FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Russian Constituent Assembly

The Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное Собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye Sobranie) was a democratically elected constitutional body convened in Russia after the overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II. It met for 13 hours, 4 p.m. - 5 a.m., January 5-January 6, 1918 (all dates in the article are Old Style aka Julian Calendar until February 1918), and was elected and dissolved by the Bolshevik government. Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is the official Slavonic title designating Emperor in the following states: Bulgaria in 913–1422 (for later usage in 1908–1946, see below) Serbia in... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May 1868 - 17 July 1918) (Russian: (Nikolai II)) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and took force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ...

Contents


Origins

The convocation of a democratically elected Constituent Assembly that would write a constitution for Russia was one of the main demands of all Russian revolutionary parties prior to the Russian Revolution of 1905. During the revolution, the Tsarist government was forced to grant basic civil liberties and hold elections to a newly created legislative body, the State Duma, in 1906. The Duma, however, was not authorized to write a new constitution, much less abolish the monarchy. Moreover, the Duma's powers were repeatedly modified and curtailed by the government. The government twice dissolved the Duma, in July 1906 and, after a new election, in June 1907. The final election law written by the government after the second dissolution on June 3, 1907 favored large landowners and the propertied classes. What little the Duma could do after 1907 was often vetoed by the Tsar or the appointed upper house of the Russian parliament, therefore the Duma was widely seen as unrepresentative and ineffective and the demands for a Constituent Assembly that would be elected on the basis of universal suffrage continued unabated. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... Emblem commemorating the 100 year anniversary of Russia Dumas Boris Gryzlov, speaker of the Russian State Duma since December 2003 The State Duma (Russian: Государственная дума (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), common abbreviation: Госдума (Gosduma)) in the Russian Federation is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (legislature), the upper house being the Federation... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of suffrage to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, or social status. ...


Provisional Government (February-October 1917)

With the overthrow of Nicholas II during the February Revolution of 1917, state power was assumed by the Russian Provisional Government, which was formed by the liberal Duma leadership and supported by the socialist-dominated Petrograd Soviet. According the will of Grand Duke Michael who refused the throne after abdication of Nicholas II, the new government should hold country-wide elections to the Constituent Assembly, which in turn should determine the form of government, a task complicated by the continuing World War I and occupation of some parts of the Russian Empire by the Central Powers. The reason why the successive four governments between February and October 1917 were called "Provisional" was that their members intended to hold on to power only until a permanent form of government was established by the Constituent Assembly. See Revolutions of 1848 in France for the February 1848 French revolution. ... State emblem of the Russian Provisional Government The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the tsars abdication. ... An assembly of the Petrograd Soviet, 1917 The Petrograd Soviet, or the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, was the council set up in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg, Russia) in March 1917 as the representative body of the citys workers. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ...


According to the initial plan of the Grand Duke, the Constituent Assembly was the only body to have authority to change the form of government in Russia. Kerensky and the Provisional Government claimed that they would organize elections after the war, but in spite the initial agreement in July 1917 they declared Russia a republic and begun preparations for elections in "Predparlament" - the parliament of the republic. These actions triggered criticism both from left and right. Monarchists saw the declaration of a republican form of government in Russia unacceptable. The left considered this a power grab, intending to weaken the influence of the soviets. The first result was the Kornilov Affair. After this failed move, the left-inspired October Revolution occurred. A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution. ... The Kornilov Affair was the failed military coup by General Lavr Kornilov against the Provisional Government of Aleksandr Kerensky in September, 1917, in between the fall of Tsar Nicholas II and the October Revolution. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution or November Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ...


Bolsheviks and the Constituent Assembly

The Bolsheviks' position on the Constituent Assembly evolved throughout 1917. At first, like all other socialist parties, they supported the idea. Although one of their slogans after Vladimir Lenin's return from Switzerland in April 1917 was "All Power to the Soviets!", it referred to transferring current state power from the Provisional Government to the socialist-dominated workers' and soldiers' councils known as "Soviets" and not to the ultimate power which was to be held by the Constituent Assembly. For example, on September 12-September 14, 1917, Lenin wrote to the Bolshevik Central Committee, urging it to seize power: (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин, Vladimir Ilič Lenin; IPA:; born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov; April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Communist revolutionary of Russia, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the main theorist of what has come to be called... Soviet redirects here. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...

Nor can we "wait" for the Constituent Assembly, for by surrendering Petrograd [prime minister] Kerensky and Co. can always frustrate its convocation. Our Party alone, on taking power, can secure the Constituent Assembly’s convocation; it will then accuse the other parties of procrastination and will be able to substantiate its accusations [1].

