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Encyclopedia > Russia
Российская Федерация
Rossiyskaya Federatsiya

Russian Federation
Flag of Russia Coat of arms of Russia
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Hymn of the Russian Federation
Capital
(and largest city)
Moscow
55°45′N, 37°37′E
Official languages Russian official throughout nation; thirty others co-official in various regions
Government Semi-presidential
federal republic
 -  President Vladimir Putin
 -  Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov
Formation
 -  Declared June 12, 1990 
 -  Finalized December 25, 1991 
Area
 -  Total 17,075,400 km² (1st)
6,592,800 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 13
Population
 -  2006 estimate 142,400,000 (8th)
 -  2002 census 145,184,000 
 -  Density 8.3 /km² (209th)
21.8 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $1.723 trillion (9th1)
 -  Per capita $12,100 (62nd)
GDP (nominal) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $763 billion (14th)
 -  Per capita $5,349 (61st)
Gini? (2002) 39.9 (medium
HDI (2004) 0.797 (medium) (65th)
Currency Ruble (RUB)
Internet TLD .ru (.su reserved)
Calling code +7
1 Rank based on November 2006 CIA data (IMF and Worldbank data is available only for 2005 year).

Russia (Russian: Росси́я, Rossiya; pronounced [rʌ'sʲi.jə]), also[1] the Russian Federation (Росси́йская Федера́ция, Rossiyskaya Federatsiya; [rʌ'sʲi.skə.jə fʲɪ.dʲɪ'ra.ʦɪ.jə],(Russian language) listen ), is a transcontinental country extending over a vast expanse of Asia and Europe. With an area of 17,075,400 km², Russia is the largest country in the world,[2] covering almost twice the total (land and sea) area of the next-largest country, Canada, and has significant mineral and energy resources. Russia has the world's eighth-largest population. Russia shares land borders with the following countries (counter-clockwise from northwest to southeast): Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It is also close to the United States (Alaska state), Sweden, and Japan across relatively small stretches of water (the Bering Strait, the Baltic Sea, and La Pérouse Strait, respectively). Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_the_Russian_Federation. ... Flag of the Russian Federation. ... Coat of Arms of Russian Federation. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Flag of the Russian Federation The Hymn of the Russian Federation (, Gosudarstvenny Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the national anthem of Russia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Demography of Russia 1992-2003. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Russia has one official language; Russian. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... The President of Russia (ru: Президент России is the highest position within the Government of Russia. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the incumbent President of Russia. ... The Prime Minister of Russia is the current Head of Government of the Russian Federation. ... Mikhail Yefimovich Fradkov (Russian: Михаи́л Ефи́мович Фрадко́в) (born September 1, 1950) is a Russian politician, and the current Prime Minister of Russia. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare sizes of different areas, here is a list of areas between 10 million km² and 100 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, using the most recently available official figures. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... Map of world GDP (PPP) by country using the IMF list for 2005 There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, based on the 2005 IMF data. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of a distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2004). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 10. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... .ru is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Russia. ... .su was assigned as the country code top-level domain for the Soviet Union in 1990. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Image File history File links Ru-Rossiyskaya_Federatsiya_Rossiya. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... Countries by area This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, using the most recently available official figures. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait http://209. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... La Pérouse Strait (Japanese: Soya Strait 宗谷海峡) is a strait dividing the southern part of the Russian island of Sakhalin from the northern part of the Japanese island of Hokkaido, and connecting the Sea of Japan on the west with the Sea of Okhotsk on the east. ...


Formerly the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), a republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Russia became the Russian Federation following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991. After the Soviet era, the area, population, and industrial production of the Soviet Union (then one of the world's two Cold War superpowers) that were located in Russia passed on to the Russian Federation. State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Soviet redirects here. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... Soviet redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A superpower exerts economic, political, cultural and military influence around the globe using hard powers and soft powers. ...


After the breakup of the Soviet Union, the newly-independent Russian Federation emerged as a great power (although it is also considered to be an energy superpower).[3] Russia is considered the Soviet Union's successor state in diplomatic matters (see Russia's membership in the United Nations) and is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. It is also one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the world's largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction (see Russia and weapons of mass destruction). Russia is the leading nation of the Commonwealth of Independent States, a member of the G8 as well as other international organisations. One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... There is as yet no consensus as to what an energy superpower is exactly, or how to define it apart from other large resource-producing states. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... Russias membership in the United Nations after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, was the succession of the Soviet Unions seat, including its permanent membership on the UN Security Council. ... “UNSC” redirects here. ... This is a list of states with nuclear weapons. ... Russia possesses one of the two largest stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction in the world (the United States possess the other). ... Russia possesses one of the two largest stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction in the world (the United States possess the other). ... Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ... The Group of Eight (G8) is an international forum for the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Russia

The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ...

Ancient Russia

An approximative map of the cultures in European Russia at the arrival of the Varangians.
An approximative map of the cultures in European Russia at the arrival of the Varangians.

Prior to the 1st century, the vast lands of southern Russia were home to scattered tribes, such as Proto-Indo-Europeans and Scythians.[4] Between the 3rd and 6th centuries, the steppes were overwhelmed by successive waves of nomadic invasions, led by warlike tribes which would often move on to Europe, as was the case with Huns and Turkish Avars. A Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled southern Russia through the 8th century. They were important allies of the Byzantine Empire and waged a series of successful wars against the Arab caliphates. A statue of a Vedic god recently excavated in the Volga region points to a link to India around the 9th century[5] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (610x622, 144 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (610x622, 144 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... http://www. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Huns were a confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Arabic خزر; Persianخزر ; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ); is a member of a Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the... The Caliphate (Arabic خلافة) is the theoretical federal government that would govern the Islamic world under Islamic law, ruled by a Caliph as head of state. ... Vedic may refer to: Ancient India the Vedic civilization the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts Vedic Sanskrit, their language (see also Vedic meter, Vedic accent, Vedic chant and Shrauta) the historical Vedic religion traditional Hindu culture: Vedic astrology the Ayurveda (Vedic medicine) Ancient Vedic weights and measures modern...


In this era, the term "Rhos" or "Rus" first came to be applied to the Varangians and later also to the Slavs who peopled the region.[6] As well as one of the rulers who contributed to the name "rus". In the tenth to eleventh centuries this state of Kievan Rus became the largest in Europe and one of the most prosperous, due to diversified trade with both Europe and Asia. The opening of new trade routes with the Orient at the time of the Crusades contributed to the decline and fragmentation of Kievan Rus by the end of the twelfth century. Originally Rus (Русь, Rus’) was a medieval country and state that comprised mostly Early East Slavs. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ...


In the 11th and 12th centuries, the constant incursions of nomadic Turkish tribes, such as the Kipchaks and the Pechenegs, led to the massive migration of Slavic populations from the fertile south to the heavily forested regions of the north, known as Zalesye. The medieval states of Novgorod Republic and Vladimir-Suzdal emerged as successors to Kievan Rus on those territories, while the middle course of the Volga River came to be dominated by the Muslim state of Volga Bulgaria. Like many other parts of Eurasia, these territories were overrun by the Mongol invaders, who formed the state of Golden Horde which would pillage the Russian principalities for over three centuries. Later known as the Tatars, they ruled the southern and central expanses of present-day Russia, while the territories of present-day Ukraine and Belarus were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland, thus dividing the Russian people in the north from the Belarusians and Ukrainians in the west. Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Zalesye (literally: over the woods) or Opolye (literally: in the fields) is a historical region of Russia, comprising the north and west parts of Vladimir Oblast, the north-east of Moscow Oblast and the south of Yaroslavl Oblast. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... The Volga, widely viewed as the national river of Russia, flows through the western part of the country. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the Earths largest landmass covering about 21215121321km² compared with the Americas (approximately 42,000,000 km²), Africa (approximately 30,000,000 km²), and Antarctica (approximately 13,000,000 km²). Eurasia comprises the traditional continents of Europe and Asia. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... Russians (Russian: ) are an East Slavic ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries. ...


Similarly to the Balkans, long-lasting nomadic rule retarded the country's economic and social development. However, the Novgorod Republic together with Pskov retained some degree of autonomy during the time of the Mongol yoke and was largely spared the atrocities that affected the rest of the country. Led by Alexander Nevsky, the Novgorodians repelled the Germanic crusaders who attempted to colonize the region. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mongol invasion of Rus. ... Statue in Pereslavl, just in front of the cathedral Alexander was baptised in. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ...


Muscovy

Main article: Muscovy

Unlike its spiritual leader, the Byzantine Empire, Russia under the leadership of Moscow was able to revive and organize its own war of reconquest, finally subjugating its enemies and annexing their territories. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Muscovite Russia remained the only more or less functional Christian state on the Eastern European frontier, allowing it to claim succession to the legacy of the Eastern Roman Empire. Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI†, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani†[1] Mehmed II Strength 5,000 Greek militia soldiers plus 2,000 Italian mercenaries [2] 80,000[1] - 150,000[1] Casualties Most of Greek defenders, some mercenaries[3], approximately 4,000 civilians[4] unverified The Fall of... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... Coat of arms of the last imperial dynasty of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ...


While still under the domain of the Mongol-Tatars and with their connivance, the duchy of Moscow began to assert its influence in Western Russia in the early fourteenth century. Assisted by the Russian Orthodox Church and Saint Sergius of Radonezh's spiritual revival, Muscovy inflicted a defeat on the Mongol-Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo (1380). Ivan the Great eventually tossed off the control of the invaders, consolidated surrounding areas under Moscow's dominion and first took the title "grand duke of all the Russias". Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Москов&#1089... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Venerable Sergii Radonezhsky (Сергий Радонежский) (born Varfolomei – Варфоломей, corresponds to Bartholomew), also translated as Sergey Radonezhsky and Sergius of Radonezh (1322 – 1392), was the... Combatants Combined Russian armies The Golden Horde Commanders Dmitri Ivanovich of Moscow Mamai Strength About 80,000 About 125,000 Casualties About 40,000 able body men left Unknown The Battle of Kulikovo (Russian: ), also called Battle on the Snipes Field (Кулик means snipe), was fought by the Tartaro-Mongols (the... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 - October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand...


In the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Russian state set the national goal to return all Russian territories lost as a result of the Tatar invasion and to protect the southern borderland against attacks of Crimean Tatars and other Turkic peoples. The noblemen, receiving a manor from the sovereign, were obliged to serve in the military. The manor system became a basis for the nobiliary horse army. Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ...


In 1547, Ivan the Terrible was officially crowned the first Tsar of Russia. During his long reign, Ivan annexed the Tatar khanates (Kazan, Astarkhan) along the Volga River and transformed Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state. By the end of the century, Russian Cossacks established the first Russian settlements in Western Siberia. But his rule was also marked by the atrocities against both the nobility and the common people on vast scale which eventually, after his death, lead to the civil war of the Time of Troubles in early 1600s. In the middle of the seventeenth century there were Russian settlements in Eastern Siberia, on Chukchi Peninsula, along the Amur River, on the Pacific coast, and the strait between North America and Asia was first sighted by a Russian explorer in 1648. The colonization of the Asian territories was largely peaceful, in sharp contrast to the build-up of other colonial empires of the time. Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , Croatian car, in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... The Volga, widely viewed as the national river of Russia, flows through the western part of the country. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... The Chukchi Peninsula, Chukotski Peninsula or Chukotsk Peninsula, at about 66° North, 169° East, is the northeastern extremity of Asia. ... The Amur River (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mayan; Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is Earths eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Manchuria in China. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...


