Epirus was the King of Epirus in 272 B.C. Pope Alexander II was Pope from 1061 to 1073. ... Narodnaya Volya (Народная Воля in Russian, known as People’s Will in English) was a Russian revolutionary organization in the early 1880s. ... Nihilist can stand for Philosophic Position. ... ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and National Character (Правосла́вие, самодержа́вие, и наро́дность, Pravoslavie, Samoderzhavie, i Narodnost) were the guiding principles of public education in the Russian Empire, proposed by Russian Minister of Education Count Sergey Uvarov in his report to Nicholas I of Russia. ... Pont Alexandre III in Paris and the Trinity Bridge in St Petersburg remain two symbols of the Franco-Russian Alliance. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


The tsar's most influential adviser was Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev, tutor to Alexander III and his son Nicholas, and procurator of the Holy Synod from 1880 to 1895. He taught his royal pupils to fear freedom of speech and press and to hate democracy, constitutions, and the parliamentary system. Under Pobedonostsev, revolutionaries were hunted down and a policy of Russification was carried out throughout the empire. Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev (Константин Иванович Победоносцев in Russian) (1827 - 1907) was a Russian jurist, statesman, and thinker. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ...


Early twentieth century

Main article: Russian history, 1892-1917

Alexander was succeeded by his son Nicholas II (1894–1917). The Industrial Revolution, which began to exert a significant influence in Russia, was meanwhile creating forces that would finally overthrow the tsar. The liberal elements among the industrial capitalists and nobility believed in peaceful social reform and a constitutional monarchy, forming the Constitutional Democrats, or Kadets. Social revolutionaries combined the Narodnik tradition and advocated the distribution of land among those who actually worked it—the peasants. Another radical group was the Social Democrats, exponents of Marxism in Russia. Gathering their support from the radical intellectuals and the urban working class, they advocated complete social, economic and political revolution. // During the 1890s, Russias industrial development led to a significant increase in the size of the urban bourgeoisie and the working class, setting the stage for a more dynamic political atmosphere and the development of radical parties. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (453x667, 126 KB) Summary The Battle of Tsushima. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (453x667, 126 KB) Summary The Battle of Tsushima. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski # Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships 27 cruisers destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships 3 coastal battleships 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead 583 injured 3 torpedo boats sunk 4,380 dead 5,917 captured 21 ships sunk 7 captured 6... Nicholas II redirects here. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Historical liberal parties | Political parties of Russian Revolution ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...


In 1903 the party split into two wings—the Mensheviks, or moderates, and the Bolsheviks, the radicals. The Mensheviks believed that Russian socialism would grow gradually and peacefully and that the tsar’s regime should be succeeded by a democratic republic in which the socialists would cooperate with the liberal bourgeois parties. The Bolsheviks, under Vladimir Lenin, advocated the formation of a small elite of professional revolutionists, subject to strong party discipline, to act as the vanguard of the proletariat in order to seize power by force.[3] Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Lenin redirects here. ...


The disastrous performance of the Russian armed forces in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905) was a major blow to the Tsarist regime and increased the potential for unrest. In January 1905, an incident known as "Bloody Sunday" occurred when Father Gapon led an enormous crowd to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to present a petition to the tsar. When the procession reached the palace, Cossacks opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. The Russian masses were so aroused over the massacre that a general strike was declared demanding a democratic republic. This marked the beginning of the Russian Revolution of 1905. Soviets (councils of workers) appeared in most cities to direct revolutionary activity. Russia was paralyzed, and the government was desperate. Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... Demonstrators march to the Winter Palace. ... Father Gapon George Gapon (Georgi Apollonievich Gapon) (1870–1906) was a priest whom preached in the worker’s suburbs of St. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


In October 1905, Nicholas reluctantly issued the famous October Manifesto, which conceded the creation of a national Duma (legislature) to be called without delay. The right to vote was extended and no law was to go into force without confirmation by the Duma. The moderate groups were satisfied; but the socialists rejected the concessions as insufficient and tried to organize new strikes. By the end of 1905, there was disunity among the reformers, and the tsar's position was strengthened for the time being. Wikisource has original text related to this article: October Manifesto (in English) Ilya Repin 17 October 1905 The October Manifesto (Russian: ) was issued on October 17, 1905; October 30 in the Gregorian calendar) by Emperor Nicholas II of Russia under the influence of Count Sergei Witte as a response to...

Tsar Nicholas II and his subjects entered World War I with enthusiasm and patriotism, with the defense of Russia's fellow Orthodox Slavs, the Serbs, as the main battle cry. In August 1914, the Russian army entered Germany to support the French armies. However, the weaknesses of the Russian economy and the inefficiency and corruption in government were hidden only for a brief period under a cloak of fervent nationalism. Military reversals and the government's incompetence soon soured much of the population. German control of the Baltic Sea and German-Ottoman control of the Black Sea severed Russia from most of its foreign supplies and potential markets. Image File history File links Repin_17October. ... Image File history File links Repin_17October. ... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...


By the middle of 1915 the impact of the war was demoralizing. Food and fuel were in short supply, casualties were staggering, and inflation was mounting. Strikes increased among low-paid factory workers, and the peasants, who wanted land reforms, were restless. Meanwhile, public distrust of the regime was deepened by reports that a semiliterate mystic, Grigory Rasputin, had great political influence within the government. His assassination in late 1916 ended the scandal but did not restore the autocracy's lost prestige. Rasputin Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (Russian: Григо́рий Ефи́мович Распу́тин) (January 23, 1871 – December 16, 1916 (O.S.)) was a Russian mystic with an influence in the...


