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Encyclopedia > Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War

Red Army soldiers in the Russian Civil War
Date 1917-1922
Location Former Russian Empire, Mongolia, Persia
Result Bolshevik victory
Establishment of the Soviet Union.
Combatants
Flag of the Soviet Union Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army

Chinese mercenaries
Flag of Russia White Movement

Central Powers (1917-1918):
Austria-Hungary
Flag of Turkey Ottoman Empire
Flag of German Empire German Empire

Allied Intervention: (1918-1922)
Flag of the Empire of Japan Japan
Flag of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
Flag of Greece Greece
Flag of the United States United States
 Canada
Flag of Serbia Serbia
Romania
Flag of the United Kingdom UK
Flag of France France
Foreign volunteers:
Flag of PolandPolish
Flag of ItalyItalian
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Red-soldiers. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... White Army propaganda poster depicting evil Trotsky. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... White Army redirects here. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Austria-Hungary_flag_1869-1918. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Britain, France, Canada and the United States, along with other World War I Allied countries, conducted a military intervention into the Russian Civil War during the period of 1918 through 1920. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Czechoslovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Red_Ensign_1921. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This page discusses foreign volunteers who are serving in forces of a country other than their own, but who are not primarily motivated by personal profit. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ...

Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist movements

German Intervention
See also:
Ukrainian War of Independence

Casualties
At least 879,000 dead

At least 6,791,000 sick and wounded

Records are incomplete.[1] Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War within the territory of the former Russian Empire sought for creation of independent and non-Bolshevik nation states after the October Revolution. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Baltische Landeswehr (Baltic Land Defence) was the name of the armed forces of The United Baltic Duchy from November 1918 to July 3, 1919. ... Combatants Ukrainian Peoples Republic West Ukrainian Peoples Republic German Empire (1918) Poland (1920) Ukrainian SSR Russian SFSR Makhnovshchyna (allied with the Bolsheviks until 1920) White Movement German Empire (1917) Poland (1918-1919) France (1919) The Ukrainian War of Independence was a conflict between Bolshevik, White Russian, Ukrainian, Polish...

At least 500,000 Unknown
Civilian casualties probably over 13 million.
At least 1 million refugees left Russia permanently.
History of Russia
East Slavs
Rus' Khaganate
Khazars
Kievan Rus'
Vladimir-Suzdal
Novgorod Republic
Volga Bulgaria
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Muscovy
Khanate of Kazan
Tsardom of Russia
Russian Empire
  • 1682–1796
  • 1796–1855
  • 1855–1892
  • 1892–1917
Soviet Russia and the USSR
Russian Federation
Timeline

The Russian Civil War (1917-1922/3) was a multi-sided international conflict that took place in Russia following the collapse of the Russian provisional government and the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd (St. Petersburg). The conflict rapidly intensified after the dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly by the Bolsheviks in January 1918, and the Bolsheviks signing the Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918. Combatants Volunteer Army (Armed Forces of South Russia), White Army Red Army Commanders Lavr Kornilov, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel, Mikhail Alexeyev, Peter Krasnov Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Semyon Budyonny, Mikhail Frunze, Kliment Voroshilov, Nestor Makhno Strength 8,000-40,000 (Volunteer Army) 150,000 (Armed Forces of South Russia) // [edit] Formation of... Combatants White Army Red Army Commanders Alexander Kolchak Strength Army of the Urals 25,000 Army of Siberia 80,000 Orenburg Army 50,000 Army of the West 51,000 5 Field Armies of about 12,000-50,000 men each Categories: | ... The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... The Rus Khaganate was a polity that flourished during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe (roughly the late 8th and early to mid-9th centuries CE). ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Coat of arms The growth of Muscovy-Russia. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... // Peter I, a child of the second marriage of Tsar Aleksey, was at first relegated to the political background, as various court factions struggled to control the throne. ... // Catherine II died in 1796, and her son Emperor Paul I (r. ... The Russian Empire in 1866 // The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of crisis for Russia. ... // During the 1890s, Russias industrial development led to a significant increase in the size of the urban bourgeoisie and the working class, setting the stage for a more dynamic political atmosphere and the development of radical parties. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... The History of the Soviet Union has roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... // At the fourteenth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in December 1927, Stalin attacked the left by expelling Trotsky and his supporters from the party and then moving against the right by abandoning Lenins New Economic Policy which had been championed by Nikolai Bukharin and Alexei... The Cold War ensued as the USSR and the United States struggled indirectly for influence around the world. ... The Soviet Unions collapse into independent nations began in earnest in 1985. ... This is a timeline of Russian history. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное Собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye Sobranie) was a democratically elected constitutional body convened in Russia after the overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II. It met for 13 hours, 4 p. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking...


The main hostilities took place between Bolshevik Red Army, and loosely-allied anti-Bolshevik forces, known as the White Army. Many foreign armies also participated, and additionally many foreigners volunteered to fight on one or other of the sides. The largest foreign intervention was Japan's, which involved 70,000 men, nominally in support of the Whites but to a large extent pursuing Japanese expansionist goals in the Russian Far East in operations which were detrimental to both sides. Other forces included various nationalist and regional movements such as the Ukrainian nationalist Green Army, other political movements such as the Ukrainian anarchist Black Army, and independent warlords such as Ungern von Sternberg. These forces sometimes fought against both Reds and Whites, sometimes sided with one of the two, and sometimes switched sides. [citation needed] Additionally the warring sides spilled over Russia's borders into Persia and Mongolia. For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... White Army redirects here. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... The Green Army or the Greens (Russian: Зелёная Армия, Зелёные), which functioned during the Russian Civil War, had its roots in Ukrainian nationalism and oscillated between other forces. ... Black Army can refer to several different groups and affiliations: Black Guards Matthias Corvinus Black Army Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine a term used for several anarchist fractions of the Russian Civil War the supporter club of the Swedish sports association Allmänna idrottsklubben (AIK) This is a disambiguation page... Roman Fyodorovich Ungern von Sternberg, ca 1919 Baron Roman Fyodorovich Ungern von Sternberg (Russian Роман Фёдорович Унгерн фон Штернберг) (January 22, 1886, new... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