Imperial Russia

View of Neva River in Saint Petersburg.
View of Neva River in Saint Petersburg.
Three generations of a Russian family, c.1910.
Three generations of a Russian family, c.1910.
Main article: Russian Empire

Muscovite control of the nascent nation continued after the Polish intervention under the subsequent Romanov dynasty, beginning with Tsar Michael Romanov in 1613. Peter the Great (ruled in) defeated Sweden in the Great Northern War, forcing it to cede Ingria, Estland, and Livland. It was in Ingria that he founded a new capital, Saint Petersburg. Peter succeeded in bringing ideas and culture from Western Europe to a severely underdeveloped Russia. After his reforms, Russia emerged as a major European power. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x683, 502 KB) St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x683, 502 KB) St. ... River Neva (Нева́) is a 74 km long Russian river flowing from the Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро - Ladozhskoye Ozero) through the Carelian Isthmus (Карельский &#1055... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x611, 122 KB) Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x611, 122 KB) Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of the Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced Ro-MAH-nof), the second and last royal dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Mikhail at the Ipatiev Monastery by Grigory Ugryumov Michael Romanov redirects here. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [[30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Poland-Lithuania Saxony later also Prussia, Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Augustus II the Strong Frederick IV of Denmark Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... Historically Ingria (Finnish: , Russian: , Swedish: ) comprises the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the south-west, and Lake Ladoga in the north-east. ... National motto: None Official language Estonian Capital Tallinn President Arnold Rüütel Prime Minister Andrus Ansip Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 129th 45,226 km² 4. ... This article is about the region in Europe. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


Catherine the Great, ruling from 1762 to 1796, continued the Petrine efforts at establishing Russia as one of the great powers of Europe. Examples of its eighteenth-century European involvement include the War of Polish Succession and the Seven Years' War. In the wake of the Partitions of Poland, Russia had taken territories with the ethnic Belarusian and Ukrainian population, earlier parts of Kievan Rus'. As a result of the victorious Russian-Turkish wars, Russia's borders expanded to the Black Sea and Russia set its goal on the protection of Balkan Christians against a Turkish yoke. In 1783, Russia and the Georgian Kingdom (which was almost totally devastated by Persian and Turkish invasions) signed the treaty of Georgievsk according to which Georgia received the protection of Russia. Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... The War of the Polish Succession (1733-1738) was a European war and a Polish civil war, with considerable interference from other countries, to determine the succession to Augustus II, King of Poland, as well as an attempt by the Bourbon powers to check the power of Austria in western... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland Electorate of Hanover Kingdom of Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Holy Roman/Austrian Empire Kingdom of France Russian Empire Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia The Seven Years War (1754... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of eleven wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Motto: (Georgian) Strength is in Unity Anthem: (Freedom) Capital (and largest city)  Tbilisi Official languages Georgian (also Abkhaz within the Abkhazian Autonomous Republic) Government Unitary republic  - President Mikheil Saakashvili  - Prime Minister Zurab Noghaideli Consolidation    - Establishment of first Georgian Kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia c. ... The Treaty of Georgievsk established the protectorate of the Russian Empire on the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti (in the eastern Georgia) and an alliance between the two countries in 1783. ...


In 1812, having gathered nearly half a million soldiers from France, as well as from all of its conquered states in Europe, Napoleon invaded Russia but, after taking Moscow, was forced to retreat back to Europe. Almost 90% of the invading forces died as a result of on-going battles with the Russian army, guerrillas and winter weather. The Russian armies ended their pursuit of the enemy by taking his capital, Paris. The officers of the Napoleonic wars brought back to Russia the ideas of liberalism and even attempted to curtail the tsar's powers during the abortive Decembrist revolt (1825), which was followed by several decades of political repression. Another result of the Napoleonic wars was the incorporation of Bessarabia, Finland, and Congress Poland into the Russian Empire. La Grande Armée (French for the Great Army or the Grand Army) first entered the annals of history when, in 1805, Napoleon I renamed the army that he had assembled on the French coast of the English Channel for the proposed invasion of Britain and re-deployed it East... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Decembrists at the Senate Square The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (Russian: ) was attempted in Imperial Russia by army officers who led about 3,000 Russian soldiers on December 14 (December 26 New Style), 1825. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish, Бесарабія in Ukrainian) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Map of Congress Poland. ...


The perseverance of Russian serfdom and the conservative policies of Nicholas I of Russia impeded the development of Imperial Russia in the mid-nineteenth century. As a result, the country was defeated in the Crimean War, 1853–1856, by an alliance of major European powers, including Britain, France, Ottoman Empire, and Piedmont-Sardinia. Nicholas's successor Alexander II (1855–1881) was forced to undertake a series of comprehensive reforms and issued a decree abolishing serfdom in 1861. The Great Reforms of Alexander's reign spurred increasingly rapid capitalist development and Sergei Witte's attempts at industrialization. The Slavophile mood was on the rise, spearheaded by Russia's victory in the Russo-Turkish War, which forced the Ottoman Empire to recognize the independence of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro and autonomy of Bulgaria. A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854–1856) was fought... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born 17 April 1818 in Moscow; died 13 March 1881 in St. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Count Sergei Yulyevitch Witte (Russian: , Sergej Julevič Vitte) (June 29, 1849 – March 13, 1915), also known as Sergius Witte, was a highly influential policy-maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire. ... A Slavophile was an advocate of the supremacy of Slavic culture over that of others, especially Western European culture. ... Combatants Russia, Romania Ottoman Empire The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and liberating the Orthodox Christian Slavic peoples of the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgarians, Serbians) from the Islamic-ruled Ottoman Empire. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006   -  Recognised...


The failure of agrarian reforms and suppression of the growing liberal intelligentsia were continuing problems however, and on the eve of World War I, the position of Tsar Nicholas II and his dynasty appeared precarious. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in the Russo-Japanese War and World War I, and the consequent deterioration of the economy led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire, and ultimately to the overthrow of the Tsar in February 1917. Agrarian has two meanings: It can mean pertaining to Agriculture It can also refer to the ideology of Agrarianism and Agrarian parties. ... The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 39,518 killed; 158,600 wounded; 74,000 POW [1]; unknown Chinese civilians 47,387 killed; 173,425 woundedï¼› unknown Chinese civilians... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq...


At the close of this Russian Revolution of 1917, a Marxist political faction called the Bolsheviks seized power in Petrograd and Moscow under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin. The Bolsheviks changed their name to the Communist Party. A bloody civil war ensued, pitting the Bolsheviks' Red Army against a loose confederation of anti-socialist monarchist and bourgeois forces known as the White Army. The Red Army triumphed, and the Soviet Union was formed in 1922. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise...


Russia as part of the Soviet Union

St. Basil's Cathedral and the Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin in Moscow's Red Square.
St. Basil's Cathedral and the Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin in Moscow's Red Square.
Main articles: History of the Soviet Union and Russian SFSR

The Soviet Union was meant to be a trans-national worker's state free from nationalism. The concept of Russia as a separate national entity was therefore not emphasized in the early Soviet Union. Although Russian institutions and cities certainly remained dominant, many non-Russians participated in the new government at all levels. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Moscow Red Square ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Moscow Red Square ... St. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), St. ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... The History of the Soviet Union begins with the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ...


Stalin

One of these was a Georgian named Joseph Stalin. After Lenin's death in 1924, a brief power struggle ensued, during which Stalin gradually eroded the various checks and balances which had been designed into the Soviet political system and assumed dictatorial power by the end of the decade. Leon Trotsky and almost all other Old Bolsheviks from the time of the Revolution were killed or exiled. At the end of 1930s, Stalin launched the Great Purges, a massive series of political repressions. Millions of people whom Stalin and local authorities suspected of being a threat to their power were executed or exiled to Gulag labor camps in remote areas of Siberia or Central Asia. “Stalin” redirects here. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... It has been suggested that Balance of powers be merged into this article or section. ... Dictator is originally the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... This article is becoming very long. ... An Old Bolshevik (Russian: ) is an unofficial designation of a member of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: The word Gulag has also come to signify not only the administration of the... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ...


Stalin forced rapid industrialization of the largely rural country and collectivization of its agriculture. In 1928, Stalin introduced his "First Five-Year Plan" for modernizing the Soviet economy. Most economic output was immediately diverted to establishing heavy industry. Civilian industry was modernized and many heavy weapon factories were established. The plan worked, in some sense, as the Soviet Union successfully transformed from an agrarian economy to a major industrial powerhouse in an unbelievably short span of time, but widespread misery and famine ensued for many millions of people as a result of the severe economic upheaval. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52... Collective farming regards a system of agricultural organization in which farm laborers are not compensated via wages. ... Five-Year Plan refers to a national economic development plan, lasting five years. ... Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ...


The Soviet Union's involvement in World War II, known in Russia as the Great Patriotic War, started with the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 22, 1941. The German army had considerable success in the early stages of the campaign, but they suffered defeat when they reached the outskirts of Moscow. The Red Army then stopped the Nazi offensive at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942-43, which became the decisive turning point for Germany's fortunes in the war. The Soviets drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin before Germany surrendered in 1945 (see Great Patriotic War). During the war, the Soviet Union lost more than 27 million citizens (including eighteen million civilians). The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Germany Italy Hungary Romania Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Combatants Soviet Union Poland Germany Commanders Georgiy Zhukov Ivan Konev Konstantin Rokossovskiy Vasiliy Chuykov Adolf Hitler â€  Gotthard Heinrici Helmuth Reymann Ernst Kaether (one day) Helmuth Weidling # Karl Dönitz # Wilhelm Mohnke # Strength 2,500,000 soldiers, 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, 41,600 artillery pieces [1] 1,000,000... Combatants Soviet Union,1 Poland (from January 1945) Germany,1 Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia Commanders Aleksei Antonov, Azi Aslanov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Pavel Rotmistrov, Semyon Timoshenko, Fyodor Tolbukhin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Nikolai Vatutin... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ...


Although ravaged by the war, the Soviet Union emerged from the conflict as an acknowledged superpower. The Red Army occupied Eastern Europe after the war, including the eastern half of Germany. Stalin installed loyal communist governments in these satellite states. Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... GDR redirects here. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ...


During the immediate postwar period, the Soviet Union first rebuilt and then expanded its economy, with control always exerted exclusively from Moscow. The Soviets extracted heavy war reparations from the areas of Germany under their control, mostly in the form of machinery and industrial equipment. The Soviet Union consolidated its hold on Eastern Europe (see Eastern bloc). The United States helped the Western European countries establish democracies, and both countries sought to achieve economic, political, and ideological dominance over the Third World. The ensuing struggle became known as the Cold War, which turned the Soviet Union's wartime allies, the United Kingdom and the United States, into its foes. War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... A common post-WWII understanding of Western Europe Western Europe in its most common understanding is a socio-political concept coined and used during the Cold War. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Stalin died in early 1953 presumably without leaving any instructions for the selection of a successor. His closest associates officially decided to rule the Soviet Union jointly, but the secret police chief Lavrenty Beria appeared poised to seize dictatorial control. General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev and other leading politicians organized an anti-Beria alliance and staged a coup d'état. Beria was arrested in June 1953 and executed later that year; Khrushchev became the undisputed leader of the Soviet Union. Lavrenty Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; (29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953), was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[1]–September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ...


Khrushchev

Khruschev and Yuri Gagarin.
Khruschev and Yuri Gagarin.