On March 3, 1917, a strike occurred in a factory in the capital Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg). Within a week nearly all the workers in the city were idle, and street fighting broke out. When the tsar dismissed the Duma and ordered strikers to return to work, his orders triggered the February Revolution. is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Duma refused to disband, the strikers held mass meetings in defiance of the regime, and the army openly sided with the workers. A few days later a provisional government headed by Prince Lvov was named by the Duma. The following day the tsar abdicated. Meanwhile, the socialists in Petrograd had formed a Soviet (council) of workers and soldiers' deputies to provide them with the power that they lacked in the Duma. The Russian Empire was pronounced dead. The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov, Knyaz (Prince) (Russian: Георгий Евгеньевич Львов) (November 2, 1861-March 7, 1925) was a Russian statesman and the first post-imperial prime minister of Russia, in the Russian... Soviet redirects here. ...


Territory

Boundaries

History of Russia
East Slavs
Rus' Khaganate
Khazars
Kievan Rus'
Vladimir-Suzdal
Novgorod Republic
Volga Bulgaria
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Muscovy
Khanate of Kazan
Tsardom of Russia
Russian Empire
  • 1682–1796
  • 1796–1855
  • 1855–1892
  • 1892–1917
Soviet Russia and the USSR
Russian Federation
Timeline

The administrative boundaries of European Russia, apart from Finland, coincided broadly with the natural limits of the East-European plains. In the North it met the Arctic Ocean; the islands of Novaya Zemlya, Kolguyev and Vaigach also belonged to it, but the Kara Sea was reckoned to Siberia. To the East it had the Asiatic dominions of the empire, Siberia and the Kyrgyz steppes, from both of which it was separated by the Ural Mountains, the Ural River and the Caspian Sea — the administrative boundary, however, partly extending into Asia on the Siberian slope of the Urals. To the South it had the Black Sea and Caucasus, being separated from the latter by the Manych depression, which in Post-Pliocene times connected the Sea of Azov with the Caspian. The West boundary was purely conventional: it crossed the peninsula of Kola from the Varangerfjord to the Gulf of Bothnia; thence it ran to the Kurisches Haff in the southern Baltic, and thence to the mouth of the Danube, taking a great circular sweep to the West to embrace Poland, and separating Russia from Prussia, Austrian Galicia and Romania. The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... The Rus Khaganate was a polity that flourished during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe (roughly the late 8th and early to mid-9th centuries CE). ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Coat of arms The growth of Muscovy-Russia. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... // Peter I, a child of the second marriage of Tsar Aleksey, was at first relegated to the political background, as various court factions struggled to control the throne. ... // Catherine II died in 1796, and her son Emperor Paul I (r. ... The Russian Empire in 1866 // The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of crisis for Russia. ... // During the 1890s, Russias industrial development led to a significant increase in the size of the urban bourgeoisie and the working class, setting the stage for a more dynamic political atmosphere and the development of radical parties. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... The History of the Soviet Union has roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... // At the fourteenth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in December 1927, Stalin attacked the left by expelling Trotsky and his supporters from the party and then moving against the right by abandoning Lenins New Economic Policy which had been championed by Nikolai Bukharin and Alexei... The Cold War ensued as the USSR and the United States struggled indirectly for influence around the world. ... The Soviet Unions collapse into independent nations began in earnest in 1985. ... This is a timeline of Russian history. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Novaya Zemlya (Russian: , lit. ... Kolguyev Island (Ostrov Kolguyev) is an island in the Nenetsia autonomous district of Russia. ... Vaygach Island and Novaya Zemlya. ... A map showing the location of the Kara Sea. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... The Ural (Russian: , Kazakh: Жайық, Jayıq or Zhayyq), known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Manych (Маныч) is a river in southern Russia, tributary to the river Don. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Location of Kola south of the Barents Sea. ... The Varangerfjord, in the county of Finnmark, is the easternmost fjord in Norway. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Bothnia (Fin. ... Curonian Spit and Lagoon The Curonian Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf, Lithuanian: , Polish: , German: , Russian: ) is sundered from the Baltic Sea by the Curonian Spit (German: ). Landsat photo In the 13th century, the area around the lagoon was part of the ancestral lands of the Curonians and old Prussian people. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galicia. ...


It is a special feature of Russia that it has no free outlet to the open sea except on the ice-bound shores of the Arctic Ocean. Even the White Sea is merely a gulf of that ocean. The deep indentations of the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland were surrounded by what is ethnological Finnish territory, and it is only at the very head of the latter gulf that the Russians had taken firm foothold by erecting their capital at the mouth of the Neva. The Gulf of Riga and the Baltic belong also to territory which was not inhabited by Slavs, but by Finnish peoples and by Germans. The East coast of the Black Sea belonged properly to Transcaucasia, a great chain of mountains separating it from Russia. But even this sheet of water is an inland sea, the only outlet of which, the Bosphorus, was in foreign hands, while the Caspian, an immense shallow lake, mostly bordered by deserts, possessed more importance as a link between Russia and her Asiatic settlements than as a channel for intercourse with other countries. Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... The River Neva (Russian: Нева́) is a 74 km-long Russian river flowing from Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро, Ladožskoe Ozero) through the Karelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек, Karelskij Perešeek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург, Sankt-Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив, Finskij Zaliv). ... The Gulf of Riga The Gulf of Riga (or Bay of Riga, Latvian Rīgas jūras līcis, Estonian Liivi Laht) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia. ... Transcaucasia is the name given to a region south of the Caucasus Mountains that covers Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Russia

By the end of the 19th century the size of the empire was about 22,400,000 square kilometers (almost 1/6 of the Earth's landmass); its only rival in size at the time was the British Empire. However, at this time, the majority of the population lived in European Russia. More than 100 different ethnic groups lived in the Russian Empire, with ethnic Russians comprising about 45% of the population. Map of Russia. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Territory development