On 25 October 1917, Old Style (7 November 1917, New Style), the Bolsheviks initiated the overthrow of the Provisional Government (known as the October Revolution) through the medium of the Petrograd Soviet and the Military Revolutionary Committee. The uprising coincided with the convocation of the Second Congress of Workers' and Soldiers' Soviets, where the Bolsheviks had 390 delegates out of 650 and which transferred state power to the newly former Bolshevik government, the Sovnarkom. Deputies representing more moderate socialist parties, Mensheviks and right wing of Socialist Revolutionaries, protested what they considered an illegitimate seizure of power and walked out of the Congress. Alexander Kerensky Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Russian: ; May 2 [O.S. April 22] 1881 – June 11, 1970) was a Russian revolutionary leader who was instrumental in toppling the Russian monarchy. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution or November Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... An assembly of the Petrograd Soviet, 1917 The Petrograd Soviet, or the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, was the council set up in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg, Russia) in March 1917 as the representative body of the citys workers. ... The Petrograd Soviet, or the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, was the council set up in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg, Russia) in March 1917 as the representative body of the citys workers. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Essaires; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a Russian political party active in the early 20th century. ...


Over the following few weeks, the Bolsheviks established control over almost all ethnically Russian areas, but had less success in ethnically non-Russian areas. Although the new government limited freedom of the press[2] (by sporadically banning non-socialist press) and persecuted the Constitutional Democratic party (the main liberal party in the country) it otherwise permitted elections to proceed on November 12, 1917 as scheduled by the Provisional Government. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Freedom of speech. ... The Constitutional Democratic Party (Constitutional Democrats, formally Party of Popular Freedom, informally Cadets) was a liberal political party in Tsarist Russia. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Officially, the Bolshevik government at first considered itself a provisional government and claimed that it intended to submit to the will of the Constituent Assembly. As Lenin wrote on November 5 (emphasis added): November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ...

Hence the Soviets of Peasants’ Deputies, primarily the uyezd and then the gubernia Soviets, are from now on, pending the convocation of the Constituent Assembly, vested with full governmental authority in their localities [3]

Uyezd or uezd (Russian: ) was an admistrative subdivision of Rus, Muscovy, and Russia used from the 13th century, originally describing groups of several volosts formed around the most important cities. ... Guberniya (also gubernia, guberniia, and gubernya) (Russian: губе́рния) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as province or Governorate General. ...

Election Results (November 12, 1917)

The election to the Constituent Assembly yielded the following results: November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...

Party Votes Number of deputies
Socialist Revolutionaries 17,100,000 380
Bolsheviks 9,800,000 168
Mensheviks 1,360,000 18
Constitutional Democrats 2,000,000 17
Minorities 77
Left Socialist Revolutionaries 39
People's Socialists 4
Total: 41,700,000 703 [4]

However, due to the size of the country, the ongoing World War I and a deteriorating communications system, these results were not fully available at the time. A partial count (54 constituencies out of 79) was published by N. V. Svyatitsky in A Year of the Russian Revolution. 1917-18, Moscow, Zemlya i Volya Publishers, 1918. Svyatitsky's data was generally accepted by all political parties, including the Bolsheviks [5], and was as follows: Socialist-Revolutionary election poster, 1917. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... Constitutional Democrats or Cadets were a bourgeois liberal party in Tsarist Russia that was eventually banned by the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... In 1917, Russia the Socialist-Revolutionary Party split between those who supported the Provisional Government, established after the February revolution, and those who supported the Bolsheviks who favoured a communist insurrection. ...

Party Ideology Votes
Russian Socialist Revolutionaries Socialist 16,500,000
Bolsheviks Communist 9,023,963
Ukrainian, Moslem, and other non-Russian Socialist Revolutionaries Socialist 4,400,000
Constitutional Democrats Liberal 1,856,639
Mensheviks Social Democratic 668,064
Moslems Religious 576,000
Jewish Bund Socialist 550,000
Ukrainian socialists Social Democratic 507,000
Popular Socialists Social Democratic 312,000
Other Rightist groups Rightist 292,000
Association of Rural Proprietors and Landowners Rightist 215,000
Bashkirs Ethnic 195,000
Poles Ethnic 155,000
Germans Ethnic 130,000
Ukrainian Social Democrats Social Democratic 95,000
Cossacks Ethnic 79,000
Old Believers Religious 73,000
Letts Ethnic 67,000
Co-operators Social Democratic 51,000
German socialists Social Democratic 44,000
Yedinstvo Social Democratic 25,000
Finnish socialists Social Democratic 14,000
Belarusians Ethnic 12,000
Total: 35,333,666