Under Khrushchev, the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, and the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the Earth aboard the first manned spacecraft, Vostok 1. Khrushchev's reforms in agriculture and administration, however, were generally unproductive. Foreign policy toward China and the United States suffered reverses, notably the Cuban Missile Crisis, when Khrushchev began installing nuclear missiles in Cuba (after the United States installed Jupiter missiles in Turkey, which nearly provoked a war with the Soviet Union). Over the course of several angry outbursts at the United Nations, Khrushchev was increasingly seen by his colleagues as belligerent, boorish, and dangerous. The remainder of the Soviet leadership removed him from power in 1964. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (499x640, 67 KB)Yuri Gagarin and Nikita Khrushchev greet Muscovites in the Red Square on April 14, 1961 The first envoy of planet Earth to space, who ushered in a new age in the history of modern civilization, is standing on... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (499x640, 67 KB)Yuri Gagarin and Nikita Khrushchev greet Muscovites in the Red Square on April 14, 1961 The first envoy of planet Earth to space, who ushered in a new age in the history of modern civilization, is standing on... Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (Russian: , Jurij Aleksejevič Gagarin; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968), Hero of the Soviet Union, was a Soviet cosmonaut who on 12 April 1961 became the first person in space and the first person to orbit the Earth. ... An Earth observation satellite, ERS 2 For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite 1) was the first artificial satellite to be put into orbit, on October 4, 1957. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (Russian: , Jurij Aleksejevič Gagarin; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968), Hero of the Soviet Union, was a Soviet cosmonaut who on 12 April 1961 became the first person in space and the first person to orbit the Earth. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... Vostok 1 was the first manned space mission. ... Sino-Russian Relations refers to the relations between Russia and China. ... Small TextThe Cuban Missile Crisis was a bitch ass confrontation during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States in Cuba. ... Jupiter IRBM mobile missile The Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile, first tested in 1957, was the United States second Intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM). ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Brezhnev

Following the ousting of Khrushchev, another period of rule by collective leadership ensued until Leonid Brezhnev established himself in the early 1970s as the pre-eminent figure in Soviet politics. Brezhnev is frequently derided by historians for stagnating the development of the Soviet Union (see "Brezhnev stagnation"). Others have acknowledged that despite its inertia and repression (though very mild relative to the Stalin years), the Brezhnev era did offer a relative prosperity to a populace and leadership battered by decades of war, famine, collectivization and crash industrialization, deadly political crises, arbitrary mass murder and arrest, and the volatility of the Khrushchev years. In contrast to the revolutionary spirit that accompanied the birth of the Soviet Union, the prevailing mood of the Soviet leadership at the time of Brezhnev's death in 1982 was one of aversion to change--partly because the USSR's economic woes were proving to be deeply systemic and hence immune to reform within the context of the Stalinist-Soviet system. Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev Russian: ; January 1, 1907 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, at first in partnership with others. ... Leonid Brezhnev. ...


Gorbachev

In the mid 1980s, the reform-minded Mikhail Gorbachev came to power. He introduced the landmark policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring), in an attempt to modernize Soviet communism. Glasnost meant that the harsh restrictions on free speech that had characterized most of the Soviet Union's existence were removed, and open political discourse and criticism of the government became possible again. Perestroika meant sweeping economic reforms designed to decentralize the planning of the Soviet economy. However, the Stalinist system was probably beyond repair, and the Gorbachev reforms started in motion forces of change that demonstrated that meaningful reform would eventually threaten Communist Party hegemony, i.e. the Soviet system would not survive any successful reform program intact. His initiatives also provoked strong resentment amongst conservative elements of the government, and in August of 1991 an unsuccessful military coup that attempted to remove Gorbachev from power instead led to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Boris Yeltsin came to power and declared the end of exclusive Communist rule. The USSR splintered into fifteen independent republics, and was officially dissolved in December of 1991 (see History of the Soviet Union). Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: , Michail Sergejevič Gorbačëv), IPA: , surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... During the Soviet Coup of 1991, also known as the August Putsch, Vodka Putsch or August Coup, a group of hardliners within the Soviet Communist party briefly deposed Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... The History of the Soviet Union begins with the Russian Revolution of 1917. ...


Since then, Russia has struggled in its efforts to build a democratic political system and a market economy to replace the strict centralized social, political, and economic controls of the Soviet era. Corruption has run rampant, and the Yeltsin government conspired with insiders to loot countless billions in cash and assets from the State. Under Vladimir Putin, a considerable decline of political freedoms followed. However, economy and defense were considerably significantly, and currently Russia enjoys a state of rapid economical growth.[citation needed] A market economy (also called free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services takes place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the incumbent President of Russia. ...


Post-Soviet Russia

Main article: History of post-Soviet Russia
See also: Politics of Russia

Prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Boris Yeltsin had been elected President of Russia in June 1991 in the first direct presidential election in Russian history. In October 1991, as Russia was on the verge of independence, Yeltsin announced that Russia would proceed with radical market-oriented reform along the lines of "shock therapy". Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... The kremlin in Rostov Rostov (Russian: Росто́в) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... Motto: (German for Unity and Justice and Freedom”) Anthem: (3rd stanza) also called Capital Berlin istian Democratic Union (Germany) {{{official_languages}}} Government {{{government_type}}} Formation    - Holy Roman Empire 843 (Treaty of Verdun)   - Unification January 18, 1871   - Federal Republic May 23, 1949   - Reunification October 3, 1990  Accession to EU March 25, 1953 (West... The politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) take place in a framework of a federal presidential republic. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... In economics, shock therapy refers to the sudden release of price and currency controls, withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country. ...


After the disintegration of the USSR, the Russian economy went through a crisis. Russia took up the responsibility for settling the USSR's external debts, even though its population made up just half of the population of the USSR at the time of its dissolution. The largest state enterprises (petroleum, metallurgy, and the like) were controversially privatized for the small sum of $US 600 million, far less than they were worth, while the majority of the population plunged into poverty.


Russia's Congress of People's Deputies, in which the Communist presence was the strongest, attempted to impeach Yeltsin on March 26, 1993. Yeltsin's opponents gathered more than 600 votes for impeachment, but fell 72 votes short. On September 21, 1993, Yeltsin disbanded the Supreme Soviet and the Congress of People's Deputies by decree, which was illegal under the constitution. On the same day there was a military showdown: the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993. With military help, Yeltsin held control. The conflict resulted in a number of civilian casualties, but was resolved in Yeltsin's favor. According to different sources, the total number of deceased was between 300 and 2,000 people. Elections were held and the current Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted on December 12, 1993. The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (86th in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Boris Yeltsin was President of the Russian Federation at the time of the crisis. ... The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации) was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993 replacing the previous Soviet-era Constitution of April 12, 1978 of Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...

Modern Moscow-City under construction.
Modern Moscow-City under construction.

The 1990s were plagued by armed ethnic conflicts in the North Caucasus. Such conflicts took a form of separatist insurrections against federal power (most notably in Chechnya), or of ethnic/clan conflicts between local groups (e.g., in North Ossetia-Alania between Ossetians and Ingushs, or between different clans in Chechnya). Since the Chechen separatists declared independence in the early 1990s, an intermittent guerrilla war (First Chechen War, Second Chechen War) has been fought between disparate Chechen groups and the Russian military. Some of these groups have grown increasingly Islamist over the course of the struggle. The total number of refugees and internally displaced persons from these territories today is about 100,000 people. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1500x1000, 378 KB) Moscow-City construction site File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Moscow-City Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1500x1000, 378 KB) Moscow-City construction site File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Moscow-City Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Moscow-City (Russian: Москва-Сити) or Moscow International Business Center (Московский Международный Деловой Центр) is a projected part of central Moscow, Russia. ... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Nokhchiyn, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Capital Vladikavkaz Area - total - % water Ranked 84th - 8,000 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 68th - est. ... The Ossetians (oss. ... The Ingush are a people of the northern Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia. ... Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Nokhchiyn, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Strength At least 93,000 in Chechnya in 1999 About 30,000 in Chechnya in 2007 (mostly MVD) 10,000 to 20,000 in 1999 (including private militias) 700 in Chechnya in 2007 (Russian est. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Tailor in Labuje IDP camp in Uganda An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as religious or political persecution or war, but has not crossed an international border. ...


After Yeltsin's presidency in the 1990s, the recently appointed Prime Minister (who was also head of the FSB from July 1998 through August 1999) Vladimir Putin was elected in 2000. Although President Putin is still the most popular Russian politician, with a 70% approval rating, his policies raised serious concerns about civil society and human rights in Russia. The West--particularly the United States--expressed growing worries about the state influence of the Russian media through Kremlin-friendly companies and law enforcement abuses.[7] FSB The FSB (Federal Security Service) (Russian: ФСБ, Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности; Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti) is the leading intelligence agency of the Russian Federation and the main successor of the Soviet Cheka, NKVD, and KGB. Its headquarters are in Lubyanka Square, Moscow. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the incumbent President of Russia. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For the band, see The Police. ...


At the same time, high oil prices and growing internal demand boosted Russian economic growth, stimulating significant economic expansion abroad and helping to finance increased military spending. Putin's presidency has shown improvements in the Russian standard of living, as opposed to the 1990s.[8] Even with these economic improvements, the government is criticized for lack of will to fight wide-spread crime and corruption and to renovate deteriorated urban areas. Natural olive oil Synthetic motor oil An Oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Russia

The politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) take place in a framework of a federal presidential republic, whereby the President of Russia is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Russia is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. Most of this happens in Moscow from within the Kremlin. The politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) take place in a framework of a federal presidential republic. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where the executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separate from the legislature, to which it is not accountable, and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... The President of Russia (ru: Президент России is the highest position within the Government of Russia. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The Prime Minister of Russia is the current Head of Government of the Russian Federation. ... The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Federal Assembly of Russia (Russian: Федеральное Собрание, transliteration:Federalnoye Sobraniye or Federalnoje Sobranije) is the name of the legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation, 1993. ...


According to the Freedom House survey, Russia is not a considered a 'free' (representative democratic) country.[9] This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ...


Subdivisions

Federal subjects
Map of the subdivisions of the Russian Federation
Map of the subdivisions of the Russian Federation

The Russian Federation comprises 86 federal subjects, namely: Federal subjects of the Russian Federation Being the largest country in the world, and one of the most populated, Russia incorporates several types and levels of subdivisions. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x826, 75 KB) I made this map for use on Wikipedia specifically. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x826, 75 KB) I made this map for use on Wikipedia specifically. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ...

Federal districts

Federal subjects are grouped into federal districts, four in Europe and three in Asia. Unlike the federal subjects, the federal districts are not a subnational level of government, but are a level of administration of the federal government. Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... Krai (Russian: край; British English transliteration: kray), is a term used to refer to several of Russias 89 administrative regions (federal subjects). ... Okrug is a term to denote administrative subdivision in some Slavic states. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ...

See also

All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Russia is divided into eleven economic regions (Russian: экономические районы, sing. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 89 subjects (administrative units), 49 of which are oblasts: Amur Arkhangelsk Astrakhan Belgorod Bryansk Chelyabinsk Chita Irkutsk Ivanovo Kaliningrad Kaluga Kamchatka Kemerovo Kirov Kostroma Kurgan Kursk Leningrad Lipetsk Magadan Moscow Murmansk Nizhny Novgorod Novgorod Novosibirsk Omsk Orenburg Oryol Penza Perm Pskov Rostov Ryazan Sakhalin... The Russian Federation is divided into 89 subjects (administrative units), 6 of which are krais: Altai Krai Khabarovsk Krai Krasnodar Krai Krasnoyarsk Krai Primorsky Krai Stavropol Krai 1. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 89 subjects (administrative units), 1 of which is an autonomous oblast: Jewish Autonomous Oblast See also Republics of Russia Krais of Russia Oblasts of Russia Autonomous Districts of Russia Federal cities of Russia Categories: Subdivisions of Russia | Autonomous Oblasts of Russia ... Russia is divided into 88 federal subjects (subjekty), of which nine are avtonomnyye okruga (autonomous districts, sing. ... This article is being considered for deletion, in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of Russia

Image File history File links Larix_gmelinii0. ... Image File history File links Larix_gmelinii0. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Kamchatka Oblast, an oblast in Russia. ... Map of Russia. ...