In addition to modern Russia, prior to 1917 the Russian Empire included most of Ukraine (Dnieper Ukraine and Crimea), Belarus, Moldova (Bessarabia), Finland (Grand Duchy of Finland), Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the Central Asian states of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (Russian Turkestan), most of Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia (Baltic provinces), as well as a significant portions of Poland (Kingdom of Poland) and Ardahan, Artvin, Iğdır, and Kars from Turkey. Between 1742 and 1867 the Russian Empire claimed Alaska as its colony. Dnieper Ukraine (Ukrainian: ), was the territory of Ukraine in the Russian Empire (Little Russia), roughly corresponding to the current territory of Ukraine, with the exceptions of Crimea (made part of Soviet Ukraine in 1954) and Galicia, which was a province of the Austrian Empire. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... Russian Turkestan (Russian: Ру́сский Туркеста́н), also known as Turkestansky Krai (Туркеста́нский край), was a subdivision (Krai or Governor... The Baltic Provinces were the provinces of the Russian Empire on the territory which is now Baltic States. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... shows the Location of the Province Ardahan Ardahan is a province in the northwestern-most corner of Turkey, along part of the border with Georgia. ... Artvin (Armenian: Ô±Ö€Õ¤Õ¾Õ«Õ¶) is a province in Turkey, on the Black Sea coast in the north-eastern corner of the country, on the border with Georgia (country). ... shows the Location of the Province IÄŸdır Igdir is a province in eastern Turkey, located along the border with Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. ... Kars is a province of Turkey, and is located in the northeastern part of the country, next to the border with Armenia. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


Following the Swedish defeat in the Finnish War and the signing of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn on September 17, 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as an autonomous grand duchy. The Tsar ruled the Grand Duchy of Finland as a constitutional monarch through his governor and a native Finnish Senate appointed by him. Combatants Russia Sweden Commanders Fyodor Buxhoeveden Boris Knorring Barclay de Tolly Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... The Treaty of Fredrikshamn (Freden i Fredrikshamn in Swedish and Haminan rauha in Finnish ) was a peace treaty concluded between Sweden and Russia on September 17, 1809. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... The Governor-General of Finland (in Finnish Suomen kenraalikuvernööri; in Swedish Generalguvernör av Finland) was the head of the Senate of Finland, the government in the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, between 1808 and 1917. ... The Senate of Finland combined the functions of cabinet and supreme court in the Grand Duchy of Finland between 1816 to 1917. ...


Imperial external territories

According to the 1st article of the Organic law, the Russian Empire was one indivisible state. In addition, the 26th article stated that "With the Imperial Russian throne are indivisible the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Finland". Relations with the Grand Duchy of Finland were also regulated by the 2nd article, "The Grand Duchy of Finland, constituted an indivisible part of the Russian state, in its internal affairs governed by special regulations at the base of special laws" and the law of 10 June 1910.[4] The Laws of Nature are claimed in the United States Declaration of Independence to be the work of the Creator of unalienable rights identified as Natures God. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1744–1867 the empire also controlled the so-called Russian America. With the exception of this territory (modern day Alaska), the Russian Empire was a contiguous landmass spanning Europe and Asia. In this it differed from contemporary, colonial-style empires. The result of this was that whilst the British and French Empire declined in the 20th century, the Russian Empire kept a large proportion of its territory, firstly as the Communist Soviet Union, and latterly as part of the present-day Russian Federation. After the discovery of northern Alaska by Ivan Fedorov in 1732, and the Aleutian Islands, southern Alaska, and north-western shores of North America in 1741 during the Russian exploration conducted by Vitus Bering and Aleksei Chirikov, it took fifty years until the founding of the first Russian colony in... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The term French Empire can refer to: The First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (1804 - 1814 or 1815) The Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852 - 1870) The Second French Colonial Empire (1830 - 1960) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise...


Furthermore, the empire at times controlled concession territories, notably the port of Kwantung and the Chinese Eastern Railway Zone, both conceded by imperial China, as well as a concession in Tientsin. See for these periods of extraterritorial control the relations between the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire. Kwantung (Simplified Chinese: 关东; Traditional Chinese: 關東; pinyin: Guāndōng; Wade-Giles: Kuan-tung) is a coastal area of northeastern China which is remembered most for its connection to Japans Kwantung Army. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: tiān jīn; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is a harbour municipality in China on the Hai He River (from Beijing) and Bohai Gulf of the Yellow Sea (Pacific Ocean). ... The Relations between the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire (1855-1922) were mostly hostile due to the conflicting territorial expansions of both empires. ...


Government and administration

Russian Empire in 1912
Russian Empire in 1912

Russia was described in the Almanach de Gotha for 1910 as "a constitutional monarchy under an autocratic tsar." This obvious contradiction in terms well illustrates the difficulty of defining in a single formula the system, essentially transitional and meanwhile sui generis, established in the Russian empire since October 1905. Before this date the fundamental laws of Russia described the power of the emperor as "autocratic and unlimited." The imperial style is still "Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias"; but in the fundamental laws as remodeled between the October Manifesto and the opening of the first Imperial Duma on 27 April 1906, while the name and principle of autocracy was jealously preserved, the word "unlimited" vanished. Not that the regime in Russia had become in any true sense constitutional, far less parliamentary; but the "unlimited autocracy" had given place to a "self-limited autocracy," whether permanently so limited, or only at the discretion of the autocrat, remaining a subject of heated controversy between conflicting parties in the state. Provisionally, then, the Russian governmental system may perhaps be best defined as "a limited monarchy under an autocratic emperor." Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 576 pixelsFull resolution (8397 × 6048 pixel, file size: 10. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 576 pixelsFull resolution (8397 × 6048 pixel, file size: 10. ... The Almanach de Gotha The Almanach de Gotha, published from 1763 to 1944, was a respected directory of Europes highest nobility and royalty. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... Autocracy is a form of government where unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Sui generis is a (post) Latin expression, literally meaning a scholar like what pradeep is or unique in its characteristics. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: October Manifesto (in English) Ilya Repin 17 October 1905 The October Manifesto (Russian: ) was issued on October 17, 1905; October 30 in the Gregorian calendar) by Emperor Nicholas II of Russia under the influence of Count Sergei Witte as a response to... State Duma of the Russian Empire was a legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... redirect constitutional monarchy ...