In Soviet historiography the end of the Civil War is dated to October 25, 1922 when the Red Army occupied Vladivostok, previously held by the Provisional Priamur Government. The last enclave of the White Forces was the Ayano-Maysky District on the Pacific coast, where General Anatoly Pepelyayev did not capitulate until June 17, 1923. The book The Commissar Vanishes by David King discusses falsification of historic photos in Soviet Union in depth, with numerous examples. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... The Provisional Priamur Government existed in the Amur Krai, Russia, between May 27, 1921 and October 25, 1922, the last White Army enclave during the Russian Civil War. ... Coat of Arms of Ayano-Maysky District Ayano-Maysky District (Аяно-Майский in Russian), one of the distant corners of the Russian Far North is located between 55 26’ and 59 32’ N. latitude and 130 56’ and 140 32’ E. longitude. ... Anatoly Pepelyayev, 1918. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Overview

The most intense fighting took place from 1918 to 1920.


Following the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia and the turbulent Russian Revolution throughout 1917, the Russian Provisional Government was established. In October another revolution occurred in which the Red Guard, armed groups of workers and deserting soldiers directed by the Bolshevik Party, seized control of Saint Petersburg (then known as Petrograd) and began an immediate armed takeover of cities and villages throughout the former Russian Empire. In January 1918, Lenin had the Constituent Assembly violently dissolved, proclaiming the Soviets as the new government of Russia. Nicholas II redirects here. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution. ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ...


The Bolsheviks decided to immediately make peace with the German Empire and the Central Powers, as they had promised the Russian people prior to the Revolution. His political enemies attributed this decision to Vladimir Lenin's sponsorship by the foreign office of William II, German Emperor, offered by the latter in hopes that with a revolution, Russia would withdraw from World War I, although no concrete evidence was ever found. For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Prince Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia; German: ) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and Prussia from 15 June 1888 to... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


A cease fire was immediately announced and peace talks began. As a condition for peace, the proposed treaty by the Central Powers conceded huge portions of the former Russian Empire to Imperial Germany and the Ottoman Empire, greatly upsetting nationalists and conservatives. Leon Trotsky, representing the Bolsheviks, refused at first to sign the treaty while continuing to observe a unilateral cease fire, following the policy of "No fighting, but no peace treaty". For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...


In view of this, the Germans began an all out advance on the Eastern Front, encountering no resistance. Signing a formal peace treaty was the only option in the eyes of the Bolsheviks, because the Russian army was demobilized and the newly formed Red Guard were incapable of stopping the advance. They also understood that the impending counterrevolutionary resistance was more dangerous than the concessions of the treaty, which Lenin viewed as temporary in the light of aspirations for a world revolution. The Soviets acceded to a peace treaty and the formal agreement, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, was ratified on March 6, 1918. World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


In the wake of the October Revolution, the old Russian army had been demobilized and the volunteer based Red Guard was the Bolsheviks' main military arm. In January, Trotsky headed its reorganization into the "Workers' and Peasants' Red Army," in order to create a more professional fighting force. He instituted a forceful conscription program, frequently resorting to repressive tactics, and used former Tsarist officers as "military specialists".


The Bolsheviks banned all non-Bolshevik political activity around the same time. The Bolsheviks even banned other socialist groups when it became clear that the Bolsheviks could not hold a majority of the seats in any democratically elected governing body, soviets or otherwise, outside of St. Petersburg and Moscow. This was particularly visible in the elections to the Constituent Assembly where Bolsheviks constituted a minority of the vote (despite Bolshevik supervision at major urban polling centers). Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...


While resistance to the Red Guard began on the very next day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Brest-Litovsk treaty and the political ban became a catalyst[2] for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new regime.


A loose confederation of anti-Bolshevik forces aligned against the Communist government, including land-owners, republicans, conservatives, middle-class citizens, reactionaries, pro-monarchists, liberals, army generals, non-Bolshevik socialists who still had grievances and democratic reformists, voluntarily united only in their opposition to Bolshevik rule. Their military forces, bolstered by foreign influence and led by General Yudenich, Admiral Kolchak and General Denikin, became known as the White movement (sometimes referred to as the "White Army"), and they controlled significant parts of the former Russian empire for most of the war. Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... In politics, the term liberal refers to: an adherent of the ideology of liberalism or a state or quality of this ideology. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... White Army redirects here. ...


A Ukrainian nationalist movement known as the Green Army and an anarchist movement known as the Black Army played a much smaller part in the war, sometimes harrying both the Reds and the Whites, and sometimes even each other. The Green Army or the Greens (Russian: Зелёная Армия, Зелёные), which functioned during the Russian Civil War, had its roots in Ukrainian nationalism and oscillated between other forces. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... The Black Guards flag, whit Nestor Makhno. ...


The Western Allies, upset at the withdrawal of Russia from the war effort and worried about a possible Russo-German alliance, also expressed their dismay at the Bolsheviks. Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle".[3] In addition, there was a concern, shared by many Central Powers as well, that the socialist revolutionary ideas would spread to the West. Hence, many of these countries expressed their support for the Whites, including the provision of troops and supplies. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Churchill redirects here. ... European military alliances in 1914. ...