Topography

The Russian Federation stretches across much of the north of the supercontinent of Eurasia. Although it contains a large share of the world's Arctic and sub-Arctic areas, and therefore has less population, economic activity, and physical variety per unit area than most countries, the great area south of these still accommodates a great variety of landscapes and climates. The mid-annual temperature is -5.5°C (22°F).[citation needed] For comparison, the mid-annual temperature in Iceland is +1.2°C (34°F) and in Sweden is +4°C (39°F), although the variety of climates within Russia makes such a comparison somewhat misleading, due to the extremely low temperatures in Siberia. Areas in the south of Russia have a subtropical climate, where year-round temperatures do not fall below +8°C. The average summer high temperature ranges between 26°C and 32°C (80 to 88°F) with occasional extreme heat in some interior locations exceeding 51°C (112°F) Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the Earths largest landmass covering about 21215121321km² compared with the Americas (approximately 42,000,000 km²), Africa (approximately 30,000,000 km²), and Antarctica (approximately 13,000,000 km²). Eurasia comprises the traditional continents of Europe and Asia. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the extreme north of Heilongjiang. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ...


Most of the land consists of vast plains, both in the European part and the part of Asian territory that is largely known as Siberia. These plains are predominantly steppe to the south and heavily forested to the north, with tundra along the northern coast. The permafrost (areas of Siberia and the Far East) occupies more than half of the territory of Russia. Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus (containing Mount Elbrus, Russia's and Europe's highest point at 5,642 m / 18,511 ft) and the Altai, and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range or the volcanoes on Kamchatka. The more central Ural Mountains, a north-south range that form the primary divide between Europe and Asia, are also notable. World map showing the location of Europe. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is a thermal condition where ground material stays at or below 0°C for two or more years. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Mount Elbrus (Russian: Эльбрус) is a peak located in the western Caucasus mountains, in Russia, near the border of Georgia. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Altay Mountains (Russian: ; Mongolian: , Altai) are a mountain range in central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and where the great rivers Irtysh, Ob and Yenisei have their sources. ... The Verkhoyansk Range (also Cherskiy Range) is a mountain chain of eastern Siberia, spanning ca. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Kamchatka is the home of many volcanoes. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


Russia has an extensive coastline of over 37,000 kilometres (23,000 mi) along the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, as well as the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas. Some smaller bodies of water are part of the open oceans; the Barents Sea, White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea are part of the Arctic, whereas the Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan belong to the Pacific Ocean. A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the northern hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest of the worlds five oceans and the shallowest. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18,761 cu mi). ... Location of the Barents Sea. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... A map showing the location of the Kara Sea. ... A map showing the location of the Laptev Sea. ... East Siberian Sea (Russian: ) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Sea Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean Bearing Sea with Kamchatka Peninsula and Alaska The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water north of, and separated from, the north Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. ... Map of the Sea of Okhotsk. ... The Sea of Japan (East Sea) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. ...


Major islands and archipelagos include Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. (See List of islands of Russia). The Diomede Islands (one controlled by Russia, the other by the United States) are just three kilometers (1.9 mi) apart, and Kunashir Island (controlled by Russia but claimed by Japan) is about twenty kilometres (12 mi) from Hokkaidō. Novaya Zemlya (Russian: , lit. ... Location of Franz Josef Land (Map is annotated in German). ... New Siberian Islands (Russian: Новосиби́рские острова), an archipelago, located to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... This article is about the Russian island. ... The Kuril Islands The Kuril Islands (Russian: Кури́льские острова́), also known as Kurile Islands, stretch northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... This is a list of islands of Russia. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait, with the Diomede Islands at center. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... Kunashir Island (Кунашир (Kunashir) in Russian, 国後島:Kunashiri in Japanese, Black Island in Ainu language) is the southernmost island in the Kuril chain in Russias Sakhalin Oblast. ... The Kuril Islands with the disputed islands highlighted The Kuril Island conflict is a dispute between Japan and Russia over sovereignty over the southernmost Kuril Islands. ...   literally North Sea Route, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island and largest prefecture of Japan. ...


Many rivers flow across Russia; see Rivers of Russia. Notable rivers of Russia in Europe are the Volga, Don, Kama, Oka and the Northern Dvina, while several other rivers originate in Russia but flow into other countries, such as the Dniepr and the Western Dvina. ...


Major lakes include Lake Baikal, Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega; see List of lakes in Russia. The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Onezhskoe ozero (from Russian, Онежское озеро), and Onezhskoe lake) is a lake in the Russian Federation. ... View of Lake Seliger near Ostashkov in 1910. ...


Borders

Map of the Russian Federation
Map of the Russian Federation

The most practical way to describe Russia is as a main part (a large contiguous portion with its off-shore islands) and an exclave, Kaliningrad, (at the southeast corner of the Baltic Sea). map of Russia, converted directly from CIA World Factbook GIF File links The following pages link to this file: Russia Geography of Russia Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... map of Russia, converted directly from CIA World Factbook GIF File links The following pages link to this file: Russia Geography of Russia Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ), until 1945 known by its German name Königsberg, then briefly as Kyonigsberg (), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ...


The main part's borders and coasts (starting in the far northwest and proceeding counter-clockwise) are:

The exclave, constituted by the Kaliningrad Oblast, The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18,761 cu mi). ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18,761 cu mi). ... The Sea of Japan (East Sea) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... Map of the Sea of Okhotsk. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... The Kuril Islands The Kuril Islands (Russian: Кури́льские острова́), also known as Kurile Islands, stretch northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Sea Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean Bearing Sea with Kamchatka Peninsula and Alaska The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water north of, and separated from, the north Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait http://209. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait, with the Diomede Islands at center. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait, with the Diomede Islands at center. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Party State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Chukchi Sea (Russian: Чуко́тское мо́ре) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, between Chukotka and Alaska. ... This article is about the Russian island. ... East Siberian Sea (Russian: ) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean. ... New Siberian Islands (Russian: Новосиби́рские острова), an archipelago, located to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... A map showing the location of the Laptev Sea. ... A map showing the location of the Kara Sea. ... Novaya Zemlya (Russian: , lit. ... Location of the Barents Sea. ... Franz Josef Land (russ. ... Murmansk, Archangelsk, Dikson, Tiksi, on the Arctic Ocean Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ) is a city in the extreme northwest of Russia (north of the Arctic circle) with a seaport on the Kola Gulf, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Capital Kaliningrad Area - total - % water Ranked 79th - 15,100 km² - Population - Total - Density Ranked 57th - est. ...

  • shares borders with
  • has a northwest coast on the Baltic Sea.

The Baltic and Black Sea coasts of Russia have less direct and more constrained access to the high seas than its Pacific and Arctic ones, but both are nevertheless important for that purpose. The Baltic gives immediate access to the nine other countries sharing its shores, and between the main part of Russia and its Kaliningrad Oblast exclave. Via the straits that lie within Denmark, and between it and Sweden, the Baltic connects to the North Sea and the oceans to its west and north. The Black Sea gives immediate access to the five other countries sharing its shores, and via the Dardanelles and Marmora straits adjacent to Istanbul, Turkey, to the Mediterranean Sea with its many countries and its access, via the Suez Canal and the Straits of Gibraltar, to the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The salt waters of the Caspian Sea, the world's largest lake, provide no access to the high seas. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ), until 1945 known by its German name Königsberg, then briefly as Kyonigsberg (), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18,761 cu mi). ...


Spatial extent

The two most widely separated points in Russia are about 8,000 km (5,000 mi) apart along a geodesic (i.e. shortest line between two points on the Earth's surface). These points are: the boundary with Poland on a 60-km long (40-mi long) spit of land separating the Gulf of Gdańsk from the Vistula Lagoon; and the farthest southeast of the Kurile Islands, a few miles off Hokkaidō Island, Japan. In mathematics, a geodesic is a generalization of the notion of a straight line to curved spaces. In presence of a metric, geodesics are defined to be (locally) the shortest path between points on the space. ... Landsat photo Vistula Spit The Vistula Spit (Polish: Mierzeja WiÅ›lana, Russian: :Балтийская коса, German: Frische Nehrung) is a peninsular stretch of land cutting Vistula Lagoon off from Gdansk Bay. ... The Bay of Gdańsk (also known as the Gdańsk Bay or Gulf of Gdańsk; in Polish Zatoka Gdańska; in German Danziger Bucht) is a southeastern bay of the Baltic sea enclosed by a large curve of the shores of Gdańsk... Landsat photo Vistula Lagoon Vistula Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf) is the sweet water lagoon on the Baltic Sea that is cut off from Gdansk Bay by the Vistula Spit. ... The Kuril Islands The Kuril Islands (Russian: Кури́льские острова́), also known as Kurile Islands, stretch northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. ...   literally North Sea Route, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island and largest prefecture of Japan. ...


The points which are furthest separated in longitude are "only" 6,600 km (4,100 mi) apart along a geodesic. These points are: in the West, the same spit; in the East, the Big Diomede Island (Ostrov Ratmanova). Satellite photo of the Bering Strait, with the Diomede Islands at center. ...


The Russian Federation spans eleven time zones. A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ...


Largest cities

As of 2005, Russia has twelve cities with over a million inhabitants: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 422 KB) ru: Чистые Пруды в Москве, 26. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 422 KB) ru: Чистые Пруды в Москве, 26. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2929x1757, 1788 KB) Description: Date: 2005-08-05 photographer: Heidas Wikipedia account All pictures Please use this discussion page File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Russia Lomonosov... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2929x1757, 1788 KB) Description: Date: 2005-08-05 photographer: Heidas Wikipedia account All pictures Please use this discussion page File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Russia Lomonosov... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Image File history File linksMetadata Novosibirsk1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Novosibirsk1. ... Location of Novosibirsk in Russia and the Oblast Coordinates: Oblast Novosibirsk  - Mayor Vladimir Gorodetskiy Area    - City 447. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Rank City/town Russian Federal subject Population
1 Moscow Москва (Moskva) Moscow 10,342,151
2 Saint Petersburg Санкт-Петербург (Sankt-Peterburg) Saint Petersburg 4,661,219
3 Novosibirsk Новосибирск Novosibirsk Oblast 1,425,508
4 Nizhny Novgorod Нижний Новгород Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 1,311,252
5 Yekaterinburg Екатеринбург Sverdlovsk Oblast 1,293,537
6 Samara Самара Samara Oblast 1,157,880
7 Omsk Омск Omsk Oblast 1,134,016
8 Kazan Казань Republic of Tatarstan 1,105,289
9 Chelyabinsk Челябинск Chelyabinsk Oblast 1,077,174
10 Rostov-on-Don Ростов-на-Дону (Rostov-na-Donu) Rostov Oblast 1,068,267
11 Ufa Уфа Republic of Bashkortostan 1,042,437
12 Volgograd Волгоград Volgograd Oblast 1,011,417

Land Use: arable land: 7.17% permanent crops: 0.11% other: 92.72% (2005) Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Location of Novosibirsk in Russia and the Oblast Coordinates: Oblast Novosibirsk  - Mayor Vladimir Gorodetskiy Area    - City 447. ... Novosibirsk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny and also transliterated into English as Nizhniy Novgorod or Nizhni Novgorod or Nizhnii Novgorod, is the fourth largest city of Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were executed. ... Sverdlovsk Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... Samara (Russian: ), from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev (), is a major city situated on the Volga River in the southeastern part of European Russia, Volga Federal District, the administrative center of Samara Oblast. ... Samara Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Omsk (Russian: ) is a city in southwest Siberia in Russia, the administrative center of Omsk Oblast. ... Omsk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in southwestern Siberia. ... Kazan (Russian: ; Tatar: Qazan, Казан) is the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and one of Russias largest cities. ... The Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Chelyabinsk Theatre. ... Chelyabinsk Oblast (Russian: , Chelyabinskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Central market and Church in Rostov. ... Rostov Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in Southern Federal District. ... UFA or Ufa may refer to: Ufa, a city in Russia Ufa, a town in Ethiopia Uniform Firearms Act, a set of laws in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Unit factor analysis, another name for dimensional analysis. ... The Republic of Bashkortostan, or Bashkiria (Russian: or ; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ... Volgograd Oblast (Russian: , Volgogradskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ...