The emperor

Main article: Tsar#Russia
Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia.
Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia.

Peter the Great changed his title from Tsar in 1721, when he was declared Emperor of all Russia. While subsequent rulers kept this title, the ruler of Russia was commonly known as Tsar or Tsaritsa until the fall of the Empire during the February Revolution of 1917. Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 603 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1609 × 1600 pixel, file size: 569 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Boris Kustodiyev. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 603 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1609 × 1600 pixel, file size: 569 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Boris Kustodiyev. ... Nicholas II can refer to: Pope Nicholas II Tsar Nicholas II of Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The power of emperor before the October Manifesto was limited by two liabilities: the emperor and his consort must belong to the Russian Orthodox Church and to obey the laws of succession, established by Paul I.[5] On 17 October 1905, the situation changed, the emperor voluntarily limited his legislative power by decreeing that no measure was to become law without the consent of the Imperial Duma, a freely elected national assembly. In addition to mentioned moral liabilities appeared new juridical, amplified with the Organic law of 28 April 1906. The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... The Laws of Nature are claimed in the United States Declaration of Independence to be the work of the Creator of unalienable rights identified as Natures God. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Imperial Council

By the law of the 20 February 1906, the Council of the Empire was associated with the Duma as a legislative Upper House; and from this time the legislative power has been exercised normally by the emperor only in concert with the two chambers. The State Council (Государственный Совет) was the supreme state advisory body to Tsar in Imperial Russia. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ...


The Council of the Empire, or Imperial Council, as reconstituted for this purpose, consisted of 196 members, of whom 98 were nominated by the emperor, while 98 were elective. The ministers, also nominated, were ex officio members. Of the elected members, 3 were returned by the "black" clergy (the monks), 3 by the "white" clergy (seculars), 18 by the corporations of nobles, 6 by the academy of sciences and the universities, 6 by the chambers of commerce, 6 by the industrial councils, 34 by the governments having zemstvos, 16 by those having no zemstvos, and 6 by Poland. As a legislative body the powers of the Council were coordinate with those of the Duma; in practice, however, it has seldom if ever initiated legislation. This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ... Zemstvo was a form of local government instituted during the great liberal reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia. ...


The Duma and electoral system

The Duma of the Empire or Imperial Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), which formed the Lower House of the Russian parliament, consisted (since the ukaz of 2 June 1907) of 442 members, elected by an exceedingly complicated process, so manipulated as to secure an overwhelming preponderance for the wealthy, and especially the landed classes, and also for the representatives of the Russian as opposed to the subject peoples. Each province of the empire, except of Central Asian, returned a certain proportion of members (fixed in each case by law in such a way as to give a preponderance to the Russian element), in addition to those returned by certain of the great cities. The members of the Duma are elected by electoral colleges in each government, and these in their turn are elected, like the zemstvos, by electoral assemblies chosen by the three classes of landed proprietors, citizens and peasants. In these assemblies the large proprietors sit in person, being thus electors in the second degree; the lesser proprietors are represented by delegates, and therefore elect in the third degree. The urban population, divided into two categories according to their taxable wealth, elects delegates direct to the college of the Governorates, and is thus represented in the second degree; but the system of division into categories, according not to the number of taxpayers but to the amount they pay, gives a great preponderance to the richer classes. The peasants are represented only in the fourth degree, since the delegates to the electoral college are elected by the volosts. The workmen, finally, are specially treated. Every industrial concern employing fifty hands or over elects one or more delegates to the electoral college of the government, in which, like the others, they form a separate curia. State Duma of the Russian Empire was a legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... Volost or volost (Russian: ) was a traditional administrative subdivision in Russia. ... Workman may refer to: Look up workman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the college itself the voting—secret and by ballot throughout—is by majority; and since this majority consists, under the actual system, of very conservative elements (the landowners and urban delegates having fifths of the votes), the progressive elements—however much they might preponderate in the country—would have no chance of representation at all save for the curious provision that one member at least in each government must be chosen from each of the five classes represented in the college. For example, were there no reactionary peasant among the delegates, a reactionary majority might be forced to return a Social Democrat to the Duma. As it is, though a fixed minimum of peasant delegates must be returned, they by no means probably represent the opinion of the peasantry. That in the Duma any Radical elements survive at all is mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns — Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Łódź. These elect their delegates to the Duma direct, and though their votes are divided into two curias (on the basis of taxable property) in such a way as to give the advantage to wealth, each returning the same number of delegates, the democratic colleges can at least return members of their own complexion. Landowner or Landholder is a holder of the estate in land with considerable rights of ownership or, simply put, an owner of land. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Łódź City Rights 1423 Government  - Mayor Jerzy Kropiwnicki Area  - City 293. ...


Council of Ministers

By the law of 18 October 1905, to assist the emperor in the supreme administration a Council of Ministers (Sovyet Ministrov) was created, under a minister president, the first appearance of a prime minister in Russia. This council consists of all the ministers and of the heads of the principal administrations. The ministries were as follows: The Russian Council of Ministers is an executive governmental body that brings together the principal officers of the Executive Branch of the Russian government. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...