In addition to all of the abovementioned support, volunteers from Italy and Poland also joined the Whites.[citation needed]


The majority of the fighting ended in 1920 with the defeat of General Pyotr Wrangel in the Crimea, but a notable resistance in certain areas continued until 1922 (e.g, Kronstadt Uprising, Tambov Rebellion, and the final resistance of the White movement in the Far East). Pyotr Nikolaevich Wrangel (1878 - 1928) was a Russian general and counter-revolutionary. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Red Army troops attack Kronstadt The Kronstadt rebellion was an unsuccessful uprising of Soviet sailors against the government of the early Russian SFSR. It proved to be the last major rebellion against Bolshevik rule. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Antonovschina. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ...


The Soviet historiography traditionally referred to the conflict as the "Civil War and Military Intervention of 1917-1922". This term also encompassed the Polish-Soviet War, resistance in Ukraine, as well as Basmachi resistance and foreign intervention in Central Asia in its definition. The book The Commissar Vanishes by David King discusses falsification of historic photos in Soviet Union in depth, with numerous examples. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... The Basmachi Revolt, or Basmachestvo (Басмачество) as it is called in the Russian language, was an uprising against Soviet rule in Central Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Geography and chronology

                     Bolshevik control, November 1918                      Maximum advances of 'White' forces                      Frontiers, 1921
                     Bolshevik control, November 1918                      Maximum advances of 'White' forces                      Frontiers, 1921

The war was fought across three main fronts; the eastern, the southern and the north-western. It can also be roughly split into three periods. The Russian Civil War in western Russia. ... The Russian Civil War in western Russia. ...


The first period lasted from the Revolution until the Armistice. First, in late November of 1917 the new Bolshevik government declared that traditional Cossack lands were now to be run by the state. This provoked a revolt in Don region headed by General Kaledin, where the Volunteer Army began amassing support. The signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk also resulted in direct Allied intervention in Russia and the arming of military forces opposed to the Bolshevik government. There were also many German commanders who offered support against the Bolsheviks, fearing a confrontation with them was impending as well. The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Aleksei Maksimovich Kaledin (Каледин, Алексей Максимович in Russian) (10. ... The Volunteer Army (Добровольческая армия in Russian, or Dobrovolcheskaya armiya) was a counterrevolutionary army in South Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking...


Most of the fighting in this first period was sporadic, involving only small groups amid a fluid and rapidly shifting strategic scene. Among the antagonists were the Czechoslovaks, known as the Czechoslovak Legion or "White Czechs", the Poles of the Polish 5th Rifle Division and the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian riflemen. Czech Legion, also called Czech-Slovak Legion was an armed force attached to the Russian army during the World War I. It played a prominent role in the Russian Civil War. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Monument to the Red Latvian Riflemen in Riga, Latvia Latvian riflemen (Latvian: Latviešu strēlnieki, Russian: Латышские стрелки) were military formations assembled starting 1915 in Latvia in order to defend Baltic territories against Germans in World War I. Initially the battalions were formed by volunteers, and from 1916 by conscription among...


The second period of the war was the key stage, which lasted from January to November of 1919. At first the White armies' advances from the south (under Denikin), the east (under Kolchak) and the northwest (under Yudenich) were successful, pushing back the new Red Army on all three fronts. But Leon Trotsky reformed the Red Army and pushed back Kolchak's forces (in June) and Denikin's and Yudenich's armies (in October). The fighting power of all the White armies was broken almost simultaneously in mid-November. Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during... Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Александр Васильевич Колчак in Russian) (November 4 (November 16 NS), 1874 - February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander and later head of part of... General Nikolai Yudenich Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (July 18, 1862 (July 30, New Style ) – October 5, 1933), was the most successful general of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. Later a leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ...


The final period of the war was the extended siege of the last White forces in the Crimea. Wrangel had gathered the remnants of the armies of Denikin, and they had fortified their positions in the Crimea. They held these positions until the Red Army returned from Poland where they had been fighting the Polish-Soviet war. When the full force of the Red Army was turned on them the Whites were soon overwhelmed, and the remaining troops were evacuated to Constantinople in November 1920. Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Baron Wrangel Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel (Пётр Николаевич Врангель) (German: ) (August 15, 1878, Zarasai, Lithuania (then Imperial Russia) — April 25, 1928, Brussels, Belgium), was an officer in the Imperial Russian army and later commanding general of the pro-monarchist White Army in Southern Russia in the later stages of the Russian Civil War. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


While historiography generally considers the Russian Civil War to be over after the defeat of Wrangel's troops,[citation needed] organized military resistance continued up until the evacuation of General Diterikhs' troops in Vladivostok in October of 1922, after which the Soviet Union declared itself a state. Thereon after, military resistance to the Soviet government was not to resume on a massive scale until the emergence of the Russian Liberation Movement during World War II[citation needed]. Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... Russian Liberation Movement (Русское Освободительное Движение) is a term used to describe Russians during World War II who tried to create an anti-communist armed force which would topple the regime of Joseph Stalin. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Course of events

The first attempt to regain power from the Bolsheviks was made by the Kerensky-Krasnov uprising in October, 1917. It was supported by the Junker mutiny in Petrograd, but quickly put down by the Red Guards. Kerensky-Krasnov uprising is the term used in Soviet historiography to denote an attempt of Alexander Kerensky to retake power from Bolsheviks. ... Junker mutiny was an episode of the Russian Revolution. ...

1918 Bolshevik propaganda poster depicting Trotsky as Saint George slaying the reactionary dragon (Trotsky was People's Commissar of War, and organizer of the Red Army). Note the dragon is wearing a top hat, which the Soviets associated with capitalism.