The bottom line was that the Bolsheviks received between 22% and 25% [6] of the vote, while the Socialist-Revolutionary Party received around 57-58%, 62% with their social democratic allies. The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a Russian political party active in the early 20th century. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a Russian political party active in the early 20th century. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Constitutional Democrats or Cadets were a bourgeois liberal party in Tsarist Russia that was eventually banned by the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Islām (Arabic الإسلام, submission (to God)) is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אלגמײנער ײדישער ארבײטרסבונד אין רוסלנד, ליטא אונד פוילן), generally called The Bund (בונד), was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Socialism is any economic system in which the means of production are owned and controlled collectively or a political philosophy advocating such a system. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the... Socialism is any economic system in which the means of production are owned and controlled collectively or a political philosophy advocating such a system. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... This article needs cleanup. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Detail of the painting Boyarynya Morozova by Vasily Surikov depicting a defiant Old Believer arrested by Czarist authorities in 1671. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Letts may be the town Letts, Iowa a diary brand an alternative name for Latvians a residence hall at American University This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Socialism is any economic system in which the means of production are owned and controlled collectively or a political philosophy advocating such a system. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Yedinstvo or Edinstvo ( English:Unity) was a faction within the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP) between 1914 and 1917 and then a small independent party in 1917 and 1918. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Socialism is any economic system in which the means of production are owned and controlled collectively or a political philosophy advocating such a system. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ...


Between the Election and the Convocation of the Assembly (November 1917-January 1918)

The Bolsheviks began to equivocate on whether they would submit to the Constituent Assembly immediately after the elections were held and it looked likely that they would lose. On November 14, 1917, Lenin said at the Extraordinary All-Russia Congress Of Soviets Of Peasants' Deputies: November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...

As for the Constituent Assembly, the speaker said that its work will depend on the mood in the country, but he added, trust in the mood, but don't forget your rifles [7].

On November 21, People's Commissar for Naval Affairs Pavel Dybenko ordered to keep 7,000 pro-Bolshevik Kronstadt sailors on "full alert" in case of a convocation of the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1917. A meeting of some 20,000 Kronstadt "soldiers, sailors, workers and peasants" resolved to only support a Constituent Assembly that was: November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with: :Sovnarkom. ... Pavel Dybenko Pavel Yefimovich Dybenko (Russian: Павел Ефимович Дыбенко) (February 16, 1889 - July 29, 1938) was a Russian revolutionary and a leading Soviet naval officer. ... 1888 map of Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), or Kronshtadt, Cronstadt, is a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, at , . It lies thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg, of which it is the chief port. ... November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...

so composed as to confirm the achievements of the October Revolution [and would be free of] Kaledinites and leaders of the counter-revolutionary bourgeoisie" [8]

With the split between mainstream Socialist Revolutionaries and Left Socialist Revolutionaries finalized in November, the Bolsheviks formed a coalition government with the latter. On November 28, the Soviet government declared the Constitutional Democratic Party "a party of the enemies of the people", banned the party and ordered its leaders arrested[9]. It also postponed the convocation of the Constituent Assembly until early January. At first the Soviet government blamed the delays on technical difficulties and machinations of their enemies [10], but on December 26, 1917 Lenin's Theses on the Constituent Assembly were published. In these theses, he argued that the Soviets were a "higher form of democracy" than the Constituent Assembly: Aleksei Maksimovich Kaledin (Каледин, Алексей Максимович in Russian) (10. ... In 1917, Russia the Socialist-Revolutionary Party split between those who supported the Provisional Government, established after the February revolution, and those who supported the Bolsheviks who favoured a communist insurrection. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...

2. While demanding the convocation of a Constituent Assembly, revolutionary Social-Democracy has ever since the beginning of the Revolution of 1917 repeatedly emphasised that a republic of Soviets is a higher form of democracy than the usual bourgeois republic with a Constituent Assembly.

and that the Constituent Assembly as elected was not truly representative of the will of the Russian people because:

5. ... the party which from May to October had the largest number of followers among the people, and especially among the peasants — the Socialist-Revolutionary Party — came out with united election lists for the Constituent Assembly in the middle of October 1917, but split in November 1917, after the elections and before the Assembly met.

Therefore Lenin asserted that:

the interests of this [October 1917] revolution stand higher than the formal rights of the Constituent Assembly [...]
17. Every direct or indirect attempt to consider the question of the Constituent Assembly from a formal, legal point of view, within the framework of ordinary bourgeois democracy and disregarding the class struggle and civil war, would be a betrayal of the proletariat's cause, and the adoption of the bourgeois standpoint [11]

Not everybody in the Bolshevik party was willing to go along with what increasingly looked like an upcoming supression of the Constituent Assembly. In early December, the moderates even had a majority among the Bolshevik delegates to the Constituent Assembly, but Lenin prevailed at the December 11, 1917 meeting of the Bolshevik Central Committee, which ordered Bolshevik delegates to follow Lenin's line [12]. December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Meeting in Petrograd (January 5-6, 1918)