The edifice for the academy was built in 1764-89 to a design by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe and Alexander F. Kokorinov. ... This page lists foreign ministers of Russian Empire, Soviet Union, and Russian Federation: // Heads of Posolsky Prikaz, 1549-1699 Ivan Viskovatyi 1549-70 Brothers Vasily and Andrey Shchelkalov 1570-1601 Ivan Gramotin 1605-06, 1610-12, 1618-26, 1634-35 Pyotr Tretyakov 1608-10, 1613-18 Almaz Ivanov 1635-67... // War Collegium was created in the course of Government reform of Peter I 11 December 1717. ... Count Aleksey Vasilyev 8 September 1802 – 15 August 1807 Fyodor Golubtsov 26 August 1807 – 1 January 1810 Count Dmitry Guriev 1 January 1810 – 22 April 1823 Count Egor Kankrin 22 April 1823 – 1 May 1844 Fyodor Vronchenko 1 May 1844 – 6 April 1852 Pyotr Brok 9 April 1852 – 23 March... Viktor Kochubey 8 September 1802 – 24 November 1807 Prince Aleksey Kurakin 23 November 1807 – 31 March 1810 Osip Kozodavlev 31 March 1810 – 28 July 1819 Prince Alexander Golitsin 3 August 1819 – 4 November 1819 Viktor Kochubey 4 November 1819 – 28 June 1823 Baron Baltazar Kampengauzen 28 June 1823 – 29 August... Gavriil Derzhavin 8 September 1802 – 7 October 1803 Pavel Lopukhin 8 October 1803 – 1 January 1810 Ivan Dmitriev 1 January 1810 – 30 August 1814 Dmitry Proshchinsiy 30 August 1814 – 25 August 1817 Prince Dmitry Lobanov-Rostovskiy 25 August 1817 – 18 October 1827 Prince Dolgorukiy A. A. 18 October 1827 – 20... From 24 October 1817 to 15 May 1824 Ministry was named Ministry of Spiritual Affairs and of National Enlightenment. ...

Most Holy Synod

The Senate and Synod headquarters on Senate Square in St. Petersburg.
The Senate and Synod headquarters on Senate Square in St. Petersburg.
Main article: Most Holy Synod

The Most Holy Synod (established in 1721) was the supreme organ of government of the Orthodox Church in Russia. It was presided over by a lay procurator, representing the emperor, and consists, for the rest, of the three metropolitans of Moscow, St Petersburg and Kiev, the archbishop of Georgia, and a number of bishops sitting in rotation. Image File history File linksMetadata Senatesynod. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Senatesynod. ... The Bronze Horseman Saint Isaacs Cathedral Decembrists Square russian: Площадь Декабристов is a city square in Saint Petersburgs Central Business District. ... Headquarters of the Holy Synod of the Russian Empire in St. ... The following is a list of Russian Orthodox metropolitans and patriarchs of Moscow along with when they served: Metropolitans Maximus (1283-1305) Peter (1308-1326) Theognostus (1328-1353) Alexius (1354-1378) Cyprian (1381-1382), (1390-1406) Pimen (1382-1384) Dionysius I (1384-1385) Photius (1408-1431) Isidore the Apostate (1437...


Senate

Main article: Governing Senate

The Senate (Pravitelstvuyushchi Senat, i.e. directing or governing senate), originally established during the Government reform of Peter I, consisted of members nominated by the emperor. Its functions, which were exceedingly various, were carried out by the different departments into which it is divided. It was the supreme court of cassation; an audit office, a high court of justice for all political offenses; one of its departments fulfilled the functions of a heralds' college. It also had supreme jurisdiction in all disputes arising out of the administration of the empire, notably differences between the representatives of the central power and the elected organs of local self-government. Lastly, it examined into registers and promulgated new laws, a function which, in theory, gives it a power, akin to that of the Supreme Court of the United States, of rejecting measures not in accordance with the fundamental laws. The Governing Senate (Правительствующий сенат) was a legislative, judicial, and executive body of Russian Monarchs, instated by Peter the Great to replace the Boyar Duma and lasted until the very... The government reform of Peter I refers to a set of reforms introduced in Russian political and administrative system during the reign of Peter I of Russia. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the...


Provincial administration

Further information: History of the administrative division of Russia
Residence of the Governor of Moscow (1778-82)
Residence of the Governor of Moscow (1778-82)

For purposes of provincial administration Russia was divided (as of 1914) into 81 provinces (guberniyas) and 20 regions (oblasts) and 1 district (okrug). Vassals and protectorates of the Russian Empire included the Emirate of Bukhara, the Khanate of Khiva and, after 1914, Tuva (Uriankhai). Of these 11 Governorates, 17 provinces and 1 district (Sakhalin) belonged to Asiatic Russia. Of the rest 8 Governorates were in Finland, 10 in Poland. European Russia thus embraced 59 governments and 1 province (that of the Don). The Don province was under the direct jurisdiction of the ministry of war; the rest have each a governor and deputy-governor, the latter presiding over the administrative council. In addition there were governors-general, generally placed over several governments and armed with more extensive powers usually including the command of the troops within the limits of their jurisdiction. In 1906 there were governors-general in Finland, Warsaw, Vilna, Kiev, Moscow and Riga. The larger cities (St Petersburg, Moscow, Odessa, Sevastopol, Kerch, Nikolayev, Rostov) have an administrative system of their own, independent of the governments; in these the chief of police acts as governor. This article covers the history of the administrative division of Russia from 1708 to 1743. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... Okrug is a term to denote administrative subdivision in some Slavic states. ... A vassal, in European medieval feudalism terminology, is one who through a commendation ceremony (composed of homage and fealty) enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually military conscription and mutual protection, in exchange for a fief. ... Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell See The Protectorate. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is the former capital of Khwarezmia, which lies in the present-day Khorezm Province of Uzbekistan. ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The term Don may refer to Donald, a Western name Don (honorific), a Spanish, Portuguese and Italian title, given as a mark of respect A crime boss Don, Nord, a commune of the Nord département in northern France Don (TN), a comune in the province of Trento, in northern... Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Kerch (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: , Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, is an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Mykolaiv highlighted. ... Central market and Church in Rostov. ... Chief of Police is the title typically given to the head of a police department, particularly in the United States and Canada. ...