The initial groups that fought against the Communists were local Cossack armies that had declared their loyalty to the Provisional Government. Prominent among them were Kaledin of the Don Cossacks and Semenov of the Siberian Cossacks. In November, General Alekseev, the old Tsarist Commander-in-Chief, began to organize a Volunteer Army (Добровольческая Армия, Dobrovolcheskaya Armiya) in Novocherkassk. He was joined in December by Kornilov. These forces fought against the Bolshevik army all across the Ukraine. The Cossacks took Rostov in December 1917. Download high resolution version (619x712, 171 KB)Bolshevik propaganda poster of Trotsky slaying the dragon of counter-revolution, 1918. ... Download high resolution version (619x712, 171 KB)Bolshevik propaganda poster of Trotsky slaying the dragon of counter-revolution, 1918. ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with: :Sovnarkom. ... Duke Ellington wearing a top hat. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... General Kaledin Aleksei Maksimovich Kaledin (Russian:Алексей Максимович Каледин)(October 1861-January 29, 1918), was the leader of the Cossack counterrevolution in the Don region from 1917 to 1918, and a Cavalry General. ... Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ... Grigory Mikhailovich Semenov (Семёнов, Григорий Михайлович in Russian) (September 13(25), 1890 – August 30, 1946), leader of the counterrevolution in the Baikal region and beyond in 1917-1920, Lieutenant General (1919). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... 07:55, 7 Jan 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... The Volunteer Army (Добровольческая армия in Russian, or Dobrovolcheskaya armiya) was a counterrevolutionary army in South Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... Roads leading to Novocherkassk are graced by triumphal arches, erected to commemorate the Cossack victory over Napoleon. ... Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov (Russian: Лавр Георгиевич Корнилов) (July 18, 1870–April 13, 1918) was a Russian army general best known for the Kornilov Affair, an unsuccessful military coup he staged against Kerenskys Provisional Government during the 1917 Russian Revolution. ... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ...


1918

In July 1918, Lenin established the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic (RSFSR). The Bolsheviks, however, were facing mammoth problems — chief amongst which were impending bankruptcy, White opposition and impatience on the part of the people. The Bolsheviks had to fight for their very survival. The secret police (Cheka) conducted a reign of terror (the "Red Terror"), during which thousands were put to death. As one Bolshevik leader observed, "The Bourgeoisie put individuals to death; we exterminate whole classes." Even the abdicated Tsar and his family, in unthreatening captivity, were brutally murdered. Soviet novelist Boris Pasternak writes evocatively of this period in his book, Dr Zhivago, describing the many atrocities committed by both sides. State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme... For the reggaeton aritst, see Cheka (artist). ... For other uses, see Red Terror (disambiguation). ...


Rostov was captured in March 1918.[citation needed] In the course of the Ice March, the Cossack Volunteer Army was evacuated to the Kuban, where they joined with the Kuban Cossacks to mount an abortive assault on Ekaterinodar. General Kornilov was killed in the fighting on April 13, Operational command passed to General Denikin who spent the next few months rebuilding his Cossack army. In October, General Alekseev died of a heart attack and General Denikin was (in theory at least) now the top political leader for the White armies in Southern Russia. A Volunteer Army recruitment poster represents a woman addressing her son with the words: My son, go and save your Motherland!. The Ice March (Russian: Ледяной поход), also called First Kuban Campaign (Russian: Первый кубанский поход), a military withdrawal lasting from February to May 1918, was one of the defining moments in the Russian Civil... Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... Russian Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские козаки, Kubanskie Kozaki) were cossacks that settled in the region around the Kuban River protected the southern borders of the Russian Empire. ... Krasnodar (Russian, Краснодар) is a city in Southern Russia on the Kuban River, and is the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai (Krasnodar region, also known as Kuban, Russian Кубань). Population (census 2004): 653,300. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which pulled Russia out of the war and gave Germany control over vast stretches of western Russia, came as a shock to the Allies. The British and the French had supported Russia on a massive scale with war materials and money. After the treaty, it looked like much of that material would fall into the hands of the Germans. Under this pretext, the United Kingdom and France sent troops into Russian ports. There were violent confrontations with troops loyal to the Bolsheviks.

It was not until spring of 1918 that the Mensheviks and the Socialist-Revolutionary Party joined the armed struggle against the Bolsheviks. Initially, they had been opposed to civil war, but the Brest-Litovsk treaty and the establishment of harsh dictatorial measures changed their position. They could well have been a serious threat, for they had some popular support and the authority of their election victory on the Russian Constituent Assembly in 1918, but they needed an army. An early attempt by the Socialist-Revolutionary Party to recruit Latvian troops in July 1918 was a failure. Fortunately, the Czechoslovak Legion proved to be a more reliable group in aid of their "democratic counter-revolution". Britain, France, Canada and the United States, along with other World War I Allied countries, conducted a military intervention into the Russian Civil War during the period of 1918 through 1920. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... Socialist-Revolutionary election poster, 1917. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... Czech Legion, also called Czech-Slovak Legion was an armed force attached to the Russian army during the World War I. It played a prominent role in the Russian Civil War. ...

Soldiers pose over the Bolsheviks killed at Vladivostok
Soldiers pose over the Bolsheviks killed at Vladivostok

The Czech Legion had been part of the Russian army and numbered around 30,000 by October 1917. Most were former prisoners of war and deserters from the Austro-Hungarian Army. Encouraged by Tomáš Masaryk, the legion was renamed the Czechoslovak Army Corps and hoped to continue fighting the Germans. An agreement with the new Bolshevik government to pass by sea through Vladivostok (so they could unite with the Czechoslovak legions in France) collapsed over an attempt to disarm the Corps. Instead their soldiers disarmed the Bolshevik forces in June 1918 at Cheliabinsk. Within a month the Czechoslovak Legion controlled most of the Trans-Siberian Railroad from Lake Baikal to the Ural Mountains regions. By August they had extended their control even farther, taking over Ekaterinburg on July 26, 1918. Shortly before the fall of Ekaterinburg (on July 17, 1918), the former Tsar and his family had been executed by the Ural Soviet to prevent them falling into the hands of the Whites. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, portrait by Josef JindÅ™ich Å echtl, 1918 Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (IPA: ), sometimes called Thomas Masaryk in English, (March 7, 1850 - September 14, 1937) was an advocate of Czechoslovak independence during WW I and became the first President of Czechoslovakia. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Chelyabinsk (Russian Челя́бинск; also Russian city just to the east of the Ural Mountains. ... Trans-Siberian line in red; Baikal Amur Mainline in green. ... Baikal redirects here. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Map of Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


The Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries supported peasant fighting against Soviet control of food supplies. In May 1918, with the support of the Czechoslovak Legion, they took Samara and Saratov, establishing the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly (Комуч, Komuch). By July the authority of Komuch extended over much of the area controlled by the Czechoslovak Legion. The Komuch implemented a socialist reform program -- but without the unpopular economic changes which the Soviets were pursuing. In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Samara Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Saratov (Russian: ) is a major city in Russia. ... The Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly (Комитет членов Учредительного собрания (Комуч) in Russian, or Komitet chlenov Uchreditelnogo sobraniya (Komuch)), also known as Samarskaya uchredilka (if loosely translated, means unauthorized self-establishment of power in Samara), a counterrevolutionary government, formed in Samara on June 8, 1918 after the Czech Legion had occupied the city. ...


There were also conservative and nationalist "governments" being formed by the Bashkirs, the Kyrgyz and the Tatars (see Idel-Ural State) as well as a Siberian Regional Government in Omsk. In September 1918, all the anti-Soviet governments met in Ufa and agreed to form a new Russian Provisional Government in Omsk, headed by a Directory of five: three Socialist-Revolutionaries (Avksentiev, Boldyrev and Zenzinov) and two Kadets, (V. A. Vinogradov and P. V. Vologodskii). The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... This article is about the people. ... Idel-Ural literally means Volga-Ural in Tatar. ... The Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia (PGAS), or in full the Social Revolutionary-Menshevik Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia, was an ephemeral puppet government for Siberia created by the White movement. ... Omsk (Russian: ) is a city in southwest Siberia in Russia, the administrative center of Omsk Oblast. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Constitutional Democratic Party (Constitutional Democrats, formally Party of Popular Freedom, informally Cadets) was a liberal political party in Tsarist Russia. ...


However, the new government quickly came under the influence the new War Minister, Rear-Admiral Kolchak. On November 18, a coup d'état established Kolchak as dictator. The members of the Directory were arrested and Kolchak proclaimed the "Supreme Ruler of Russia". Kolchak was apolitical and not involved in the coup. He proved to be ineffective as both a political and military leader (his training being all in naval warfare). Kolchak also did not get along with the leaders of Czechoslovak Legion, the strongest military force in the area. Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank that originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons and can trace its origins to the Royal Navy. ... Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Александр Васильевич Колчак in Russian) (November 4 (November 16 NS), 1874 - February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander and later head of part of... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coup redirects here. ...


To the Soviets, the emergence of Admiral Kolchak was a political victory because it confirmed their opponents as anti-democratic reactionaries. Following a reorganisation of the People's Army, Kolchak's forces captured Perm and Ufa in December of 1918. But this was to be the high water-mark for his army. Location Position of Perm in Russia Government Country Federal district Federal subject Russia Volga Federal District Perm Krai Mayor Igor Nikolayevich Shubin Geographical characteristics Area  - City    - Land    - Water 799. ...


In July, two Socialist-Revolutionaries, Blyumkin and Andreyev, assassinated the German ambassador, Count Mirbach, in Moscow, in an attempt to provoke the Germans into renewing hostilities. Other Socialist-Revolutionaries attempted to rouse Red Army troops against the regime. The Soviets managed to put down these local uprisings, and Lenin personally apologised to the Germans for the assassination. There were mass arrests of Socialist-Revolutionaries. Following two further terrorist acts on August 30 — these were the assassination of the Chairman of the Petrograd Cheka, Uritsky, and the wounding of Lenin -- the "Red Terror" was unleashed in response. Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries were expelled from the Soviets and anyone suspected of counter-revolutionary activity could be imprisoned or executed without trial. Wilhelm Mirbach (1871 - 1918), Count, German diplomat. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the reggaeton aritst, see Cheka (artist). ... Moisei Solomonovich Uritsky was a Bolshevik revolutionary leader whose assassination helped precipitate the Red Terror. ... For other uses, see Red Terror (disambiguation). ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ...


1919

London Geographical Institute’s 1919 map of Europe after the treaties of Brest-Litovsk and Batum and before the treaties of Tartu, Kars and Riga

The stage was now set for the key year of the Civil War. The Bolshevik government was firmly in control of the core of Russia, from Petrograd through Moscow and south to Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd). Against this government in the east, Admiral Kolchak had a small army and had some control over the Trans-Siberian Railroad. In the south Cossacks armies controlled much of the Don and the Ukraine. In the Caucasus, General Denikin had established an army. In the newly independent country of Estonia General Yudenich was organizing an army. Estonia was overtly hostile to the Bolsheviks and had been fighting with them since November 1918. The French occupied Odessa. The British occupied Murmansk. The British and the United States occupied Arkhangelsk and the Japanese occupied Vladivostok. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 795 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1996 × 1506 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 795 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1996 × 1506 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... Treaty of Batum, June 4, 1918, a treaty between Democratic Republic of Armenia and Ottoman Empire. ... The Treaties of Tartu were treaties between Bolshevist Russia on one side and the recently independent Estonia and Finland, formerly belonging to Imperial Russia, on the other. ... Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars AntlaÅŸması, Russian: Карсский договор) was a friendship treaty[1] between TBMM, (which was declared Turkey in 1923), and the Soviet Union by the representatives of Russian SFSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR. It was signed in Kars on... Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga. ... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ... Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during... General Nikolai Yudenich Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (1862–1933), the most successful general of the Russian Imperial Army in World War I. Later a leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... Combatants  Estonia, Finnish and Scandinavian volunteers, White Russians Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Landeswehr Commanders Johan Laidoner Jukums Vācietis Sergei Kamenev Rüdiger von der Goltz Strength 74,500 (Estonian Army), ca 4000 Finnish volunteers, White Russians, about 200-400 Scandinavians 160 000+ 9500 Casualties 5,600 killed 15... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ...