In the morning of January 5, 1918, a massive peaceful demonstration in support of the assembly was shot at and dispersed by the troops loyal to the Bolshevik government [13]. January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Constituent Assembly quorum met in the Tauride Palace in Petrograd, between 4 p.m. and 4:40 a.m., January 5-6, 1918. A prominent Bolshevik, Ivan Skvortsov-Stepanov, in a speech approved by Lenin, explained why the Bolsheviks didn't feel obligated to submit to the democratically elected Constituent Assembly: In law, a quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative body necessary to conduct the business of that group. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"How can you," he wondered, "appeal to such a concept as the will of the whole people? For a Marxist "the people" is an inconceivable notion: the people does not act as a single unit. The people as a unit is a mere fiction, and this fiction is needed by the ruling classes" [14].

A motion by the Bolsheviks that would have recognized the Bolshevik government and made the assembly powerless was voted down. Victor Chernov, the leader of the Socialist Revolutionaries, was elected Chairman with 244 votes against the Bolshevik-backed leader of Left Socialist Revolutionaries Maria Spiridonova's 153 votes. The Bolsheviks and their Left Socialist Revolutionary allies then convened a special meeting of the Soviet government, Sovnarkom, and decided to dissolve the Assembly. After Deputy People's Commissar for Naval Affairs Fyodor Raskolnikov read a prepared statement, the two factions walked out. Lenin left the building with the following instructions: Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Viktor Mikhailovich Chernov (1873(?) – 1952) was a Russian revolutionary and a founder of that countrys Socialist-Revolutionary Party in 1901-1902. ... Maria Spiridonova (October 16, 1884, Tambov – September 11, 1941, Medvedevsky Forest near Oryol) was a figure in Russian revolutionary circles at the beginning of the 20th century. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

There is no need to disperse the Constituent Assembly: just let them go on chattering as long as they like and then break up, and tomorrow we won't let a single one of them come in [15].

Around 4 a.m., the head of the guards detachment, A. G. Zheleznyakov, approached Chernov and said:

The guard are tired. I propose that you close the meeting and let everybody go home [16].

Chernov quickly read the highlights of the SR-drafted "Law on the Land", which proclaimed a radical land reform [17], a law making Russia a democratic federal republic (thus ratifying the Provisional Government's decision adopted in September 1917) and an appeal to the Entente Allies for a democratic peace. The Assembly voted for the proposals, scheduled the next meeting for 5 p.m. on January 6 and dispersed at 4:40 a.m.. The next day the deputies found the building locked down and the Constituent Assembly declared dissolved by the Bolshevik government, a decision ratified by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK) late on January 6. Entente, meaning a diplomatic understanding, may refer to a number of agreements: The Entente Cordiale, 1904 between France and the United Kingdom. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Central Executive Committee refers to governing bodies with executive power of various parties and governments. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Between Petrograd and Samara (January-June 1918)

Barred from the Tauride Palace, Constituent Assembly deputies met at the Gurevich High School and held a number of secret meetings, but found that the conditions were increasingly dangerous. Some tried to relocate to the Tsentral'na Rada-controlled Kiev, but on January 15, 1918 Rada forces had to abandon the city, which effectively terminated the Constituent Assembly as a cohesive body [18] The Central Rada or Tsentralna Rada (Ukrainian: ) was a representative body formed in 1917 in Kyiv to govern the Ukrainian Peoples Republic—the Ukrainian autonomy and then independent state. ... Motto: Oblast Municipality Municipal government City council (Київська Міська рада) Mayor Oleksandr Omelchenko Mayor-elect Leonid Chernovetsky Area 800 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 2,660,401 100% 3,299/km² Founded City rights around 5th century 1487 Latitude Longitude Area code +380 44 Car plates AA (before 2004: КА,КВ,КЕ,КН,КІ) Sister cities Athens, Brussels... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


The Socialist Revolutionary Central Committee met in January and decided against armed resistance since:

Bolshevism, unlike the Tsarist autocracy, is based on workers and soldiers who are still blinded, have not lost faith in it, and do not see that it is fatal to the cause of the working class [19]

Instead the socialists (Socialist Revolutionaries and their Menshevik allies) decided to work within the Soviet system and returned to the Soviet All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK), the Petrograd Soviet and other Soviet bodies that they had walked out of during the Bolshevik uprising in October 1917. They hoped that Soviet re-elections would go their way once the Bolsheviks proved unable to solve pressing social and economic problems. They would then achieve a majority within local Soviets and, eventually, the Soviet government, at which point they would be able to re-convene the Constituent Assembly.


