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Encyclopedia > Runtime

In computer science, runtime or run time describes the operation of a computer program, the duration of its execution, from beginning to termination (compare compile time). The term is also misused as a short form when referring to a runtime library (without a space), a program or library of basic code that is used by a particular compiler to manage a program written in a computer language while it is running. Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... In computer science, compile time, as opposed to runtime, is the time when a compiler compiles code written in a programming language into an executable form. ... In computer science, runtime describes the operation of a computer program, the duration of its execution, from beginning to termination (compare compile time). ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... The term computer language is a more expansive and alternate term for the more commonly-used term programming language. ...


A runtime environment is a virtual machine state which provides software services for processes or programs while a computer is running. It may pertain to the operating system itself, or the software that runs beneath it.

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Implementation Details

In most cases, loading the program with a piece of code called loader, doing basic memory setup and linking the program with any dynamically linked libraries it references. In some cases a language or implementation will have these tasks done by the language runtime instead, though this is unusual in mainstream languages on common consumer operating systems. In computing, a loader is a program that performs the functions of a linker program and then immediately schedules the resulting executable program for action (in the form of a memory image), without necessarily saving the program as an executable file. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Some program debugging can only be performed (or are more efficient or accurate) when performed at runtime. Logical errors and array bounds checking are examples. For this reason, some programming bugs are not discovered until the program is tested in a "live" environment with real data, despite sophisticated compile-time checking and pre-release testing. In this case, the end user may encounter a runtime error message. In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A software bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from behaving as intended (e. ...


Early runtime libraries such as that of Fortran provided such features as mathematical operations. Other languages add more sophisticated memory garbage collection, often in association with support for objects. Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... In computer science, garbage collection (also known as GC) is a form of automatic memory management. ...


More recent languages tend to have considerably larger runtimes with considerably more functionality. Many object oriented languages also include a system known as the "dispatcher" and "classloader". The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is an example of such a runtime: It also interprets or compiles the portable binary Java programs (bytecode) at runtime. The .NET framework is another example of a runtime library. The Java Classloader is a part of the Java Runtime Environment that dynamically loads Java classes into the Java Virtual Machine. ... A Java Virtual Machine (JVM), originally developed by Sun Microsystems, is a virtual machine that executes Java bytecode. ... Java is a programming language originally developed by Sun Microsystems and released in 1995. ... Bytecode is a binary representation of an executable program designed to be executed by a virtual machine rather than by dedicated hardware. ...


Application Errors - Exceptions

Exception handling is one language feature designed to handle runtime errors, providing a structured way to catch completely unexpected situations as well as predictable errors or unusual results without the amount of inline error checking required of languages without it. More recent advancements in runtime engines enable Automated Exception Handling which provides 'root-cause' debug information for every exception of interest and is implemented independent of the source code, by attaching a special software product to the runtime engine. Exception handling is a programming language construct or computer hardware mechanism designed to handle the occurrence of some condition that changes the normal flow of execution. ... Runtime engines such as those for the Java language or Microsoft . ...


Example: A program written in Java, would receive services from the Java Runtime Environment by issuing commands from which the expected result is returned by the Java software. By providing these services, the Java software is considered the runtime environment of the program. Both the program and the Java software combined request services from the operating system. The operating system kernel provides services for itself and all processes and software running under its control. The Operating System may be considered as providing a runtime environment for itself. Java is a programming language originally developed by Sun Microsystems and released in 1995. ... The Java Runtime Environment, or JRE, is a software bundle from Sun Microsystems that allows a computer system to run a Java application. ...


See also

In computer science, compile time, as opposed to runtime, is the time when a compiler compiles code written in a programming language into an executable form. ... A compiler is a computer program that translates a computer program written in one computer language (called the source language) into an equivalent program written in another computer language (called the output or the target language). ... Runtime Type Information is information about an objects datatype that is set into memory at runtime. ... In computer science, binding refers to the creation of a simple reference to something which is larger and more complicated and used frequently. ... An interpreter is a computer program that executes other programs. ...

References

  • Jon Byous, Java technology: The early years. Sun Developer Network, no date [ca. 1998]. Retrieved April 22, 2005.
  • James Gosling, A brief history of the Green project. Java.net, no date [ca. Q1/1998]. Retrieved April 29, 2007.
  • James Gosling, Bill Joy, Guy Steele, and Gilad Bracha, The Java language specification, third edition. Addison-Wesley, 2005. ISBN 0-321-24678-0 (see also online edition of the specification.
  • Tim Lindholm and Frank Yellin. The Java Virtual Machine specification, second edition. Addison-Wesley, 1999. ISBN 0-201-43294-3 (see also online edition of the specification).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Runtime - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (536 words)
The term is also used as a short form when referring to a runtime library (without a space), a program or library of basic code that is used by a particular computer language to manage a program written in that language while it is running.
A runtime library is a collection of utility functions which support a program while it is running, working with the operating system to provide facilities such as mathematical functions, input and output.
Exception handling is one language feature designed to handle runtime errors, providing a structured way to catch completely unexpected situations as well as predictable errors or unusual results without the amount of inline error checking required of languages without it.
The Essence of OOP using Java, Runtime Polymorphism through Inheritance (2897 words)
With runtime polymorphism based on method overriding, the decision as to which version of a method will be executed is based on the actual type of object whose reference is stored in the reference variable, and not on the type of the reference variable on which the method is invoked.
Runtime polymorphism based on class inheritance requires that the type of the reference variable be a superclass of the class from which the object (on which the method will be invoked) is instantiated.
The benefits of runtime polymorphic behavior generally accrue when the actual type of the object is a subclass of the type of the reference variable containing the reference to the object.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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