Trotsky ordered the Bolshevik army to recapture Ukraine first. This they did in a quick campaign in the winter-spring of 1919. The Cossacks had been unable to organize and capitalize on their successes at the end of 1917. Consequently, when the Soviet counter-offensive began in January 1919—under the Bolshevik leader Antonov-Ovseenko—the Cossack forces rapidly fell apart. The Red Army captured Kiev on February 3, 1919 and ten days later,[citation needed] with his army in chaos, General Kaledin committed suicide. CCCP redirects here. ... Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko Vladimir Alexandrovich Antonov-Ovseenko (real lastname Ovseenko) (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (March 9, 1883 - February 10, 1939), was a prominent Soviet Bolshevik leader and later Soviet diplomat. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

White Army propaganda poster depicting Trotsky as a "Red devil" that attempts to appeal to anti-Semitism. The text above the picture reads, "Peace and Liberty in Sovdepiya"

With Bolshevik forces seemingly triumphant in Ukraine, the French, having done almost no fighting, withdrew their troops from Odessa on April 8, 1919. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x828, 275 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Russian Civil War ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x828, 275 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Russian Civil War ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Sovdepia or Sovdepiya was a derogatory name for Soviet Russia and later Soviet Union by those who were against the Bolshevik rule. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


While the war was going on in Ukraine, Trotsky sent another army against Kolchak's forces. This army, lead by the capable commander Tukhachevsky, recaptured Ekaterinburg on January 27, 1919 and continued to push along the Trans-Siberian railroad. Both sides had victories and losses, but by the middle of summer the Red army was larger than the White army and was winning back lands it had lost earlier. The British and United States pulled their troops out of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk before the onset of winter, having accomplished little. The Red Army captured Omsk on November 14, 1919. Admiral Kolchak lost control of his government shortly after this defeat and in fact, the White army in Siberia essentially ceased to exist by December. Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 12, 1937), Soviet military... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... Omsk (Russian: ) is a city in southwest Siberia in Russia, the administrative center of Omsk Oblast. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Even though the United Kingdom withdrew its troops, it continued to give significant military aid (money, weapons, food, ammunition, and some military advisors) to the White armies during 1919, especially to General Yudenich.


In the early summer, the Caucasus Army (now under operational command of General Wrangel) attacked north, trying to relieve the pressure on Kolchak's army or even link up with it. Wrangel's troops managed to capture Tsaritsyn on June 17, 1919. Trotsky responded to this threat by sending Tukhachevsky with a new army against Wrangel's troops. The Caucasus army of Wrangel, faced with superior numbers, retreated south, leaving Tsaritsyn to the Bolsheviks. Pyotr Nikolaevich Wrangel (1878 - 1928) was a Russian general and counter-revolutionary. ... Rodina Mat (Motherland), statue on the Mamayev Kurgan, Volgograd Volgograd (Волгогра́д) (population: 1,012,000), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Цари́цын) (1598 - 1925) and Stalingrad (Сталингра́&#1076... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Later in the summer, another Cossack force called the Don Army under the command of Cossack General Mamontov attacked into Ukraine. The Red army, stretched thin by fighting on all fronts, was forced out of Kiev on September 2, 1919. Mamontov's Don Army continued north towards Voronezh but there they were defeated by Tukhachevsky's army on October 24. Tukhachevsky's army then turned towards yet another threat, the rebuilt Volunteer Army, and destroyed that army at Orel in October. The Red Army recaptured Kiev on December 17 and the defeated Cossacks fled back towards the Black Sea. is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Voronezh (Russian: ) is a large city in southwestern Russia, not far from Ukraine. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Orel or Oryol (Орёл) is a city in Russia, administrative center of the Oryol Oblast. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...

1919 poster, "Mount your horses, workers and peasants! The Red Cavalry is the pledge of victory."
1919 poster, "Mount your horses, workers and peasants! The Red Cavalry is the pledge of victory."

While the White Armies were being defeated in the south, the center and the east, there was still one more threat to the Bolshevik government. This threat came from General Yudenich who had spent the spring and summer organizing a small army in Estonia, with British support. In October of 1919 he tried to capture Petrograd in a sudden assault with a force of around 20,000 men. The attack was well executed, with night attacks and maneuvers to turn the flanks of the defending Red army. Yudenich also had six British tanks that caused panic whenever they appeared. By October 19, 1919 Yudenich's troops had reached the outskirts of Petrograd. The Bolshevik leadership in Moscow was willing to give up Petrograd, but Trotsky refused to accept the loss and personally went to the city to organize the defenses. Trotsky did everything he could to defend the city including arming the industrial workers and ordering the transfer of military forces up from Moscow. Within a few weeks the Red army defending Petrograd had tripled in size and outnumbered Yudenich three to one. At this point Yudenich gave up his attack and withdrew his army back to Estonia. Upon his return to Estonia, his army was disarmed by order of the Estonian government. The Bolshevik forces that followed Yudenich were beaten back by the Estonian army. Following the Treaty of Tartu most of Yudenich's soldiers then went into exile. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1161x1607, 322 KB) Summary Russian Revolutionary Poster, Mount your horses, workers and peasants! The Red Cavalry is the guarantee of victory. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1161x1607, 322 KB) Summary Russian Revolutionary Poster, Mount your horses, workers and peasants! The Red Cavalry is the guarantee of victory. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Treaty of Tartu (Estonian: Tartu rahu, literally Tartu peace) between Estonia and Bolshevist Russia was signed in February 2, 1920 after the Estonian War of Independence. ...