The socialists' plan was partially successful in that Soviet re-elections in the winter and especially spring of 1918 often returned pro-socialist and anti-Bolshevik majorities, but their plan was frustrated by the Soviet government's refusal to accept election results and its repeated dissolution of anti-Bolshevik Soviets. As one of the leaders of Tula Bolsheviks N. V. Kopulov wrote to the Bolshevik Central Committee in early 1918: Tula (Russian: ) is an industrial city in the European part of Russia, located 165 km to the south of Moscow, on the river Upa, at . ...

After the transfer of power to the soviet, a rapid about­-face began in the mood of the workers. The Bolshevik deputies began to be recalled one after another, and soon the general situation took on a rather unhappy appearance. Despite the fact that there was a schism among the SRs, and the Left SRs were with us, our situation became shakier with each passing day. We were forced to block new elections to the soviet and even not to recognize them where they had taken place not in our favor [20].

In response, Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviks started Assemblies of Workers' Plenipotentiaries which ran in parallel with the Bolshevik-dominated Soviets. The idea proved popular with the workers, but had little effect on the Bolshevik government.


With the signing of the peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the Bolsheviks on March 3, 1918, the Socialist Revolutionary leadership increasingly viewed the Bolshevik government as a German proxy. They were willing to consider an alliance with the liberal Constitutional Democrats, which had been rejected as recently as December 1917 by their Fourth Party Congress. Socialists and liberals held talks on creating a united anti-Bolshevik front in Moscow in late March. However, the negotiations broke down since the SRs' insisted on re-convening the Constituent Assembly as elected in November 1917 while the Constitutional Democrats, who had done poorly in the November election, demanded new elections. [21]. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest, formerly Brest-Litovsk, between Russia and the Central Powers, marking Russias exit from World War I. The treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year but is significant as a chief... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Samara Committee (June-September 1918)

On May 7, 1918 (New Style aka Gregorian Calendar from this point on) the Eighth Party Council of the Socialist Revolutionary Party convened in Moscow and decided to start an uprising against the Bolsheviks with the goal of reconvening the Constituent Assembly. While preparations were under way, the Czechoslovak Legions overthrew Bolshevik rule in Siberia, Urals and the Volga region in late May-early June 1918 and the center of SR activity shifted there. On June 8, 1918, five Constituent Assembly members formed an All-Russian Constituent Assembly Committee (Komuch) in Samara and declared it the new supreme authority in the country [22]. May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Siberia is also an album by Echo & The Bunnymen. ... The Ural Mountains, (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Samara (Russian: ), from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev (), is a major city situated on the Volga River in the southeastern part of European Russia, Volga Federal District, the administrative center of Samara Oblast. ...


The Committee had the support of the Czechoslovak Legions and was able to spread its authority over much of the Volga-Kama region. However, most of the Siberia and Urals regions were controlled by a patchwork of ethnic, Cossack, military and liberal-rightist local governments, which constantly clashed with the Committee. The Committee functioned until September 1918, eventually growing to about 90 Constituent Assembly members, when the so-called "State Conference" representing all the anti-Bolshevik local governments from the Volga to the Pacific Ocean formed a coalition "All-Russian Supreme Authority" (aka the "Ufa Directory") with the ultimate goal of re-convening the Constituent Assembly once the circumstances permitted: Kama may refer to several things Kama, a Hindu god The term Kama also refers to one of the 4 goals of life according to Hindu traditions (Purusharthas) - these include Dharma, artha, kama, and moksha The Kama River, a tributary of the Volga river, in Russia Kama, sickle-like weapons... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Ufas coat of arms Ufa (Russian: ; Bashkir Өфө; Tatar Ufa, Öfä; Chuvash Ěпхӳ) is the capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. ...

2. In its activities the government will be unswervingly guided by the indisputable supreme rights of the Constituent Assembly. It will tirelessly ensure that the actions of all organs subordinate to the Provisional Government do not in any way tend to infringe the rights of the Constituent Assembly or hinder its resumption of work.
3. It will present an account of its activities to the Constituent Assembly as soon as the Constituent Assembly declares that it has resumed operation. It will subordinate itself unconditionally to the Constituent Assembly, as the only supreme authority in the country [23].

The All-Russian Constituent Assembly Committee continued functioning as "Congress of Members of the Constituent Assembly" but had no real power, although the Directory pledged to support it:

All possible assistance to the Congress of Members of the Constituent Assembly, operating as a legal state organ, in its independent work of ensuring the relocation of members of the Constituent Assembly, hastening and preparing the resumption of activity by the Constituent Assembly in its present composition [24]

Initially, the agreement had the support of the Socialist Revolutionary Central Committee which delegated two of its right-wing members, Avksentiev and Zenzinov, to the five member Ufa Directory. However, when Victor Chernov arrived in Samara on September 19, 1918, he was able to persuade the Central Committee to withdraw support from the Directory because he viewed it as too conservative and the SR presence there as insufficient [25]. This put the Directory in a political vacuum and two months later, on November 18, 1918, it was overthrown by rightwing officers who made Admiral Alexander Kolchak the new "supreme ruler". September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar with 43 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Александр Васильевич Колчак in Russian) (November 4 (November 16 NS), 1874 - February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander and later head of part of the anti-Bolshevik White forces during the Russian Civil War. ...