Natural Resources: wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources The obstacles include: permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia

See also: List of cities in Russia and List of cities and towns in Russia by population

Cities in Russia: Abakan Almetyevsk (Älmät) Arkhangelsk Asino Astrakhan Baltiysk Barnaul Belgorod Birobidzhan Blagoveshchensk Bratsk Bryansk Buy Cheboksary Chelyabinsk Cherepovets Cherkessk Chernyakhovsk Chita Elista Gorno-Altaisk Grozny Gusev Irbit Irkutsk Izhevsk Ivanovo Kaliningrad Kaluga Kamsko-Votkinsk Kazan (Qazan) Kedrovy Kemerovo Khabarovsk Kirov (formerly Vyatka) Kolomna Kolpashevo Komsomolsk-na-Amure... This is a list of cities and towns in Russia with population over 50,000, grouped by federal subject and sorted by population. ...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Russia
Map of the electric grid during the Soviet era.
Map of the electric grid during the Soviet era.

More than a decade after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia is now trying to further develop a market economy and achieve much° more consistent economic growth. Russia saw its comparatively developed centrally planned economy contract severely for five years, as the executive and the legislature dithered over the implementation of reforms and Russia's aging industrial base faced a serious decline. Although half the size of the former Soviet economy, which was second in the world, the economy of Russia includes formidable assets, and Russia is increasingly becoming again an economic superpower. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1468x1064, 461 KB)US Government work in the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1468x1064, 461 KB)US Government work in the public domain. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... A market economy (also called free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services takes place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ... This box:      A planned economy is an economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services. ... A legislature is a type of deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ...


Crash

After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia's first slight recovery, showing signs of open-market influence, occurred in 1997. In 1998, however, the Asian financial crisis culminated in the August depreciation of the ruble. This was followed by a debt default by the government in 1998, and a sharp deterioration in living standards for most of the population. Consequently, 1998 was marked by recession and an intense capital flight. The global recession of 1998, which started with the Asian financial crisis in July 1997, exacerbated Russias financial crisis. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... Declining-balance depreciation of a $50,000 asset with $6,500 salvage value over 20 years. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 10. ... In finance, default occurs when a debtor has not met its legal obligations according to the debt contract, e. ... Seen in Asian markets in the 1990s capital flight is when assets and/or money rapidly flow out of a country. ...


Recovery

Nevertheless, the economy started recovering in 1999. The recovery was greatly assisted by the weak ruble, which made imports expensive and boosted local production. Then it entered a phase of rapid economic expansion, the GDP growing by an average of 6.7% annually in 1999–2005 on the back of higher petroleum prices, a weaker ruble, and increasing service production and industrial output. The country is presently running a huge trade surplus, which has been helped by protective import barriers, and rampant corruption which ensures that it is almost impossible for foreign and local SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises) to import goods without the help of local specialist import firms, such as the Russia Import Company. Some import barriers are expected to be abolished after Russia's accession to the WTO. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Balance of trade figures are the sum of the money gained by a given economy by selling exports, minus the cost of buying imports. ... Small and medium enterprises or SMEs are companies whose headcount or turnover falls below certain limits. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ...


The recent recovery, made possible due to high world oil prices, along with a renewed government effort in 2000 and 2001 to advance lagging structural reforms, has raised business and investor confidence over Russia's prospects in its second decade of transition. Russia remains heavily dependent on exports of commodities, particularly oil, natural gas, metals, and timber, which account for about 80% of exports, leaving the country vulnerable to swings in world prices. Industrial military exports, after undergoing sharp contraction, are now the major non-commodity export. In recent years, however, the economy has also been driven by growing internal consumer demand that has increased by over 12% annually in 2000–2005, showing the strengthening of its own internal market. Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


The economic development of the country has been extremely uneven: the Moscow region contributes one-third of the country's GDP while having only a tenth of its population. GDP increased by 7.2% in 2004, 6.4% in 2005 and about 7% in 2006.


Recent economy

The country's GDP (PPP) soared to $1.5 trillion in 2004, making it the ninth largest economy in the world and the fifth largest in Europe. For the year of 2007, Russia's GDP is projected to grow to about $1.2 trillion nominally (31.2 trillion rubles) that would be about $2.3 trillion PPP and would make Russia the second largest economy in Europe.[10]


Russia's economics ministry has revised forecasts for 2007 GDP growth from 6.2 to 6.5%[11]


According to Russia's finance minister, investment in Russia's economy will grow by $44 billion in 2007. Alexei Kudrin said investment increased $37 billion in 2006, to $168 billion. Speaking at a conference on economic modernization, the minister predicted investment would double in 2010, to $357 billion, against 2006. According to the ministry's forecast, inflation will gradually decrease from 9% in 2006 to 5.6% in 2010, which the minister said would bring loan rates down and boost investment in fixed assets. He said Russia was expected to double its domestic debt by 2010, but that foreign borrowing was not planned. The minister said Russian borrowing from the World Bank would remain at $300-400 million for the next three or four years. Kudrin specified that investment growth would be primarily due to the private sector.[12]


Some experts[13][14] believe that official statistic underestimates Russian GDP by 28% because of inaccuracy of decades old statistical system (for example, it didn’t count small enterprises and whole sectors of new economy). IMSG estimated that nominal Russian GDP reached $970 billion in 2005.[15]


In 2006, GDP grew to $1018 billion nominally (26.31 trillion rubles; 2.04 trillion in PPP dollars).[16]

1000 ruble note, depicting Yaroslavl.

In 2005 Russia exported 241.3 billion dollars and imported 98.5 billion dollars. This means that Russia registered a trade surplus of 142.8 billion dollars in 2005, up about 33% from 2004's foreign trade surplus of $106.1 billion dollars.[17] Image File history File links 1000 Russian Rubles, modified of 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links 1000 Russian Rubles, modified of 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 10. ... A public building in Yaroslavl Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ...


In 2006, export grew to $304 billion, import to $164 billion; foreign trade surplus grew 19% to $141 billion.[18]


It's estimated what direct foreign investment reach at least $23 billion in 2006,[19] overall foreign investments reached $55 billion.[20]


On April 6, 2007 Russia's international reserves reached $346.3 billion nominally and projected to grow to $350–450 billion by the end of 2007.[21][22]


Thanks to high oil prices, Russian oil exports totaled $117 billion in 2005 while gas exports totaled $32 billion in the same year. That means that oil and gas made up 60% of total Russian exports in 2005.[23]


Knowing the importance of oil and gas to the economy, the Stabilization Fund of the Russian Federation was formed by the government in January 2004. This fund takes in revenues from oil and gas exports and is designed to help offset oil market volatility. This fund was also set up in order to prevent the ruble from appreciating. The Stabilization Fund (SF) grew to $76.6 billion in November 2006. In October 2006, Russia's Deputy Prime Minister Alexander Zhukov said the fund will continue to increase over the coming years, and will exceed $149 billion by late 2007 and about $260.4 billion by the end of 2009. Russia is paying off its foreign debt mainly from the Stabilization Fund, which hit $76.9 billion as of July 1. Russia repaid the bulk of its outstanding debt to the Paris Club of Creditor Nations on August 18-21. The debt totaled $1.9 billion as of October 1, compared to $23.7 billion on July 1.[24] Stabilization Fund of the Russian Federation (Russian: ) is a Russian fund founded by the Government of Russia in January 2004 which is aimed to help offset oil market volatility. ...


According to the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia, the monthly nominal average salary in January 2007 was 11,410 rubles (about $437 nominally; about $793 PPP), 26.6 percent higher than in January 2006.[25] The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... A graph of a Normal bell curve showing statistics used in educational assessment and comparing various grading methods. ... In mathematics, an average or central tendency of a set (list) of data refers to a measure of the middle of the data set. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Challenge

Some perceive the greatest challenge facing the Russian economy to be encouraging the development of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in a business climate with a young and less-than-sufficiently functional banking system. Many of Russia's banks are owned by oligarchs, who often use the deposits to lend to their own businesses. The 2005 Milken Institute's ratings[26] place Russia at the 51st place in the world, out of 121 countries by the availability of capital. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises or SMEs are companies whose headcount or turnover falls below certain limits. ... Oligarch may refer to one of the folowing. ...


The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank have attempted to kick-start normal banking practices by making equity and debt investments in a number of banks, but with very limited success. Founded in 1991, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in 27 countries from central Europe to central Asia. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means...


However, about twenty-five of the biggest banks of Russia get entry into Top 1000 banks of the world by The Banker[27] Many more Russian banks have very high international ratings by Moody's and Fitch, including "investment" level. Linda de Mol hosts the original version of Deal or No Deal entitled Miljoenenjacht Deal or No Deal is a television game show format owned by Dutch-based production company Endemol, known for creating such shows as Big Brother. ... Rating is a means of classifying things in different categories. ... Moodys Corporation (NYSE: MCO) is the holding company for Moodys Investors Service which performs financial research and analysis on commercial and government entities. ... The Fitch family Coat of Arms There are several historical figures named Fitch: Alva Revista Fitch - U.S. Army Lieutenant General Aubrey Fitch - U.S. Naval Admiral Bill Fitch - basketball coach Brian T. Fitch - French-Canadian nonfiction author Clyde Fitch - American playwright Ezra Fitch, New York lawyer and cofounder of...

Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg at night.
Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg at night.

Other problems include disproportional economic development of Russia's own regions. While the huge capital region of Moscow is a bustling, affluent metropolis living on the cutting edge of technology with a per capita income rapidly approaching that of the leading Eurozone economies, much of the country, especially its indigenous and rural communities in Asia, lags significantly behind. Market integration is nonetheless making itself felt in some other sizeable cities such as Saint Petersburg, Kaliningrad, and Ekaterinburg, and recently also in the adjacent rural areas. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x527, 313 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Russia Saint Petersburg Nevsky Prospekt ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x527, 313 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Russia Saint Petersburg Nevsky Prospekt ... Nevsky Prospekt, or the Neva Avenue (Russian: Невский проспект), is the main street in the city of St Petersburg. ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Kaliningrad (Russian: ), until 1945 known by its German name Königsberg, then briefly as Kyonigsberg (), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... Photograph of snow-covered Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood, built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were murdered. ...


The arrest of Russia's wealthiest businessman Mikhail Khodorkovsky on charges of fraud and corruption in relation to the large-scale privatizations organized under then-President Yeltsin, contrary to some expectations, has not caused most foreign investors to worry about the stability of the Russian economy. Most of the large fortunes currently in evidence in Russia are the product of either acquiring government assets at particularly low costs or gaining concessions from the government. Other countries have expressed concerns and worries at the "selective" application of the law against individual businessmen, though government actions have been received positively in Russia. Russia occupies 122th place among 157 countries in the Index of Economic Freedom. The quality of this article or section may be compromised by peacock terms. You can help Wikipedia by removing peacock terms. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... Map of Economic Freedom released by the Heritage Foundation. ...


Prospect

Pumpjack pumping an oil well.

Encouraging foreign investment is also a major challenge due to legal, cultural, linguistic, economic and political peculiarities of the country. Nevertheless, there has been a significant inflow of capital in recent years from many European investors attracted by cheaper land, labor and higher growth rates than in the rest of Europe Download high resolution version (1024x768, 170 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 170 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени М.В.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... A colourful nodding donkey in the United States A nodding donkey or pump jack is the overground drive for a submersible pump in a borehole. ...


