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Encyclopedia > Russian (ethnicity)
Total population: Unknown
Significant populations in: Russia:
115,889,000 (2002 census)[1]

   8,334,000 (2001 census) [2]
   4,480,000 (1999 census)[3]
   259,000 [11]
   122,000[citation needed]
   115,000[citation needed]
   20,000[citation needed]
   15,600+[citation needed]
Image File history File links FamousRUS1. ...

Language: Russian
Religion: Predominantly Russian Orthodox. A small minority practice Protestantism. Many Russians have atheistic or agnostic beliefs.
Related ethnic groups: Indo-Europeans

    East Slavs
The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing the splitting away from the Roman Catholic Church during the mid-to-late Renaissance in Europe—a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ...

Russians (Russian: Русские - Russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries. The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ...

The English term Russians is also used to refer to citizens of Russia, regardless of their ethnicity (see demographics of Russia for information on other nationalities inhabiting Russia); in Russian, this meaning is covered by the recently revived politically correct term Rossiyanin (Россиянин, plural Rossiyane). According to 2002 census, ethnic Russians make up about 80 % of the population of Russia [20]. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... Russias area is about 17 million square kilometers (6. ... A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...



Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe and one of the largest in the world with a population of about 137 million people worldwide. Roughly 116 million ethnic Russians live in Russia and about 18 million more live in the neighboring countries. A relatively significant number of Russians, around 3 million, live elsewhere in the world, mostly in North America and Western Europe, but also in other places of Eastern Europe, Asia and elsewhere. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times Western Europe was largely defined by the Cold War, with the Iron Curtain separating it from Eastern Europe (Warsaw Pact countries). ... Current division of Europe into five (or more) regions: one definition of Eastern Europe is marked in orange Eastern Europe as a region has several alternative definitions, whereby it can denote: the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Central Europe and Russia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Orthodox Christianity is a dominant faith among the Russians. More specifically, the vast majority of Russian believers belong to the Russian Orthodox Church, which played an important role in the development of Russian national identity. In other countries Russian faithful usually belong to the local Orthodox congregations which either have a direct connection (like the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, autonomous under the Patriarch of Moscow) or historical origin (like the Orthodox Church in America or a Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia) with the Russian Orthodox Church. Orthodox Christianity is a generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions which descend from the Catholic Church. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia) (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is an autonomous church of Eastern Orthodoxy in Ukraine, under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Moscow of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC). ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... The following is a list of Russian Orthodox metropolitans and patriarchs of Moscow along with when they served: Metropolitans Maximus ( 1283- 1305) Peter ( 1308- 1326) Theognostus ( 1328- 1353) Alexius ( 1354- 1378) Cyprian ( 1381- 1382), ( 1390- 1406) Pimen ( 1382- 1384) Dionysius I ( 1384- 1385) Photius ( 1408- 1431) Isidore the Apostate ( 1437... The Orthodox Church in America (OCA/TOCA) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church, currently led by Metropolitan Herman (Swaiko). ... The Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA, or ROCOR) is a jurisdiction of Eastern Orthodoxy formed in response against the policy of Bolsheviks with respect to religion in the Soviet Union soon after the Russian Revolution. ...

Even non-religious Russians mostly associate themselves with Orthodox faith for cultural reasons. Some Russians are Old Believers: a relatively small schismatic group of the Russian Orthodoxy that rejected the liturgical reforms introduced in the 17th century. The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ...

Despite continuing growth in religious observance since Soviet times, church attendance rates in Russia are relatively low.

Other world religions have negligible representation among ethnic Russians.

See also Category:Religion in Russia.

Russians outside of Russia

The largest ethnic Russian diasporas outside of Russia live in former Soviet states such as Ukraine (about 8 million), Kazakhstan (about 4 million), Belarus (about 1 million), Latvia (about 700,000), Uzbekistan (about 600,000) and Kyrgyzstan (about 500,000). There are also small Russian communities in the Balkans, Eastern and Central European nations such as the Czech Republic, as well as in China and Latin America. These communities may identify themselves either as Russians or citizens of these countries, or both, to varying degrees. The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of south-eastern Europe. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...

The governments and the majority public opinion in Estonia and Latvia, which has the largest share of ethnic Russians among the Baltic countries, hold the view that many of the ethnic Russians arrived in these countries as part of a Soviet-era colonization and deliberate Russification by changing the countries' ethnic balance. Among the many Russians who arrived during the Soviet era most came there for economic reasons, or in some cases, because they were ordered to move. The Baltic Sea The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ...

People who had arrived to Latvia and Estonia during the Soviet era, mostly Russians, were only provided with an option to acquire naturalised citizenship which required passing a test demonstrating knowledge of the national language as well as knowledge of the country's history and customs. The language issue is still contentious, particularly in Latvia, where ethnic Russians have protested against plans to educate them in the national language instead of Russian. Since 1992, Estonia has naturalized some 137,000 residents of undefined citizenship, mainly ethnic Russians. 136,000, or 10 percent of the total population, remain without citizenship.

Although not among the largest immigrant groups, significant numbers of Russians emigrated to Canada, Australia, and the United States. Brighton Beach, in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, is an example of a large community of recent Russian immigrants. At the same time, many ethnic Russians from former Soviet territories have emigrated to Russia itself since the 1990s. Many of them became refugees from a number of states of Central Asia and Caucasus (as well as from the separatist Chechen Republic), forced to flee during political unrest and hostilities towards Russians. Brighton Beach is a community on Coney Island in the borough of Brooklyn, New York City. ... Nickname: The Big Apple Official website: City of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ... Main article: New York City A map of New York City, highlighting Brooklyn. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Capital Grozny Area - total - % water 79th - 15,500 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density 49th _ est. ...