Final Collapse

After the fall of the Ufa Directory, Chernov formulated what he called the "third path" against both the Bolsheviks and the liberal-rightist White Movement, but the SRs' attempts to assert themselves as an independent force were unsuccessful and the party, always fractious, began to disintegrate. On the Right, Avksentiev and Zenzinov went abroad with Kolchak's permission. On the Left, some SRs became reconciled with the Bolsheviks. Chernov tried to stage an uprising against Kolchak in December 1918, but it was put down and its participants executed. In February 1919 the SR Central Committee decided that the Bolsheviks were the lesser of two evils and gave up armed struggle against them. The Bolsheviks let the SR Central Committee re-establish itself in Moscow and start publishing a party newspaper in March 1919, but they were soon arrested and spent the rest of the Russian Civil War in prison [26]. Chernov went undercover and eventually was forced to flee Russia while the imprisoned Central Committee members were put on trial in 1922 and their leaders sentenced to death, although their sentences were suspended [27]. The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a term which has other meanings) comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922. ...


With the main pro-Constituent Assembly party effectively out of the picture, the only remaining force that supported its re-convocation was the Entente Allies. On May 26, 1919, the Allies offered Kolchak their support predicated on a number of conditions, including free elections at all levels of government and reinstating the Constituent Assembly. On June 4, 1919 Kolchak accepted most of the conditions, but he refused to reconvene the Assembly elected in November 1917 since, he claimed, it had been elected under Bolshevik rule and the elections were not fully free. On June 12, 1919, the Allies deemed the response satisfactory and the demand for a reconvocation of the original Constituent Assembly was abandoned [28]. May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Both Kolchak and the leader of the White Movement in the South of Russia, General Anton Denikin, officially subscribed to the principle of "non-predetermination", i.e. they refused to determine what kind of social or political system Russia would have until after Bolshevism was defeated. Kolchak and Denikin made general promises to the effect that there would be no return to the past and that there would be some form of popular representation put in place. However, as one Russian journalist observed at the time: Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during World War I. Following the Russian Revolution he was part of the counter-revolutionary White Russian forces in the civil...

in Omsk itself ... could be seen a political grouping who were prepared to promise anything that the Allies wanted whilst saying that "When we reach Moscow we can talk to them in a different tone" [29].

Numerous memoirs published by the leaders of the White Movement after their defeat are inconclusive on the subject. There doesn't appear to be enough evidence to tell which group in the White Movement would have prevailed in case of a White victory and whether new Constituent Assembly elections would have been held, much less how restrictive they would have been. Serafimo-Alekseevskaya chapel, Oktyabr (formerly Rossiya) hotel, and Organ music hall Omsk (Russian: ) is a city in southwest Siberia in Russia, the administrative center of Omsk Oblast. ...


After the Bolshevik victory in the Civil War in late 1920, 38 members of the Constituent Assembly met in Paris in 1921 and formed an executive committee, which consisted of the Constitutional Democrats leader Pavel Milyukov, one of the Progressist leaders Alexander Konovalov, a Ufa Directory member Avksentiev and the head of the Provisional Government Kerensky. Like other emigre organizations, it proved ineffective [30]. The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city, as viewed from the Trocadéro This article is about the capital and largest city in France. ... Pavel Nikolayevich Milyukov (Cyrillic: Павел Николаевич Милюков) (1859-1943) was (alongside Vladimir Lenin and Peter Stolypin) the greatest Russian politician of pre-revolutionary years. ... Alexander Ivanovich Konovalov (Russian: Александр Иванович Коновалов) (September 17, 1875 - 1948, New York) was a Russian politician and entrepreneur. ...


Historical Disputes

According to a 1975 book, Leninism under Lenin by Marcel Liebman, the Bolsheviks and their allies had a majority in the Soviets due to its different electoral system. Each urban (and usually pro-Bolshevik) Soviet had 1 delegate per 25,000 voters. Each rural (usually pro-SR) Soviet was only allowed 1 delegate per 125,000 voters. The Bolsheviks justified closing down the Assembly by pointing out that the election did not take into account the split in the SR Party. A few weeks later the Left SR and Right SR got roughly equal votes in the Peasant Soviets. The Bolsheviks also argued that the Soviets were more democratic as delegates could be removed by their electors instantly rather than the parliamentary style of the Assembly where the elected members could only be removed after several years at the next election. The book states that all the elections to the Peasant and Urban Soviets were free and these Soviets then elected the All-Russian Congress of Soviets which chose the Soviet Government, the Second Congress taking place before the Assembly, the Third Congress just after.