Judicial system

The judicial system of the Russian Empire, existed from the mid-19th century, was established by the "tsar emancipator" Alexander II, by the statute of 20 November 1864 (Sudebni Ustav). This system — based partly on English, partly on French models — was built up on certain broad principles: the separation of the judicial and administrative functions, the independence of the judges and courts, the publicity of trials and oral procedure, the equality of all classes before the law. Moreover, a democratic element was introduced by the adoption of the jury system and—so far as one order of tribunal was concerned—the election of judges. The establishment of a judicial system on these principles constituted a fundamental change in the conception of the Russian state, which, by placing the administration of justice outside the sphere of the executive power, ceased to be a despotism. This fact made the system especially obnoxious to the bureaucracy, and during the latter years of Alexander II and the reign of Alexander III there was a piecemeal taking back of what had been given. It was reserved for the third Duma, after the revolution, to begin the reversal of this process.[6] The judicial system of the Russian Empire was established during the reforms of Peter the Great. ... This article is about law in society. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... During the judicial reform of Emperor Alexander II, a completely new court system and a completely new order of legal proceedings were established in Imperial Russia The judicial reform of Alexander II is generally considered one of the most successful and the most consistent (along with the military reform) of... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jury. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


The system established by the law of 1864 was remarkable in that it set up two wholly separate orders of tribunals, each having their own courts of appeal and coming in contact only in the senate, as the supreme court of cassation. The first of these, based on the English model, are the courts of the elected justices of the peace, with jurisdiction over petty causes, whether civil or criminal; the second, based on the French model, are the ordinary tribunals of nominated judges, sitting with or without a jury to hear important cases. A tribunal is a generic term for any body acting judicially, whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. ... Court of Appeals is the title of certain appellate courts in various jurisdictions. ... The supreme court functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged, in some countries, provinces and states. ... A justice of the peace (JP) is a puisne judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. ...


Local administration

Alongside the local organs of the central government in Russia there are three classes of local elected bodies charged with administrative functions:

  • the peasant assemblies in the mir and the volost;
  • the zemstvos in the 34 Governorates of Russia;
  • the municipal dumas.

The Russian word mir (мир), besides its direct meanings of peace and world, had some other meanings related to social organization in Imperial Russia. ... Zemstvo was a form of local government instituted during the great liberal reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia. ...

Municipal dumas

Since 1870 the municipalities in European Russia have had institutions like those of the zemstvos. All owners of houses, and tax-paying merchants, artisans and workmen are enrolled on lists in a descending order according to their assessed wealth. The total valuation is then divided into three equal parts, representing three groups of electors very unequal in number, each of which elects an equal number of delegates to the municipal duma. The executive is in the hands of an elective mayor and an uprava, which consists of several members elected by the duma. Under Alexander III, however, by laws promulgated in 1892 and 1894, the municipal dumas were subordinated to the governors in the same way as the zemstvos. In 1894 municipal institutions, with still more restricted powers, were granted to several towns in Siberia, and in 1895 to some in Caucasia. Image File history File linksMetadata Mosdumaold. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mosdumaold. ... Revolution Square and Moscow City Hall in 2000. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ...


Baltic provinces

Main article: Baltic governorates

The formerly Swedish controlled Baltic provinces (Courland, Livonia and Esthonia) were incorporated into the Russian Empire after the defeat of Sweden in the Great Northern War. Under the Treaty of Nystad of 1721, the Baltic German nobility retained considerable powers of self-government and numerous privileges in matters affecting education, police and the administration of local justice. After 167 years of German language administration and education, laws were promulgated in 1888 and 1889 where the rights of police and manorial justice were transferred from Baltic German control to officials of the central government. Since about the same time a process of rigorous Russification was being carried out in the same provinces, in all departments of administration, in the higher schools and in the university of Dorpat, the name of which was altered to Yuriev. In 1893 district committees for the management of the peasants' affairs, similar to those in the purely Russian governments, were introduced into this part of the empire. The Baltic Provinces were the provinces of the Russian Empire on the territory of what in 1918 became, and is now, independent Estonia and Latvia. ... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ... Livonia was a dominion of Sweden from the 1620s until 1721. ... Estonia was a dominion of Sweden from 1561 until 1719, when it was ceded to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad, following the outcome in the Great Northern War. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden... The Baltic Germans (German: Deutsch-Balten, Deutschbalten, sometimes incorrectly Baltendeutsche), were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea which forms today the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... For the area of Sheffield, in England, see Manor, Sheffield. ... The Baltic Germans (German: Deutsch-Balten, Deutschbalten, sometimes incorrectly Baltendeutsche), were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea which forms today the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... The University of Tartu (Estonian: Tartu Ülikool, German: Universität Dorpat) is the national university of Estonia, and the one classical university in Estonia, located in the city of Tartu. ... County Area 38. ...