Very high levels of education and societal involvement achieved by the majority of the population, including women and minorities, secular attitudes, mobile class structure, and better integration of various minorities into the mainstream culture set Russia far apart from the majority of the so-called developing countries and even some developed nations. This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


The country is also benefiting from rising oil prices and has been able very substantially to reduce its formerly huge foreign debt. However, equal redistribution of capital gains from the natural resource industries to other sectors is still a problem. Nonetheless, since 2003, exports of natural resources started decreasing in economic importance as the internal market has strengthened considerably, largely stimulated by intense construction, as well as consumption of increasingly diverse goods and services. Yet teaching customers and encouraging consumer spending is a relatively tough task for many provincial areas where consumer demand is primitive. However, some laudable progress has been made in larger cities, especially in the clothing, food, and entertainment industries. A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ...


Additionally, some international firms are investing in Russia. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Russia had nearly $26 billion in cumulative foreign direct investment inflows during the period (of which $11.7 billion occurred in 2004). Washington, D.C. Headquarters and logo of the International Monetary Fund The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that oversees the global financial system by observing exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering financial and technical assistance when requested. ...


Russia faces considerable income inequalities that hinder Russia's potential to become a more diversified economy.


While Russia possesses vast mineral and energy wealth, this does not come without some price both to Russia and to the greater globe.[28] Particularly, oil and gas extraction exacts a heavy cost to the health of the land and people.[28] Drilling waste water, mud, and sludges are accumulated, annual volumes have been estimated at 1.7 million tons of chemical reagents contaminating 25 million cubic meters of topsoil.[28] Considerable geomechanical disturbances, contamination of soils and water, and multiple increases of contaminated waste water ejected into suface water streams, is a serious problem offsetting Russia's profits from the industry.[28] It has been estimated that between 1991-1999 the volume of contaminated waste waters from the Russian oil industry amounted to 200 million cubic meters.[28] Complete utilization of co-extracted gas in oil extraction does not exceed 80% in Russia, it has been variously estimated that five to seventeen billion cubic meters of non-utilized gas extracted alongside oil is burnt annually in "gas torches", with 400,000 tons or more hazardous substances released into the atmosphere from this each year, creating the double impact of wasted resource and negative environmental effect.[29][28] 560 million tons of methane is estimated to leak annually into the atmosphere from oil and gas extraction, not counting accidental outbursts and pipe breakage.[28] Other valuable industries also have their costs, such as the coal industry's release of vast quantities of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive materials.[28] Also the Russian gold industry, with Russia being the only nation for at least a century with high extraction of gold from placer deposits, and having 4000+ large deposits, inevitably creates problems for the river systems.[28] The associated pollution from using mass explosions in mining also can be a problem.[28] Overall, the extensive mineral wealth and riches, brings with it both great benefit to the Russian economy & people, and the greater globe, yet also several difficult problems to be dealt with.[28]°


Demographics

Despite its comparatively high population, Russia has a low average population density due to its enormous size. Population is densest in the European part of Russia, in the Ural Mountains area, and in the south-western parts of Siberia; the south-eastern part of Siberia that meets the Pacific Ocean, known as the Russian Far East, is sparsely populated, with its southern part being densest. The Russian Federation is home to as many as 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples. As of the 2002 Russian census, 79.8% of the population is ethnically Russian, 3.8% Tatar, 2% Ukrainian, 1.2% Bashkir, 1.1% Chuvash, 0.9% Chechen, 0.8% Armenian. The remaining 10.3% includes those who did not specify their ethnicity as well as (in alphabetical order) Assyrians, Avars, Azeris, Belarusians, Bulgarians, Buryats, Chinese, Cossacks, Estonians, Evenks, Finns, Georgians, Germans, Greeks, Ingushes, Inuit, Jews, Kalmyks, Karelians, Kazakhs, Koreans, Kyrgyz, Lithuanians, Latvians, Maris, Mongolians, Mordvins, Nenetses, Ossetians, Poles, Romanians, Tajiks, Tuvans, Turkmen, Udmurts, Uzbeks, Yakuts, and others. Nearly all of these groups live compactly in their respective regions; Russians and to a lesser extent Tatars are the only people significantly represented in every region of the country. Catherine palace south side. ... Catherine palace south side. ... This article is actively undergoing a major edit for a short while. ... Catherine Palace and Park Tsarskoye Selo (Russian: ; may be translated as Tsar’s Village) is a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... Demography of Russia 1992-2003. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар) is a collective name applied to the Turkic people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ... // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Languages Assyrian, Chaldean, Turoyo Religions Christianity Related ethnic groups other Semitic peoples Assyrians are an ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria, but who have migrated to the Caucasus, North America and Western Europe during the past century. ... Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group. ... Aside from a large Azeri community that is native to Russias Dagestan Republic, the majority of Azeris in Russia are fairly recent immigrants. ... The Buryats, numbering approximately 436,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Siberia and are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... The Evenks or Evenki (obsolete: Tungus or Tunguz, autonym: Эвэнки, Evenki) are a nomadic Tungusic people of Northern Asia. ... The Ingush are a people of the northern Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Karelians is a name used to denote two related, yet different ethnic groups of Finnic-language speakers. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Kipchak and other Turkic peoples, ancient Indo-Iranian tribes, Mongols The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central... Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... The Mari (also known as Cheremis in Russian and ÇirmeÅŸ in Tatar) are a Volga-Finnic people in the Volga area, the natives of Mari El, Russia. ... The Mordvins (Mordva) are a people who speak languages of the Finno-Permic branch of the Finno-Ugric language family. ... The Nenets people (Russian name: Ненцы - Nentsy (plural)) are an indigenous people in Russia. ... The Ossetians (oss. ... This article is about the Central Asian Persians known as Tajiks. ... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ... Udmurts are Finno-Ugric people that speak the Udmurt language. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ...


In October 2005, the federal statistics agency reported that Russia's population has shrunk by more than half a million people dipping to 143 million.[30] The major reason for this decline is the high death rate, attributable mostly to widespread alcohol abuse.[31] Russia is the second country in the world by the number of immigrants from abroad, mostly from the former Soviet Union, and immigration is increasingly seen as necessary to sustain the country's population.[32]


The Russian language is the only official state language, but the individual republics have often made their native language co-official next to Russian. The Cyrillic alphabet is the only official script, which means that these languages must be written in Cyrillic in official texts. Russian ( , transliteration: , ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced , also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages—Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... An official script is a script that is specifically designated to be official in the constitutions or other applicable laws of countries, states, and other territories. ...


Religion

Kazan Kremlin harmoniously combines elements of Eastern Orthodox and Muslim cultures.
Main article: Religion in Russia

Russian Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in the Federation. Islam is the second most widespread religion, predominating in the Volga region and Caucasus. Other religions include various Protestant churches, Judaism, Roman Catholicism and Buddhism. Induction into religion takes place primarily along ethnic lines. Ethnic Russians are mainly Orthodox whereas most people of Turkic extraction are Sunni Muslim. Kalmyks are the only predominantly Buddhist people in Europe. However, due to decades of suppression of religion during Soviet times, religious adherence remains nominal for most of the population. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x347, 134 KB)A Superview of Kazan Kremlin from the Volga River. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x347, 134 KB)A Superview of Kazan Kremlin from the Volga River. ... View of the Spasskaya (Savior) Tower in the early 20th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion and a philosophy. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Russia

The culture of Russia is a hybrid one created from the cultures of the nationalities of this multinational state and the result of development over several distinct epochs. ...

Icon painting

The Theotokos of Vladimir, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of the Virgin Mary.

Russian icon painting was influenced from the art of the Byzantine churches,[33] and it soon became an offshoot version of the mosaic and fresco traditions. Icon paintings in Russia attempted to help people with their prayers without idolizing the figure in the painting. The most comprehensive collection of Icon art is found at the Tretyakov Gallery.[34] Download high resolution version (456x681, 221 KB)Our Lady of Vladimir (12th century), the holy protectress of Russia, now in the Tretyakov Gallery. ... Download high resolution version (456x681, 221 KB)Our Lady of Vladimir (12th century), the holy protectress of Russia, now in the Tretyakov Gallery. ... Theotokos of Vladimir The Theotokos of Vladimir, also known as Our Lady of Vladimir, the Virgin of Vladimir or Vladimirskaya (Russian: ), is one of the most venerated Orthodox icons. ... Our Lady redirects here. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Fresco by Dionisius representing Saint Nicholas. ... Portrait of Pavel Tretyakov (1883) The State Tretyakov Gallery is the foremost depository of Russian fine art in the world. ...


Rather than being a mere imitation, Russian icons had a peculiar style and masters such as Andrei Rublev took the icon to new heights. Andrei Rublev (Andrey Rublev, Andrey Roublyov, Russian: Андре́й Рублёв) (1360? – 1430?) is considered to be the greatest Russian iconographer. ...


Soviet art

Main article: Soviet art

During the Russian Revolution, a movement was initiated to put all arts to service of the dictatorship of the proletariat. The instrument for this was created just days before the October Revolution, known as Proletkult, an abbreviation for "Proletarskie kulturno-prosvetitelnye organizatsii" (Proletarian Cultural and Enlightenment Organizations). A prominent theorist of this movement was Alexander Bogdanov. Initially Narkompros (ministry of education), which was also in charge of the arts, supported Proletkult. However the latter sought too much independence from the ruling Communist Party of Bolsheviks, gained negative attitude of Vladimir Lenin, by 1922 declined considerably, and was eventually disbanded in 1932. After Stalin died Soviet Art went into decline as gradually Russians artists became more independent of the state and in the 1980s the government ruled that it could not restrict what Russians artists could paint. The term Soviet art refers to visual art produced in the former Soviet Union. ... “Red October” redirects here. ... Alexander Bogdanov (1873 - 1928) was a Russian physician, philosopher, economist, writer, and revolutionary. ... Narkompros (Наркомпрос) is an abbreviation for the Peoples Commissariat for Enlightenment (Народный комиссариат просвещен&#1080... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... The 1980s refers to the years of and between 1980 and 1989. ...


Architecture

Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra in Sergiyev Posad is an example of Naryshkin baroque in Russia.
Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra in Sergiyev Posad is an example of Naryshkin baroque in Russia.
Main article: Russian architecture

Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine architecture until the Fall of Constantinople. At the turn of the 15th and 16th century, Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects introduced Renaissance trends. The reigns of Ivan the Terrible and Boris Godunov saw the development of tent-like churches culminating in Saint Basil's Cathedral, as shown above. In the 17th century, the "fiery style" of ornamentation flourished in Moscow and Yaroslavl, gradually paving the way for the Naryshkin baroque of the 1690s. Image File history File links General view of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra. ... Image File history File links General view of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra. ... View of the lavra in the 1890s. ... Monument to St. ... Saint Basils Cathedral (1555-61) is a showcase of medieval Russian architecture. ... Saint Basils Cathedral (1555-61) is a showcase of medieval Russian architecture. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI†, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani†[1] Mehmed II Strength 5,000 Greek militia soldiers plus 2,000 Italian mercenaries [2] 80,000[1] - 150,000[1] Casualties Most of Greek defenders, some mercenaries[3], approximately 4,000 civilians[4] unverified The Fall of... Aristotile Fioravanti (ca. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... The rocket-like church at Ostrov near Moscow is considered typical for Boris Godunovs reign. ... St. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... A public building in Yaroslavl Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... The Assumption church in Pokrovka Street, Moscow (1696-99) Naryshkin Baroque, also called Moscow Baroque, or Muscovite Baroque, is the name given to a particular style of architecture and decoration which was fashionable in Moscow at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. ...