Two more recent book using material from the opened Soviet achieves, The Russian Revolution 1899-1919 by Richard Pipes and A People's Tragedy by Orlando Figes, give a different version. Pipes argues that the elections to the Second Congress were not fair, for example one Soviet with 1,500 members sent 5 delegates which was more than Kiev. He states that both the SRs and the Mensheviks declared this election illegal and unrepresentative. The books states that the Bolsheviks, two days after the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly, created a counter-assembly, the Third Congress of Soviets. They gave themselves and the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries 94% of the seats, far more than the results from the only nationwide parliamentary democratic election in Russia during this time. Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... Orlando Figes, born 1957 in London, son of the Feminist writer Eva Figes. ...


Notes

  •   See V. I. Lenin. The Bolsheviks Must Assume Power: A Letter to the Central Committee and the Petrograd And Moscow Committees Of The R.S.D.L.P.(B.), Collected Works, Progress Publishers, Moscow, Volume 26, 1972, pp. 19-21, available online
  •  For an account of the closure of the non-socialist newspapers in Petrograd by the Military Revolutionary Committee on October 26 see Nikolai Sukhanov. The Russian Revolution, 1917, Oxford University Press, 1955, pp.649-650. For the first Sovnarkom decree on press censorship see Rex A. Wade. The Russian Revolution, 1917, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0521841550 p.276. For the second Sovnarkom decree that established more extensive government control of the press see V. I. Lenin. Collected Works, Progress Publishers, Moscow, Volume 26, 1972, pp. 283-284, available online
  •   See V. I. Lenin. Reply To Questions From Peasants, Collected Works, Progress Publishers, Moscow, Volume 26, 1972, pp. 300-301, available online
  •   See V. I. Lenin. The Extraordinary All-Russia Congress Of Soviets Of Peasants' Deputies: Speech On The Agrarian Question November 14, Collected Works, Progress Publishers, Moscow, Volume 26, 1972, pp. 321-332, available online
  •   See Israel Getzler. Kronstadt 1917-1921: The Fate of a Soviet Democracy, Cambridge University Press, 1983, paperback edition 2002, ISBN 0521894425 p.180
  •   See Rex A. Wade. op. cit. p.277. See Lenin's decree published on November 29 in V. I. Lenin. Decree On The Arrest Of The Leaders Of The Civil War Against The Revolution, Collected Works, Progress Publishers, Moscow, Volume 28, 1972, pp.351, available online
  •   See V. I. Lenin. On The Opening Of The Constituent Assembly, Collected Works, Progress Publishers, Moscow, Volume 26, 1972, pp. 367, available online:
In view of the delay in the elections to the Constituent Assembly, mainly due to the fault of the former All-Russia Electoral Commission, and in view of the formation by counter-revolutionary groups of a special Constituent Assembly Commission in opposition to the Commissariat set up by Soviet power, rumours have been circulated that the Constituent Assembly, as at present constituted, would not be convened at all. The Council of People’s Commissars deems it necessary to declare that these are absolutely false rumours, deliberately and maliciously spread by the enemies of the Soviets of Peasants’, Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies
  •   See V. I. Lenin. Theses On The Constituent Assembly, Collected Works, Progress Publishers, Moscow, Volume 26, 1972, pp. 379-383, available online
  •   See V. I. Lenin. Speech At A Meeting Of The Central Committee Of The R.S.D.L.P.(B.), December 11(24), 1917 and footnotes, Collected Works, Progress Publishers, Moscow, Volume 26, 1972, pp. 377, available online
  •   See Oliver H. Radkey. Russia Goes to the Polls: The Election to the All-Russian Constituent Assembly, 1917, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1989, ISBN 0801423600 xxvi, 171 p.
  •   See V. I. Lenin. The Constituent Assembly Elections and the Dictatorship of the Proletariat, December 1919, Collected Works, Volume 30, pages 253-275 Progress Publishers, 1965. Available online
  •   The exact number of votes received by individual parties is still in dispute due to a large number of invalid ballots
  •   All quotes from Bolshevik deputies from F.F. Raskolnikov. Tales of Sub-Lieutenant Ilyin: The Tale of a Lost Day, Moscow, 1934, English translation London, New Park Publications Ltd, 1982, available online
  •   See Jonathan D. Smele. Civil War in Siberia: The Anti-Bolshevik Government of Admiral Kolchak, 1918-1920, Cambridge University Press, 1996 ISBN 0521573351 p.34 on the violent opposition of Siberian landowners to the Constituent Assembly in the wake of this decision
  •   See Nikolai N. Smirnov "Constituent Assembly" in Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution 1914-1921, eds. Edward Acton, Vladimir Iu. Cherniaev, William G. Rosenberg, Indiana University Press/Arnold, 1997, ISBN 0253333334 p.332
  •   See Nikolai N. Smirnov "Constituent Assembly" in Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution 1914-1921, op. cit., p.332
  •   See "Tsentral'nyi komitet PS.-R. Tezisy dlia partiinykh agitatorov i propagandistov. No. 1", in Partiia sotsialistov-revoliutsionerov posle oktiabr'skogo perevorota 1917 goda. Dokumenty iz arkhiva PS.-R., Amsterdam, Stichting Beheer IISG, 1989, p55. Quoted in Scott Smith. "The Socialists-Revolutionaries and the Dilemma of Civil War" in The Bolsheviks In Russian Society: The Revolution and the Civil War Years ed. Vladimir N. Brovkin, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1997, 83-104. Available online
  •   See Scott Smith, op. cit. on the Bolshevik non-recognition of anti-Bolshevik deputies in Petrograd, Astrakhan, Tula, etc.
  •   See Scott Smith, op. cit. on the evolution of the SRs' attitude towards the Bolshevik government
  •   See Jonathan D. Smele. Op. cit., p.32
  •   Both quotes from the "Constitution of the Ufa Directory", first published in Narodovlastie, No. 1, 1918, reprinted in Istoriya Rossii 1917 - 1940, Ekaterinburg, 1993, pp. 102 - 105, English translation available online
  •   See Michael Melancon. "Chernov", in Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution 1914-1921, op.cit., p.137
  •   See Ronald Grigor Suny. The Soviet Experiment: Russia, the USSR, and the Successor States, Oxford University Press, 1998, ISBN 0195081056 p.80
  •   See Elizabeth A. Wood. Performing Justice: Agitation Trials in Early Soviet Russia, Cornell University Press, 2005, ISBN 0801442575, p.83
  •   See Georg Schild. Between Ideology and Realpolitik: Woodrow Wilson and the Russian Revolution, 1917-1921, Contributions to the Study of World History, ISSN 0885-9159, no. 51, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 1995, ISBN 0313295700 p.111
  •   See Arnol'dov. Zhizn' i revoliutsiia, p. 158, quoted in Jonathan D. Smele, op.cit., p.254
  •   See Nikolai N. Smirnov, "The Constituent Assembly" in Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution 1914-1921, op. cit., p. 332