Religions

The state religion of the Russian Empire was that of the Russian Orthodox Christianity. Its head is the tsar; but although he makes and annuls all appointments, he does not determine questions of dogmatic theology. The principal ecclesiastical authority was the Holy Synod, the head of which, the Procurator, is one of the council of ministers and exercises very wide powers in ecclesiastical matters. In theory all religions may be freely professed, except that certain restrictions, such as domicile, are laid upon the Jews; but in actual fact the dissenting sects are more or less severely treated. According to returns published in 1905, based of the Russian Empire Census of 1897, the adherents of the different religious communities in the whole of the Russian empire numbered approximately as follows, though the heading Orthodox includes a very great many Raskolniks or Dissenters. South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Headquarters of the Holy Synod of the Russian Empire in St. ... A procurator is the incumbent of any of several current and historical political or legal offices. ... Russian Empire Census of 1897 was the first and the only census carried out in the Imperial Russia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The term dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, to disagree), labels one who dissents or disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc. ...

Religion Count of believers[7]
Orthodox[8] 87,123,604
Islam 13,906,972
Roman Catholics 11,467,994
Judaism 5,215,805
Lutherans[9] 3,572,653
Old Believers 2,204,596
Armenian Apostolic 1,179,241
Buddhists and Lamaists 433,863
Other non-Christian Religions 285,321
Reformed 85,400
Mennonites 66,564
Armenian Catholics 38,840
Baptists 38,139
Karaite Judaism 12,894
Anglicans 4,183
Other Christian Religions 3,952

The ecclesiastical heads of the national Russian Orthodox Church consist of three metropolitans (St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev), fourteen archbishops and fifty bishops, all drawn from the ranks of the monastic (celibate) clergy. The parochial clergy must be married when appointed, but if left widowers may not marry again. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... In the context of Russian Orthodox church history, the Old Believers (Russian: ) separated after 1666 - 1667 from the hierarchy of the Russian Orthodox Church as a protest against church reforms introduced by Patriarch Nikon. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... -1... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy, formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church (Rome). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Celibacy may refer either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ... Parochialism means being provincial, being narrow in scope, or considering only small sections of an issue. ...


Society

Subjects of the Russian Empire were segregated into sosloviyes, or social estates (classes) such as nobility (dvoryanstvo), clergy, merchants, cossacks and peasants. Native people of Siberia and Central Asia were officially registered as a category called inorodtsy (non-Slavic, literally: "people of another origin"). Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Russian nobility. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Merchants function as professional traders, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ...


The great mass of the people, 81.6%, belonged to the peasant order, the others were: nobility, 1.3%; clergy, 0.9%; the burghers and merchants, 9.3%; and military, 6.1%. Thus more than 88 millions of the Russians were peasants. A part of them were formerly serfs (10,447,149 males in 1858) – the remainder being " state peasants " (9,194,891 males in 1858, exclusive of the Archangel Governorate) and " domain peasants " (842,740 males the same year).


Serfdom

Main article: Serfdom in Russia

The serfdom which had sprung up in Russia in the 16th century, and became consecrated by law in 1649, taking, however, nearly one hundred and fifty years to attain its full growth, was abolished in 1861. This act liberated the serfs from a yoke that was terrible, even under the best landlords, and from this point of view it was obviously an immense benefit.[10] But it was far from securing corresponding economic results. A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov. ... The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia was the first and most important of liberal reforms effected during the reign of Alexander II. The reform amounted to the liquidation of serf dependence previously suffered by Russian peasants. ...


The household servants or dependents attached to the personal service of their masters were merely set free; and they entirely went to reinforce the town proletariat. The peasants proper received their houses and orchards, and allotments of arable land. These allotments were given over to the rural commune (mir), which was made responsible, as a whole, for the payment of taxes for the allotments. For these allotments the peasants had to pay, as before, either by personal labor or by a fixed rent. The allotments could be redeemed by them with the help of the crown, and then they were freed from all obligations to the landlord. The crown paid the landlord in obligations representing the capitalized rent, and the peasants had to pay the crown, for forty-nine years, 6% interest on this capital. The redemption was not calculated on the value of the allotments of land, but was considered as a compensation for the loss of the compulsory labor of the serfs; so that throughout Russia, with the exception of a few provinces in the S.E., it was—and still remains, notwithstanding a very great increase in the value of land—much higher than the market value of the allotment. Moreover, many proprietors contrived to curtail seriously the allotments which the peasants had possessed under serfdom, and frequently they deprived them of precisely the parts which they were most in need of, namely, pasture lands around their houses, and forests. The effect of this, craftily calculated beforehand, was to compel the peasants to rent pasture lands from the landlord at any price. Servant has a number of meaning: A servant is another word for domestic worker, a person who is hired to provide regular household or other duties, and receives compensation. ... The Russian word mir (мир), besides its direct meanings of peace and world, had some other meanings related to social organization in Imperial Russia. ...


Peasants

After the Emancipation reform one quarter of peasants have received allotments of only 2.9 acres per male, and one-half less than 8.5 to 11.4 acres – the normal size of the allotment necessary to the subsistence of a family under the three-fields system being estimated at 28 to 42 acres. Land must thus of necessity be rented from the landlords at fabulous prices. The aggregate value of the redemption and land taxes often reaches 185 to 275% of the normal rental value of the allotments, not to speak of taxes for recruiting purposes, the church, roads, local administration and so on, chiefly levied from the peasants. The arrears increase every year; one-fifth of the inhabitants have left their houses; cattle are disappearing. Every year more than half the adult males (in some districts three-fourths of the men and one-third of the women) quit their homes and wander throughout Russia in search of labor. In the governments of the Black Earth Area the state of matters is hardly better. Many peasants took the "gratuitous allotments," whose amount was about one-eighth of the normal allotments. Central Black Earth Region or Central Chernozem Region (Центрально-черноземная область, центральная черноземная область, центрально-черноземная полоса) is a part of the Eurasian chernozem belt that lies within Central Russia and comprises Voronezh Oblast, Lipetsk Oblast, Belgorod Oblast, Tambov Oblast, Oryol Oblast and Kursk Oblast. ...