Although accepting the need to redress the Soviet-era policies, both the European Union and the Council of Europe, as well as the Russian government, expressed their concern during the 1990s about minority rights in several countries, most notably Latvia. In Moldova, the Russian-dominated Transnistria region broke away from government control amid fears the country would soon reunite with Romania. The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de lEurope, German: Europarat) is an international organisation of 46 member states in the European region. ... Politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) takes place in a framework of a federal presidential republic, whereby the President of Russia is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ... Motto: none Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital Tiraspol Largest city Tiraspol Official languages Moldovan, Russian and Ukrainian Government President Parliamentary Republic Igor Smirnov Recognition Independence Recognition From Moldova none September 2, 1990 none Area  â€¢ Water (%) 3,567 km²  N/A% Population 555,500 (2004 est). ...

Russian Chinese

Russians (俄罗斯族) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China (as the Russ), and there are approximately 15,600 Russian Chinese living mostly in northern Xinjiang, and also in Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang. See also Harbin Russians and China Far East Railway. Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... The Harbin Russians were three generations of Russians who lived in the city of Harbin, the junction city of the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER), from approximately 1898 to the mid-1960s. ... The China Far East Railway (a. ...

Emergence of Russian ethnicity

Russians in traditional dress
Russians in traditional dress

Russians began to be recognized as a distinct ethnic group in the 15th century, when they were referred to as Muscovite Russians, during the consolidation of Muscovy Tsardom as a regional power. Between 12th and 16th century Russians known as Pomors migrated to Northern Russia and settled White Sea coasts. As a result of the migrations and Russian conquests (following liberation from the Mongol Golden Horde domination) during 15th-16th centuries Russians settled the Volga, Urals and Northern Caucasus regions. Between 17th and 19th centuries Russian migrants settled the vast sparsely inhabited areas in Siberia and Russian Far East. A major role in these territorial expansions and migrations was played by the Russian Cossacks. Image File history File links Russians. ... Image File history File links Russians. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Pomors (помо́ры) are Russian settlers of the White Sea coasts. ... Barents Sea, the Kola Peninsula and the White Sea. ... The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... This article refers to the medieval Turkic state. ... Privolzhsky (Volga) Federal District (Russian: Приво́лжский федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... Urals Federal District (Ура́льский федера́льный о́круг) is one of the seven federal districts of Russia. ... Southern Federal District (Russian: Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... Far Eastern Federal District Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... This article needs cleanup. ...

According to most ethnologists ethnic Russians originated from the earlier Rus' people (East Slavs of Kievan Rus), and gradually evolved into a different ethnicity from the western Rus people who became the modern-day Belarusians and Ukrainians. Some ethnologists maintain that Russians were a distinct Slavic group even before the time of Kievan Rus. Others believe that the distinguishing feature of the Russians is not primarily their separation from Western Rus, but that ethnic Russians are a mix of East Slavic and non-Slavic (for example Finno-Ugric, Germanic, Baltic and Turkic) tribes. However, the origin of the Slavic peoples is itself a matter on which there is no consensus. Rus is a term used to describe the ethnic group of eastern Slavs from which modern Russians have descended, as well as the earliest Russian states. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (ru: Ки́ев, Kiev; uk: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ... The Baltic Sea The Balts or Baltic peoples (Latvian: balti, Lithuanian: baltai), defined as speakers of one of the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, are descended from a group of Indo-European tribes who settled the area between lower Vistula and upper Dvina and Dneper. ... Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family, and who, in varying degrees, share certain cultural and historical traits. ... The Slavic peoples are defined by their linguistic attainment of the Slavic languages. ...

A group of children, 1909. Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii.
A group of children, 1909. Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii.

Image File history File links RussianChildrenOnAHillside. ... Image File history File links RussianChildrenOnAHillside. ... Sergei Prokudin-Gorski. ...

See also

This is a list of people associated with Imperial Russia, the Soviet Union, and Russia of today. ... The first recorded landing of Russians in Japan was in 1739 in Kamogawa, Chiba during the times of Japanese seclusion of the Edo period, not counting landings in Hokkaido, which was not under Japanese administration at these times. ... The Russian culture is rooted in the early East Slavic culture. ... Baltic Russians are ethnic Russians who live in the previously Soviet-controlled Baltic states: Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. ... After the discovery of northern Alaska by Ivan Fedorov in 1732, and the Aleutian Islands, southern Alaska, and north-western shores of North America in 1741 during the Russian exploration conducted by Vitus Bering and Aleksei Chirikov, it took fifty years until the founding of the first Russian colony in...

Online references

  • ((English)) CIA factbook - Russia
  • ((English)) China Internet Information Center - The Russian Ethnic Group
  • ((Russian)) 4.1. Population by nationality
  • ((Russian)) Russians: short description

  Results from FactBites:
Russians (648 words)
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By 1930, the population of Russian Jews in the Maxwell Street area had declined markedly, and after 1945 many began moving even further from the city's center, to the suburbs and to West Rogers Park, which remained the largest Jewish community in Chicago through the 1990s.
Between 1969 and 1990, 23,000 Russian Jews and an estimated 500 ethnic Russian immigrants settled along Devon Avenue in West Rogers Park, as well as in Albany Park, Glenview, Northbrook, and Mount Prospect.
Russians at AllExperts (1208 words)
Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe and one of the largest in the world with a population of about 137 million people worldwide.
Ethnic Russians historically migrated throughout the area of former Russian Empire and Soviet Union, sometimes encouraged to re-settle in borderlands by Tsarist and later Soviet government.
Ethnic Russians known as Great Russians (as oppose to White Russians and Little Russians) began to be recognized as a distinct ethnic group in the 15th century, when they were referred to as Muscovite Russians, during the consolidation of Muscovy Tsardom as a regional power.
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