These victories by the Bolsheviks over Mamontov's Cossack army at Voronezh, Yudenich at Petrograd, and Kolchak at Omsk—all in a one month period—transformed the war. Quite suddenly the Bolshevik government had triumphed over all its internal enemies; the job that remained now was mopping up.


1920

In Siberia, Admiral Kolchak's army had disintegrated. He himself gave up command after the loss of Omsk and designated Semenov as the new leader of the White Army in Siberia. Not long after this he was arrested by a dissident faction (which was probably made up of nationalist Bashkirs[4]) as he traveled towards Irkutsk (historian Richard Pipes thinks the French military liaison was involved in this). Kolchak was turned over to the Red army in February 1920 and executed two weeks later (likely on Lenin's order). Fighting in Siberia continued for the next year as armed gangs—essentially bandits—roamed the land. Semenov and his tattered band of Cossacks ultimately retreated into China. Grigory Mikhailovich Semenov (Семёнов, Григорий Михайлович in Russian) (September 13(25), 1890 – August 30, 1946), leader of the counterrevolution in the Baikal region and beyond in 1917-1920, Lieutenant General (1919). ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... Irkutsks location Kazansky Church in Irkutsk Irkutsk (Russian: ) is one of the largest cities in Siberia. ... Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ...


The Czechoslovak Legion had no real interest in fighting in the Russian Civil War. They wanted to fight the German army, but with the end of World War I, that desire died. Uninspired by Kolchak (and not, in turn, trusted by him) they spent most of 1919 moving their troops east and having them shipped, boat by boat, back to Europe. They were aided in this effort by U.S. military units, under the command of General William S. Graves, who took control over the eastern end of the Trans-Siberian Railroad. The Czechoslovak Legion managed to evacuate all their forces out from Vladivostok (as had been their original plan in 1918). They were gone by April 1920 which is when the U.S. troops also left Siberia. General William S. Graves (Russian: Уйллиам Грейвс) was the commander of American forces in Siberia during the Allied Intervention in Russia. ...


Most of the White Armies were evacuated by British ships during the winter-spring of 1920. General Wrangel was the only holdout; his army remained an organized force in the Crimea throughout the summer of 1920. Then, trying to take advantage of the Red Army defeats at the end of the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-1920, General Wrangel attacked north. This offensive was rapidly halted by the Red Army and his troops were forced to retreat back to the Crimea in November 1920. He was evacuated by the British out of the Crimea on November 14, 1920 amidst horrific scenes of desperation and cruelty. Tens of thousands of Russians tried to escape from the Red army but were unable to find transport on the British ships. Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


1921-1922

After the defeat of Wrangel, the Red Army attacked its Makhnovist allies at the end of 1920. A naval mutiny at Kronstadt, and peasant revolts in Ukraine, Tambov, and Siberia broke out in 1921. Combatants Soviet Sailors Red Army Commanders Stepan Petrichenko Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky Strength c. ...


The Japanese, who had plans to annex the Amur Krai of Eastern Siberia, finally pulled their troops out as the Bolshevik forces gradually asserted control over all of Siberia. On 25 October 1922 Vladivostok fell to the Red Army and the Provisional Priamur Government was extinguished. General Anatoly Pepelyayev continued armed resistance in the Ayano-Maysky District until June 1923. The regions of Kamchatka and Northern Sakhalin remained under Japanese occupation until their treaty with Soviet Union in 1925, when their forces were finally withdrawn. Amur krai or Priamurye (Russian: Аму́рский край, Приамурье) were unofficial names for the Russian territories by the Amur River used in the late Imperial Russia. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... The Provisional Priamur Government existed in the Amur Krai, Russia, between May 27, 1921 and October 25, 1922, the last White Army enclave during the Russian Civil War. ... Anatoly Pepelyayev, 1918. ... The Yakut Revolt (Russian: Якутский мятеж) or the Yakut Expedition (Russian: Якутский поход) was the last episode of the Russian Civil War. ... Coat of Arms of Ayano-Maysky District Ayano-Maysky District (Аяно-Майский in Russian), one of the distant corners of the Russian Far North is located between 55 26’ and 59 32’ N. latitude and 130 56’ and 140 32’ E. longitude. ...


Aftermath

The results of the civil war were momentous. Russia had been at war for seven years, during which time some 20,000,000 of its people had lost their lives (to go with the 3,000,000 surrendered to Poland). The civil war had taken an estimated 15,000,000 of them, including at least 1,000,000 soldiers of the Russian Red Army and more than 500,000 White soldiers who died in battle. 50,000 Russian Communists were killed by the counter-revolutionary Whites, and 250,000 civilians were wiped out by the CHEKA. At the end of the Civil War, the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. The droughts of 1920 and 1921, as well as the 1921 famine, worsened the disaster still further. Disease had reached pandemic proportions, with 3,000,000 dying of typhus alone in 1920. Millions more were also killed by widespread starvation, wholesale massacres by both sides, and even pogroms against Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia. Help!, a Soviet poster from 1921. ...

Refugees on flatcars
Refugees on flatcars

Another one million people, known as the White emigres, fled Russia - many with General Wrangel, some through the Far East, others fled west into the newly independent Baltic countries in order. These émigrés included a large part of the educated and skilled population of Russia. Image File history File links Refugees_on_flatcars. ... Image File history File links Refugees_on_flatcars. ... A White emigré (in Russian Beloemigrant, or Белоэмигрант) is a term used to describe a Russian who had left Russia in the wake of the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War. ...


The Russian economy was devastated by the war, with factories and bridges destroyed, cattle and raw materials pillaged, mines flooded, and machines damaged. The industrial production value descended to one seventh of the value of 1913, and agriculture to one third. According to Pravda, "The workers of the towns and some of the villages choke in the throes of hunger. The railways barely crawl. The houses are crumbling. The towns are full of refuse. Epidemics spread and death strikes -- industry is ruined."