The average allotment in Kherson was only 0.90 acre, and for allotments from 2.9 to 5.8 acres the peasants pay 5 to 10 rubles of redemption tax. The state peasants were better off, but still they were emigrating in masses. It was only in the steppe governments that the situation was more hopeful. In Little Russia, where the allotments were personal (the mir existing only among state peasants), the state of affairs does not differ for the better, on account of the high redemption taxes. In the West provinces, where the land was valued cheaper and the allotments somewhat increased after the Polish insurrection, the general situation was better. Finally, in the Baltic provinces nearly all the land belonged to the German landlords, who either farmed the land themselves, with hired laborers, or let it in small farms. Only one quarter of the peasants were farmers, the remainder were mere laborers. Kherson (Ukrainian and Russian Херсон) is a city in southern Ukraine, the capital of Kherson Oblast, with 303,900 inhabitants (2004). ... Little Russia or Malorossiya (Russian: ) was the name for the territory of Ukraine applied in the time of the Russian Empire and earlier. ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... The Baltic Provinces were the provinces of the Russian Empire on the territory which is now Baltic States. ... The Baltic Germans (German: , Deutschbalten; literally German Balts) were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today forms the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ...


Landowners

The situation of the former serf-proprietors was also unsatisfactory. Accustomed to the use of compulsory labor, they have failed to accommodate themselves to the new conditions. The millions of rubles of redemption money received from the crown have been spent without any real or lasting agricultural improvements having been affected. The forests have been sold, and only those landlords are prospering who exact rack-rents for the land without which the peasants could not live upon their allotments. During the years 1861 to 1892 the land owned by the nobles decreased 30%, or from 210,000,000 to 150,000,000 acres (610,000 km²); during the following four years an additional 2,119,500 acres (8,577 km²) were sold; and since then the sales have gone on at an accelerated rate, until in 1903 alone close upon 2,000,000 acres (8,000 km²) passed out of their hands. On the other hand, since 1861, and more especially since 1882, when the Peasant Land Bank was founded for making advances to peasants who were desirous of purchasing land, the former serfs, or rather their descendants, have between 1883 and 1904 bought about 19,500,000 acres (78,900 km²) from their former masters. There has been an increase of wealth among the few, but along with this a general impoverishment of the mass of the people, and the peculiar institution of the mir, framed on the principle of community of ownership and occupation of the land, was not conducive to the growth of individual effort. In November 1906, however, the emperor Nicholas II promulgated a provisional ukaz permitting the peasants to become freeholders of allotments made at the time of emancipation, all redemption dues being remitted. This measure, which was endorsed by the third Duma in an act passed on the 21 December 1908, is calculated to have far-reaching and profound effects upon the rural economy of Russia. Thirteen years previously the government had endeavored to secure greater fixity and permanence of tenure by providing that at least twelve years must elapse between every two redistributions of the land belonging to a mir amongst those entitled to share in it. The ukaz of November 1906 had provided that the various strips of land held by each peasant should be merged into a single holding; the Duma, however, on the advice of the government, left this to the future, as an ideal that could only gradually be realized. is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Open-field (disambiguation) The open field system was the prevalent agricultural system in Europe from the Middle Ages to as recently as the 20th century in places. ...


See also

The National emblems of the Russian Empire were the state coat of arms and the state seal in three variants: big, medium and small. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/ru_1914.html
  2. ^ Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to History
  3. ^ For an analysis of the reaction of the elites to the revolutionaries see Manning, Roberta. The Crisis of the Old Order in Russia: Gentry and Government. Princeton University Press, 1982.
  4. ^ Грибовский, p.35
  5. ^ Грибовский, p.24
  6. ^ An ukaz of 1879 gave the governors the right to report secretly on the qualifications of candidates for the office of justice of the peace. In 1889 Alexander III abolished the election of justices of the peace, except in certain large towns and some outlying parts of the empire, and greatly restricted the right of trial by jury. The confusion of the judicial and administrative functions was introduced again by the appointment of officials as judges. In 1909 the third Duma restored the election of justices of the peace.
  7. ^ Results of the Russian Empire Census of 1897, Table XII (Religions)
  8. ^ The census did not differentiate between different branches of Orthodoxy.
  9. ^ The Lutheran Church was the dominant faith of the Baltic Provinces, of Ingria, and of the Grand Duchy of Finland
  10. ^ It was only as late as 1904, however, that the landed proprietors were forbidden by law to inflict corporal punishment upon the peasants.

Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... The Baltic Provinces were the provinces of the Russian Empire on the territory which is now Baltic States. ... Ingria may be seen represented in the easternmost part of the Carta Marina (1539) Ingria (Finnish: , Russian: , Swedish: , Estonian: ) is a historical region, now situated mostly in Russia, comprising the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ...

References and further reading

  • Library of Congress Country Studies: Russia
  • Hingley, Ronald. The Tsars, 1533–1917. Macmillan, 1968.
  • Saunders, David (December 2000). "Regional Diversity in the Later Russian Empire". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 10: 143–163. ISSN 0080-4401. 
  • Warnes, David. Chronicle of the Russian Tsars: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Russia. Thames & Hudson, 1999.
  • (Russian) Грибовский В.М. Государственное устройство и управление Российской империи, 1912. Photocopy of pages
  • (Russian) Первая Всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Под ред. Н.А.Тройницкого. т.I. Общий свод по Империи результатов разработки данных Первой Всеобщей переписи населения, произведенной 28 января 1897 года. С.-Петербург, 1905. Таблица XII. Распределение населения по вероисповеданиям. [1]
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • The Empire that was Russia: color photographs from Library of Congress
  • The New Student's Reference Work/Russia, Empire of

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