The 18th-century taste for rococo architecture led to the splendid works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers. During the reign of Catherine the Great and her grandson Alexander I, the city of Saint Petersburg was transformed into an outdoor museum of Neoclassical architecture; the 19th century was dominated by the Byzantine and Russian Revival. Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau (Fyodor Shekhtel), Constructivism (Aleksey Shchusev and Konstantin Melnikov), and the Stalinist Empire style (Boris Iofan). North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1700-71) was the most important baroque architect working in Russia. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and King of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The neoclassical movement that produced Neoclassical architecture began in the mid-18th century, both as a reaction against the Rococo style of anti-tectonic naturalistic ornament, and an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... Fyodor Osipovich Schechtel (Russian: , August 7, 1859 - July 7, 1926) was a Russian architect, graphic artist and stage designer, the most influential and prodigious master of Russian Art Nouveau and late Russian Revival. ... Tatlin Tower. ... Aleksey Viktorovich Shchusev (Russian: ) (September 26, 1873, Chisinau, now in Republic of Moldova - May 24, 1949, Moscow) was an acclaimed Russian architect whose works may be regarded as a bridge connecting Revivalist architecture of Imperial Russia with Stalins Empire Style. ... One of buildings designed by Melnikov Konstantin Stepanovitch Melnikov (Russian Константин Степанович Мельников; July 22 (August 3) 1890, Moscow - November 28, 1974, Moscow) was a Russian architect and major figure member of the Constructivist avant-garde in the early 20th century. ... Unrealised design for the Palace of Soviets, Moscow, by Boris Iofan, 1933 Stalinist architecture (also referred to as Stalins Empire style or Socialist Classicism) is a term given to constructions that were built in the Soviet Union between 1933, when Boris Iofans draft for Palace of Soviets was... Iofans Palace of Soviets design Iofans House on Embankmemt, present day Boris Mihailovic Iofan (April 28, 1891–1976) is a Russian Soviet architect, known for his Stalinist architecture buldings like 1931 House on Embankment and the 1931-1933 winning draft of the Palace of Soviets. ...


Cinema

While Russia was involved in filmmaking as early as most of the other nations in the West, most notably "Stenka Razin" in 1908, it only came into prominence during the 1920s when it explored editing as the primary mode of cinematic expression. This resulted in world-renowned films such as "Battleship Potemkin," "Mother," and "Circus." Unfortunately this outburst of creativity and innovation was short lived. In the 1930s, Soviet censorship discouraged non-socialist views, stifling creativity. Which did have one incredible hit titled "Chapaev." Chapaev was so popular that the actor who played the main character in this movie, a leader in the Red Army during the Russian revolution, actually called soldiers in WWII in character to lift their spirits. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (699 × 1000 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (699 × 1000 pixel, file size: 1. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Moscow Does not Believe in Tears (Russian: ) is a 1979 Soviet film made by Mosfilm. ... Introduction While Russia was involved in filmmaking as early as most of the other nations in the West, it only came into prominence during the 1920s when it explored editing as the primary mode of cinematic expression. ... A film being made in Warsaw, Bracka street Filmmaking is the process of making a film. ...


During the soviet years notable releases include "Ballad of a Soldier," "Siberiade," and "Mirror". The Soviet Union also produced some of the worlds most innovative directors, most notably Eisenstein, and Tarkovsky. "Soviet Cinema" should not be used as a synonym for "Russian Cinema". Although Russian language films predominated, several republics developed lively and unique cinemas, while others did not. Most notable for their republican cinema were Armenia, Georgia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and, to a lesser degree, Belarus and Moldova. Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн, Latvian: Sergejs Eizenšteins) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober. ... Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky (Андре́й Арсе́ньевич Тарко́вский) (April 4, 1932 - December 29, 1986) was a Russian film director, opera director, writer, and actor. ...


Since the dissolution of The Soviet Union, Russian cinema has greatly transformed. Although still largely funded by the state, the topics and dynamic have been updated. During the '90s, Russian filmmaking decreased sharply, going from hundreds to double digits, though still making occasional hits like "Brother." However, recent years have brought increased viewership and subsequent prosperity to the industry through exploration of contemporary subjects like sexuality in the 2004 film You, I Love. The future of Russian cinema is promising. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Music

Main article: Music of Russia

Russia is a large and culturally diverse country with dozens of ethnic groups; each with their own forms of folk music. During the period of Soviet domination, music was highly scrutinized and kept within certain boundaries of content and innovation. After the fall of the USSR in the early 1990s, western-style rock and pop music became the most popular musical forms in Russia. With the rise of western music, some native artists became quite popular. Russia is a large and extremely culturally diverse country, with dozens of ethnic groups, each with their own forms of folk music. ... Diverse (born Kenny Jenkins) is a Chicago rapper. ... “Folk song” redirects here. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from the start of 1990 to the end of 1999. ... Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles, however saxophones have been omitted from newer subgenres of rock music since the 90s. ... For popular music (music produced commercially rather than art or folk music), see Popular music. ...


Opera

The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow.
The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow.

The first known opera made in Russia was A Life for the Tsar by Mikhail Glinka in 1836. This was followed by several operas like Ruslan and Lyudmila in 1842. Russian opera was originally a combination of Russian folk music and Italian opera. After the October revolution many opera composers left Russia. Russia's most popular operas include: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow, Russia The Bolshoi Theatre (Russian: , Bolshoy Teatr, Large Theater) is a theatre and opera company in Moscow, Russia, which gives performances of ballet and opera. ... A Life for the Tsar (Russian: Žizn’ za carâ) is a patriotic-heroic tragic opera in five acts with an epilogue by Mikhail Glinka. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Russian: Mihail Ivanovič Glinka) (June 1, 1804 [O.S. May 20] - February 15, 1857 [O.S. February 3]), was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country, and is often regarded as the father of Russian classical music. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ruslan and Lyudmila (Russian: , transliteration: Ruslan i Lyudmila) is an opera in five acts (eight tableaux) composed by Mikhail Glinka between 1837 and 1842. ... Italian opera can be divided into three periods, the Baroque, the Romantic and the modern. ... “Red October” redirects here. ...

Modest Mussorgsky in 1870 Boris Godunov (Russian: , Borís Godunóv) is an opera by Modest Mussorgsky. ... Eugene Onegin (Евгений Онегин in Russian, Yevgeny Onegin in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by Konstantin Shilovsky and the composer, based on the novel of the same name by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... The Golden Cockerel (Золотой Петушок in Russian, Zolotoy Petushok in transliteration) is an 1834 poem by Alexander Pushkin and an opera in three acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to a Russian libretto by Vladimir Ivanovich Belsky based on that poem. ... Prince Igor (Russian: Knâz Igor) is an opera in four acts with a prologue by Alexander Borodin. ... The Queen of Spades (Пиковая дама in Russian, Pikovaya dama in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by the composers brother Modest Tchaikovsky, based on a short story by the poet Aleksandr Pushkin. ...

Matryoshka doll and other handicraft

The most common type of Matryoshka dolls.
Main article: Matryoshka doll

A Matryoshka doll (матрёшка, матрешка) is a Russian nesting doll. A set of Matryoshka dolls consists of a wooden figure which can be pulled apart to reveal another figure of the same sort inside. It has in turn another figure inside, and so on. The number of nested figures is usually six or more. The shape is mostly cylindrical, rounded at the top for the head and tapered towards the bottom, but little else; the dolls have no hands (except those that are painted). The artistry is in the painting of each doll, which can be extremely elaborate. The theme is usually peasant girls in traditional dress, but can be almost anything, for instance fairy tales or Soviet leaders. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x763, 161 KB) Poupée russe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x763, 161 KB) Poupée russe. ... Matryoshka disassembled A matryoshka doll (Russian: , IPA ) or a Russian nested doll (also called stacking dolls or Babushka dolls) is a set of dolls of decreasing sizes placed one inside another. ...


Other forms of Russian handicraft include:

Gzhel (Russian: Гжель) is: a village in Moscow Oblast, Russia a particular style of blue-white ceramics, originating in the town of the same name. ... Khokhloma (Хохлома, Хохломская роспись in Russian, or Khokhlomskaya rospis) is the name of a Russian wood painting handicraft. ... Ukrainian pysanky Pisanka (plural: Pisankas, Pisanki) is an ancient Slavic art of egg decorating. ...

Cuisine

A Soviet poster advertising Russian food, pelmeni.
A Soviet poster advertising Russian food, pelmeni.
Main article: Russian cuisine

Russia has a rich culinary history and offers a wide variety of soups, dishes made from fish, cereal based products and drinks. In addition to meat culinary, vegetables, fruit, mushrooms, berries and herbs also play a major part in the Russian diet. Primordial Russian products such as caviar, smetana (sour cream), buckwheat, rye flour, etc. have had a great influence on world-wide cuisine. ImageMetadata File history File links Pelmen. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Pelmen. ... A 1936 Soviet poster advertising pelmeni. ... Russian cuisine derives its rich and varied character from the vast and multicultural expanse of Russia. ... Soup is a savoury liquid food that is made by boiling ingredients, such as meat, vegetables and beans in stock or hot water, until the flavor is extracted. ... A can of black Iranian caviar Russian salmon caviar on buttered bread Caviar is the processed salted roe of various species of fish, most notably sturgeon. ... Smetana is a dairy product in Central and Eastern Europe, a variety of sour cream similar to crème fraîche, much heavier than the Western European variety. ... Binomial name Fagopyrum esculentum Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ...


Sport

Main article: Sports in Russia

Russia is a keen sporting country, successful at a number of sports and continuously finishing in the top rankings at the Olympic games. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Among the traditional sports are football (soccer) and ice hockey. The USSR team won the first European Football Championship in 1960 and two Olympic gold medals, and the Russian Premier League attracts many foreign investors and players, with one of its teams, CSKA Moscow, winning the 2004-2005 UEFA Cup. The ice hockey team has even more traditions and titles. The famous matches with the Canadians in the 1960s and 1970s brought Russia to the top of the hockey pedestal. There are three legendary offensive hockey players Krutov, Larionov and Makarov. These players continued the Russian success in to the 1980s. The 1990s became the decade years for NHL victories for Russian superstars such as Sergei Fedorov and Pavel Bure. Nowadays, there are more than 70 Russians in the best World League, lead by Alexander Ovechkin of the Washington Capitals and Ilya Kovalchuk, from Atlanta Thrashers. Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... The UEFA European Championship is the main football competition of the mens national football teams governed by the UEFA. Held every four years since 1960, in the even-numbered year between World Cup tournaments, it was originally called the European Nations Cup, changing to the name European Football Championship... The Russian Premier League is the top division of Russian football teams. ... PFC CSKA Moscow (Russian: or Professional Football Club - Central Sports Club of Army (Moscow)) is the football section of the CSKA sports club of Moscow, Russia. ... The UEFA Cup is a football competition for European club teams, organized by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). ... NHL can also be an abbreviation for National Historic Landmark or Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... Sergei Viktorovich Fedorov (Russian:Сергей Викторович Фёдоров, Sergej Viktorovič Fëdorov; born December 13, 1969 in Pskov, Soviet Union; now Russia) is a professional ice hockey forward who plays for the Columbus Blue Jackets in the National Hockey League. ... Pavel Vladimirovich Bure (Russian: Павел Владимирович Буре)(born on March 31, 1971 in Moscow, USSR) is a former professional ice hockey player. ... Alexander Mikhailovich Ovechkin (Ru: Александр Михайлович Овечкин, Aleksandr Michajlovič Ovečkin; born September 17, 1985 in Moscow, USSR), is a professional ice hockey left winger for the Washington Capitals of the National Hockey League. ... The Washington Capitals are a professional ice hockey team based in Washington, D.C.. They play in the National Hockey League (NHL). ... Ilya Valeryevich Kovalchuk (Russian: Илья Валерьевич Ковальчук, Ilja Valerjevič Kovalčuk; born April 15, 1983, in Tver, USSR) is a professional ice hockey player. ... The Atlanta Thrashers are a professional ice hockey team based in Atlanta, Georgia. ...