It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20 percent of the pre-World War level, and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. For example, cotton production fell to five percent, and iron to two percent of pre-war levels. The overall industrial production value had descended to one seventh of the value of 1913, and agriculture to one third.


War Communism saved the Soviet government during the Civil War, but much of the Russian economy had ground to a standstill. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. By 1921, cultivated land had shrunk to 62 percent of the pre-war area, and the harvest yield was only about 37 percent of normal. The number of horses declined from 35 million in 1916 to 24 million in 1920, and cattle from 58 to 37 million. The exchange rate with the U.S. dollar declined from two rubles in 1914 to 1,200 in 1920. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ...


With the end of the war, the Communist Party assumed complete control of the country, repressing by severe measures all strikes and riots. With their rivals eliminated, they could turn their attentions to the building of a socialist state. Although Russia eventually recovered and even experienced extremely rapid economic growth in the 1930s, the combined effect of World War I and the Civil War left a lasting scar in Russian society, and had permanent effects on the later history of the Soviet Union. The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers state) can carry one of several different (but related) meanings: Strictly speaking, any real or hypothetical state organized along the principles of socialism may be called a socialist state. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Civil war of Russia

Short lived states: Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Britain, France, Canada and the United States, along with other World War I Allied countries, conducted a military intervention into the Russian Civil War during the period of 1918 through 1920. ... North Russia Campaign Arkhangelsk Oblast May 1918 – Sept 1919 Polar Bear Expedition Russian Civil War North Russia Relief Force // Introduction The North Russia Campaign (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition or the Allied Intervention in North Russia) was the involvement of international troops part of the Allied Intervention in... The Polar Bear Expedition (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition, the American North Russia Expeditionary Force - ANREF or the American Expeditionary Force North Russia - AEFNR) was a contingent of about 5,000 U.S. troops who landed in Arkhangelsk, Russia and fought the Bolshevik forces in the surrounding region... The American Expeditionary Force Siberia (AEF Siberia) was the involvement of U.S. troops, during the tail end of World War I and the Russian Revolution, in Vladivostok, Russia, from 1918 and 1920. ... The Siberian Intervention ) of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Imperial Japanese Army to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by western powers to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the Russian Civil War. ... The German Caucasus Expedition was a military expedition sent by the German Empire to the formerly Russian Transcaucasia during the World War I, its prime aim being securing oil supplies to Germany and stabilizing a nascent pro-German Democratic Republic of Georgia. ... Monument to the Red Latvian Riflemen in Riga, Latvia Latvian riflemen (Latvian: Latviešu strēlnieki, Russian: Латышские стрелки) were military formations assembled starting 1915 in Latvia in order to defend Baltic territories against Germans in World War I. Initially the battalions were formed by volunteers, and from 1916 by conscription among... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Ukrainian: Нестор Іванович Махно, October 26, 1888 – July 25, 1934) was an anarcho-communist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ... Russian Liberation Movement (Русское Освободительное Движение) is a term used to describe Russians during World War II who tried to create an anti-communist armed force which would topple the regime of Joseph Stalin. ... For other uses, see Red Terror (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ... White Army redirects here. ... Simon Karetnik, Batko Makhno, and Fedir Shchus (Fedor Shchus). ... The Green Army or the Greens (Russian: Зелёная Армия, Зелёные), which functioned during the Russian Civil War, had its roots in Ukrainian nationalism and oscillated between other forces. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...

Media: Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... Motto None Anthem Mer Hayrenik (Our Fatherland) Map of the Democratic Republic of Armenia from March 1919 to March 1920. ... Official language German Capital Riga Regent Adolf Pilar von Pilchau Area ? km² Population ? Independance 12 April 1918 Admission 22 September 1918 (German State) National anthem ? The United Baltic Duchy (in German: Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum) was a shortlived construct in 1918 made possible through Germanys occupation of Latvia and Estonia... map of the Belarusian National Republic, 1918 National motto: None Official language Belarusian Capital Minsk, Currently in Exile National anthem Vajacki marÅ¡ Chairperson of the Rada Ivonka Survilla Independence  - Declared  - Forced into Exile Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 25, 1918 January 5, 1919 The Belarusian Peoples Republic (Belarusian: Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка, eng. ... The Bessarabian Soviet Socialist Republic or Bessarabian SSR (Russian: ) was proclaimed on May 11, 1919 with capital at Odessa as an autonomous part of Russian SFSR. With the intervention of the military forces of Poland and France (see Polish-Soviet War) on August 2, 1919 the capital was moved to... Flag of the Far Eastern Republic The Far Eastern Republic (Russian: Дальневосто́чная Респу́блика (ДВР); English transliteration: Dalnevostochnaya Respublika (DVR)) was a nominally independent state established in the former Russian Far East and Siberia east of Lake Baikal on April 6, 1920. ... Idel-Ural literally means Volga-Ural in Tatar. ...

For other uses, see Doctor Zhivago (disambiguation). ... Doctor Zhivago (Russian: Доктор Живаго) is a 1965 film directed by David Lean and loosely based on the famous novel of the same name by Boris Pasternak. ... Reds is a 1981 film starring Warren Beatty and Diane Keaton. ...

References

  1. ^ G.F. Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century, pp. 7-38.
  2. ^ John M. Thompson, A vision unfulfilled. Russia and the Soviet Union in the twentieth century (Lexington, MA; 1996) 159.
  3. ^ Cover Story: Churchill's Greatness. Interview with Jeffrey Wallin. (The Churchill Centre)
  4. ^ Mawdsley, Evan (1987). The Russian Civil War. Aleen & Unwin inc.. ISBN 0-04-947025-6. 

Further reading

  • T.N. Dupuy, The Encyclopedia of Military History (many editions) Harper & Row Publishers.
  • DK Atlas of World History, 1999, Dorling Kindersley Publishing.

External links

is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


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