October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Astrakhan coat of arms features the Khans crown and a sabre Astrakhan (Russian: ; Tatar: Ästerxan), a major city in southern European Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast. ... Tula (Russian: ) is an industrial city in the European part of Russia, located 165 km to the south of Moscow, on the river Upa, at . ...

References

  • Oliver H. Radkey. Russia Goes to the Polls: The Election to the All-Russian Constituent Assembly, 1917, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1989, ISBN 0801423600 xxvi, 171 p.
  • Karl Kautsky. The Dictatorship of the Proletariat, chapter VI, Constituent Assembly and Soviet
  • The Russian Provisional Government, eds. Robert Browder and Alexander Kerensky, Stanford University Press, 1961, in 3 volumes, 1875p.
  • Ariadna Tyrkova-Williams. From Liberty to Brest-Litovsk, the First Year of the Russian Revolution, London, Macmillan, 1919, 526p. Second edition Westport, CT, Hyperion Press, 1977, ISBN 0883554488 xii, 526p. See chapter XIII on the Constituent Assembly
  • Boris Sokoloff. The White Nights, New York, Devin-Adair, 1956. See the chapter on unsuccessful attempts to defend the Constituent Assembly
  • The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917-1918. Documents and Materials, eds. Frank Alfred Golder, James Bunyan and Harold Fisher, Stanford University Press; H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1934. See the section on the Constituent Assembly

  Results from FactBites:
 
Constituent Assembly - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (490 words)
A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution.
Constituent Assembly of El Salvador - formed in 1982 as a provisional parliament and presidential electoral college, and charged with drafting a constitution.
Constituent Assembly of Colombia - formed on February 5, 1991 to draft the country's 1991 constitution.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Russian Provisional Government, 1917 (2091 words)
The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars.
Russian Revolution of 1917, series of events in imperial Russia that culminated in 1917 with the establishment of the...
The first was the government's policy of postponing for future determination by a constituent assembly the solution of such pressing problems as economic disorganization, the continued food crisis, industrial reforms, redistribution of land to peasants, and the growth of counterrevolutionary forces.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m