Russia has also produced a number of famous tennis players of whom its most recent accomplishments are Yevgeny Kafelnikov, Anna Kournikova and Maria Sharapova, the winner of the 2004 Wimbledon women's title. For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Kafelnikov (born on 18 February 1974) (Russian: Евгений Александрович Кафельников) (yehv-GYEH-nee kah-FYELL-nee-koff; KAH-fyell-nee-koff in Russian) is a former World No. ... Anna Sergeyevna Kournikova (Russian: Анна Сергеевна Курникова ( ), Ánna Sergéyevna Kúrnikova; born June 7, 1981) is a retired Russian professional tennis player and model. ... Maria Yuryevna Sharapova (Russian:  ) (born April 19, 1987) is a Russian professional tennis player. ... The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly referred to as simply Wimbledon, is the oldest event in the sport of tennis. ...


There's also a Russian domestic rugby league competition and national team which has played in the Rugby League World Cup. Rugby League is a popular team sport in Russia. ... The Russia national rugby league team (also known as The Bears) represent Russia in international rugby league tournaments and other rugby league fixtures. ... The original World Cup, first lifted in 1954 by Great Britain The Rugby League World Cup, is a tournament in which a number of the strongest rugby league nations participate in, to determine which nation is supreme in the sport. ...


Other sports widely played in russia include gymnastics, boxing, martial arts, volleyball, basketball, handball, figure skating and skiing.


Domestic Violence

Amnesty International reports that each day, 36,000 women in the Russian Federation are beaten by their husbands or partners [35] Every forty minutes a woman is killed by domestic violence, and one in four families in the Russian federation experience domestic violence. Furthermore, sociological studies show that 30 per cent of married women are regularly subjected to physical violence. The situation is exacerbated by the lack of statistics and indeed by the attitude of the agencies of law and order to this problem, for they view such violence not as a crime but as ‘a private matter between the spouses’ [36] Yelena Makkey, the legal consultant of the Yekaterina Crisis Centre in the Urals, lamented when facing victims of domestic violence very often police just don’t understand that they should treat the cases as a violation of human rights. Very often, they even do not register the complaints. The number of police inspectors willing to work with us is still small. [37] Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Founded in the UK in 1961, AI compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Ural Mountains, (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


Lara Griffith, an AI advocate who is also affiliated with the campaign for human rights in the Russian Federation, explained: Economic difficulties, experienced by a significant number of Russian families in the past decade, have put additional strain on family relations and have led to an upsurge in domestic violence in which women are most often the victims. Men who beat or rape their wives or harass them in other ways are unlikely to face prosecution. One reason for this is that the law does not recognize domestic violence as a distinct crime. Law enforcement officials and society in general tend to view domestic violence not as a crime, but as a private matter. Many women who have suffered such abuses do not seek redress because they fear further involvement with the authorities. [38] // This disambiguation page covers alternative uses of the terms Ai, AI, and A.I. Ai (as a word, proper noun and set of initials) can refer to many things. ...


Major Industries

Complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries including radar, missile production, and advanced electronic components, shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts


Exports/Imports

| Oil Definition Field Listing

 Import-100,000 bbl/day (2005) Export-7 million bbl/day (2005) 

|-Natural Gas

 Import-36.6 billion cu m (2004 est.) 

|Export-216.8 billion cu m (2004 est.) |} Exports commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures


Imports commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat, sugar, semifinished metal products


Etymology

See wiktionary: Russia for the name in various languages.

The name of the country derives from the name of the Rus' people. The origin of the people itself and of their name is a matter of some controversy. Originally Rus (Русь, Rus’) was a medieval country and state that comprised mostly Early East Slavs. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ...


See also

Russia Portal

Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ...

Miscellaneous

The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (UTC) (Russian: Transliteration: Vooruzhénniye síly Rossíyskoy Federátsii) is the military of Russia, established after the break-up of the Soviet Union. ... Below is the list of official public holidays recognized by the Russian government. ... The telecommunications system has undergone significant changes in the 1990s resulting in more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services today. ... This is a list of companies from Russia. ... Regarding the foreign relations of Russia, Russia has taken important steps to become a full partner in the worlds principal political groupings. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... The primary and fundamental statement of laws in the Russian Federation is the Constitution of the Russian Federation. ... This a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Russia. ... The Quartet on the Middle East, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international entities involved in mediating the peace process between Israel and the Palestinian People. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Russia is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... Membership badge of Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators The Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators (Russian: ), or RAS/N (), is the national Scouting federation of Russia, which became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) in 2004. ... The following is a list of television channels from Russia: Channel One Dom Kino Muzyka Pervogo Vremja NTV NTV Mir RTR Planeta RTR Telekanal Rossija RTR Sport Russia Today TV - International English-language news channel 24 Dok 365 dnei TV 7 TV Sportivniyi Telekanal A One Afontovo ART (Associaciya Regionalnogo... This is a complete list of Biosphere Reserves in the Russian Federation. ... Tourism in Russia has been growing rapidly in the years following the collapse of the former Soviet Union in 1991. ... The term Russian diaspora refers to the global community of ethnic Russians. ...

Peoples

Kets (Кеты in Russian) are Siberian people that speak Ket language. ... The Nenets people (Russian name: Ненцы - Nentsy (plural)) are an indigenous people in Russia. ... Tuvan people live in the republic of Tuva, one of the Federal subjects of Russia. ...

References

  1. ^ From Article 1 of Constitution of Russia: "The names "Russian Federation" and "Russia" shall be equivalent."
  2. ^ Statistical Handbook on Poverty in the Developing World - Page 1 by Chandrika Kaul - 1999
  3. ^ See sources in superpower and great power
  4. ^ The Life and Travels of Herodotus in the Fifth Century: An Imaginary Biography Founded on Fact,... - Page 411 by James Talboys Wheeler (1824)
  5. ^ Ancient Vishnu Idol
  6. ^ Russia from the Varangians to the Bolsheviks - Page 4 by George Arthur. Birkett, Charles Raymond Beazley, Nevill Forbes
  7. ^ Путин вошел в список врагов свободной прессы
  8. ^ Стенограмма пресс-конференции Президента России Владимира Путина. Часть I
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ http://en.rian.ru/russia/20060817/52761584.html
  11. ^ http://en.rian.ru/russia/20070406/63214201.html
  12. ^ http://en.rian.ru/russia/20070403/63000457.html
  13. ^ http://www.rusbizconf.com/russiaeconomny.htm
  14. ^ http://www.kommersant.ru/doc.html?docId=715800
  15. ^ http://www.rusbizconf.com/russiaeconomny.htm
  16. ^ http://news.liga.net/news/N0704775.html
  17. ^ http://english.people.com.cn/200602/13/eng20060213_242237.html
  18. ^ http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/b04_03/IssWWW.exe/Stg/d020/i020470r.htm
  19. ^ http://www.rg.ru/2006/12/27/investicii.html
  20. ^ http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/b04_03/IssWWW.exe/Stg/d020/i020490r.htm
  21. ^ http://www.cbr.ru/Eng/statistics/credit_statistics/print.asp?file=inter_res_07_e.htm
  22. ^ http://www.finam.ru/analysis/investorquestion000010F50A/default.asp
  23. ^ "Bush Leverage With Russia, Iran, China Falls as Oil Prices Rises", Bloomberg, May 1, 2006. 
  24. ^ http://en.rian.ru/russia/20061101/55291557.html
  25. ^ http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/b07_00/IssWWW.exe/Stg/d01/05-0.htm
  26. ^ http://www.milkeninstitute.org/pdf/cai_rankings_2005.pdf
  27. ^ http://moskva.aif.ru/issues/637/22_02
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Krivtsov, A.I., 2006, Geoenvironmental Problems of Mineral Resources Development, in Geology and Ecosystems, Zekster (Ru), Marker (UK), Ridgeway (UK), Rogachevskaya (Ru), & Vartanyan (Ru), 2006 Springer Inc.
  29. ^ Offshore-environment: Waste discharges during the offshore oil and gas activity
  30. ^ Resident population (30 January 2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  31. ^ Population Decline in Russia (30 January 2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  32. ^ http://www.un.org/esa/population/meetings/ittmigdev2005/P11_Rybakovsky&Ryazantsev.pdf
  33. ^ The Russian Icon: From Its Origins to the Sixteenth Century - Page 13 by Viktor Nikitich Lazarev, Gerolʹd Ivanovich Vzdornov, Nancy McDarby
  34. ^ Russian Art and Architecture
  35. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGEUR460192003?open&of=ENG-326
  36. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGEUR460192003?open&of=ENG-326
  37. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGEUR460192003?open&of=ENG-326
  38. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGEUR460192003?open&of=ENG-326

The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации) was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993 replacing the previous Soviet-era Constitution of April 12, 1978 of Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic following the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993. ... A superpower exerts economic, political, cultural and military influence around the globe using hard powers and soft powers. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Bloomberg L.P. is a Financial Media Company founded by Michael Bloomberg in 1982. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Find more information on Russia by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
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Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • Wikimedia Atlas of Russia, holding maps related to Russia.
  • RussiaMap.org - Maps of Russia

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...

Government resources

  • (Russian) Duma - Official site of the parliamentary lower house
  • Federative Council - Official site of the parliamentary upper house
  • Kremlin - Official presidential site
  • (Russian) Gov.ru - Official governmental portal
  • (Russian) Russian Federation Today - Official issue of the Federal Assembly
  • [2]- Ministry of Foreign affairs
  • Russian Federal Customs Service
  • Central Bank of Russia
  • World Security Institute's Johnson's Russia List
  • Russian Life Magazine: the 50-year-young magazine of Russian culture, history and life
  • [http://www.russiaprofile.org/ Russia Profile - English Internet Magazine on Politics,

Business and Culture in Russia]

  • Online guide to Kaliningrad - Kaliningradcity.ru
  • Russia! magazine: a supplement to the country
  • Internet Blog on Russian Issues in English
  • Russian News Agency Ria Novosti
  • Russia photo gallery and city guide
  • (Russian) Culture of Russia - with support of Federal Agency for Culture and Cinematography
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica's Country Portal site
  • BBC Country Profile - Russia
  • Way to Russia - Guide to Russia
  • Russian Space Program
  • CIA World Factbook - Russia
  • News From Russia
  • U.S. State Department Consular Information Sheet: Russia
  • Russia Energy Resources and Industry from U.S. Department of Energy
  • Russia History Timeline 1533 - 1991
Geographic locale
International organizations

 Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_corrected_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia_(bordered). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006   -  Recognised... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia_(state)_(bordered). ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia_(bordered). ... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Russia.com - Russia Hotels, Tourism, and Travel Information - Russia (794 words)
Russia is an intriguing country with a long history and fascinating culture and is proving to be more and more popular as a tourist destination.
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Russia emerged as a great world power during the reign of Peter the Great, who built Saint Petersburg as Russia’s new “window on the West” and moved the seat of government there in 1712.
On the north Russia is bounded by extensions of the Arctic Ocean: the Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, and Chukchi seas.
On the east the country is bounded by the Pacific Ocean and several of its extensions: the Bering Strait (which separates Russia from Alaska), the Bering Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Sea of Japan (East Sea).
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