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Encyclopedia > Rupajhana
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Buddhism

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Buddhism (also known as Buddha Dharma, the teachings of the awakened one) is a religion, a practical philosophy, and arguably a psychology, focusing on the teachings of Gautama Buddha (Pali: Gotama Buddha), who lived on the Indian subcontinent in or around the fifth century BCE (review article). ... Image File history File links Lotus75. ...

History of Buddhism
Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhist councils
The history of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // 1st Buddhist council (5th century BC) The first Buddhist council was held soon after the death of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by a monk named Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
The Five Precepts
Nirvāna · Three Jewels
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... The Four Noble Truths (Pali, cattari ariya saccani) are taught in Buddhism as the fundamental insight or enlightenment of Sakyamuni Buddha (the historical Buddha), which led to the formulation of the Buddhist philosophy. ... The Noble Eightfold Path (Sanskrit Āryo ṣṭāṅgo mārgaḥ , Pāli Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo) of Buddhism, as taught by the Buddha Śākyamuni, is the way to the cessation of suffering, the fourth part of the Four Noble Truths. ... Pancasila or pañca-sila is the fundamental code of Buddhist ethics, willingly undertaken by lay followers of Gautama Buddha. ... This article is about a Buddhist philosophy concept. ... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ...

Key Concepts
Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology · Dharma
Samsara · Rebirth · Shunyata
Pratitya-samutpada · Karma
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... After much meditation, the Buddha concluded that everything in the physical world (plus everything in the phenomenology of psychology) is marked by three characteristics, known as the three characteristics of existence or Dharma Seals. ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... Saṃsāra, the Sanskrit and Pāli term for continous movement or continuous flowing refers in Buddhism to the concept of a cycle of birth (jāti) and consequent decay and death (jarāmaraṇa), in which all beings in the universe participate and which can only be escaped... // Rebirth in the context of other religions and other Buddhist beliefs One of the features that distinguishes the Middle Eastern religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) from the Indian religions (most notably Hinduism and Buddhism) is the view of life and death. ... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit, Pali: suññatā), or Emptiness, is a term for an aspect of the Buddhist metaphysical critique as well as Buddhist epistemology and phenomenology. ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit) or Paṭiccasamuppāda (Pāli; Tibetan: ) is Buddhisms primary contribution to metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit karman) or Kamma (Pāli) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
Gautama Buddha
Buddha's Disciples · Family
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ...

Practices and Attainment
Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramis · Meditation
A stone image of the Buddha. ... Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha. ... The Four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an arhat which a Buddhist can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā (Sanskrit) or Parami (Pāli): Perfection or Transcendent (lit. ... Buddhist meditation, meditation used in the practice of Buddhism, includes any method of meditation that has Enlightenment as its ultimate aim. The closest word for meditation in the classical languages of Buddhism is bhavana or mental development. // Methods of meditation The main methods of Buddhist meditation are divided into samatha...

Buddhism by Region
Southeast Asia · East Asia
Tibet · India · Western
Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... The Aomori Daibutsu (Big Buddha), Aomori, Japan. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ...

Schools of Buddhism
Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna · Early schools
There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Mah is an ancient Persian god of the moon, one of the Yazatas. ... A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ...

Texts
Pali Suttas · Mahayana Sutras
Vinaya · Abhidhamma
There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ... The Sutta Pitaka (or Sutra Pitaka) is the second of three divisions of the Tipitaka, the great Pali collection of Buddhist writings. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that were originally put in writing starting in the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools. ... Pali or Sanskrit word meaning discipline. The Vinaya is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... The abhidhamma is the name of one of the three pitakas, or baskets of tradition, into which the Tipitaka (Pali; Sanskrit: Tripitaka), the canon of early Buddhism, is divided. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of Topics
Portal: Buddhism
Image:Dharma_wheel_1.png The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

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In Buddhism, rūpajhānas (Sanskrit: rūpadhyāna "form meditation") are successive levels of meditation in which the mind is focused on a material object: it is a word used in Pāli scriptures. Each higher level is harder to reach than the previous one. It is distinguised from arūpajhāna (Skt: arūpadhyāna "formless meditation") which is meditation focused on immaterial objects. Buddhism (also known as Buddha Dharma, the teachings of the awakened one) is a religion, a practical philosophy, and arguably a psychology, focusing on the teachings of Gautama Buddha (Pali: Gotama Buddha), who lived on the Indian subcontinent in or around the fifth century BCE (review article). ... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... In Buddhism, the arūpajhānas are four successive levels of meditation on non-material objects. ...


There are eight jhānas in total, out of which the first four are rūpajhānas. All four rūpajhānas are characterized by ekaggatā (Skt: ekāgratā) which means one-pointedness, i.e. the mind focuses singularly on the material object during meditation. Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ...


The four rūpajhānas are:

  1. paṭhama-jhāna (Skt: prathamadhyāna)
  2. dutiya-jhāna (Skt: dvitīyadhyāna),
  3. tatiya-jhāna (Skt: tṛtīyadhyāna)
  4. catuttha-jhāna (Skt: caturthadhyāna)

See right concentration. The Noble Eightfold Path (Sanskrit Āryo ṣṭāṅgo mārgaḥ , Pāli Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo) of Buddhism, as taught by the Buddha Śākyamuni, is the way to the cessation of suffering, the fourth part of the Four Noble Truths. ...


These first four jhānas can be characterized by certain factors called jhānaṅga (Skt: dhyānāṅga) whose presence or absence in each rūpajhāna is summarized in the following table:

jhāna vitakka
& vicāra
pīti sukha ekaggatā upekkhā
paṭhama-jhāna * * * *
dutiya-jhāna * * *
tatiya-jhāna * *
catuttha-jhāna * *

The jhānaṅga have the following meanings: vitakka means the noticing of the object of meditation, vicāra means the experiencing of the object, pīti means rapture, sukha means joy, ekaggatā means one-pointedness of concentration, upekkhā means equanimity. Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... Vitakka (pāli) , both in hinduist yoga and buddhist meditation , means the action of taking care of any object : God, ones body, the Self, a color, any sensation. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In Buddhist meditation, Sukha (Pāli and Sanskrit for happiness) is a type of emotion and one of the factors of Jhāna (Sanskrit: Dhyāna). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... Upeksa, also upekkha in Pali, is the Buddhist concept of equanimity. ...


See also

Vipassanā (Pāli) or vipaśyanā (Sanskrit) means insight. While it is often referred to as Buddhist meditation, the practice taught by the Buddha was non-sectarian, and has universal application. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links

  • Nibbana for Everyone by Buddhadasa Bhikkhu.
  • Yoga—as seen in the light of vipassana by S. N. Goenka.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dhyana at AllExperts (559 words)
Traditionally, this fourth Jhana is seen as the beginning of attaining magical powers.
An additional four arupajhanas, which can be thought of as part of the fourth rupajhana, still consist in the two factors of Upekkha and Ekkagata.
Arupajhanas are non-material jhanas, which seem clear about the object of the first arupajhana.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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