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Encyclopedia > Runic alphabet
This article contains runic special characters; to display them, you need a Unicode font supporting the runic range, such as Junicode or FreeMono.
Runic
Type Alphabet
Languages Germanic languages
Time period Elder Futhark from the 2nd century
Parent systems Phoenician alphabet
 → Old Italic alphabets
  → Runic
Child systems Younger Futhark, Anglo-Saxon Futhorc
ISO 15924 Runr
Younger Futhark inscription on the Vaksala Runestone
Younger Futhark inscription on the Vaksala Runestone
History of the alphabet

Middle Bronze Age 18–15th c. BC
Rune can refer to: A letter from one of the Runic alphabets, formerly used to write Germanic languages (see also Runology). ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Junicode (short for Junius-Unicode) is a free Unicode font for mediaevalists. ... Free UCS Outline Fonts (also known as, freefont) is a project for developing fonts by collecting characters from other free fonts and joining them in one package. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... The Anglo-Saxon Futhorc are a runic alphabet, extended from the Elder Futhark, consisting of 29, and later even 33 characters. ... ISO 15924, Codes for the representation of names of scripts, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts). ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image made by User:OlofE and posted on Swedish Wikipedia. ... Younger Futhark inscription on the Vaksala Runestone The Vaksala Runestone (U961) is located in Vaksala parish near Uppsala, Sweden. ... The history of the alphabet begins in Ancient Egypt, more than a millennium into the history of writing. ... The Middle Bronze Age alphabets are two similar but undeciphered scripts, dated to be from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BC), and believed to be ancestral to nearly all modern alphabets: the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to...

Meroitic 3rd c. BC
Hangul 1443
Zhuyin 1913
complete genealogy

The Runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters (known as runes), formerly used to write Germanic languages before and shortly after the Christianization of Scandinavia and the British Isles. The Scandinavian variants are also known as Futhark (or fuþark, derived from their first six letters: F, U, Þ, A, R, and K); the Anglo-Saxon variant as Futhorc (due to sound changes undergone in Old English by the same six letters). The Ugaritic alphabet is a cuneiform abjad, used from around 1300 BC for the Ugaritic language, an extinct Canaanite language discovered in Ugarit, Syria. ... The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is an abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs, which is found in Levantine texts of the Late Bronze Age (from ca. ... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet is an offshoot of the Phoenician alphabet used to write the Hebrew language from about the 10th century BCE until it began to fall out of use in the 5th century BCE with the adoption of the Aramaic alphabet as a writing system for Hebrew and... Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian emperor Ashoka the Great, 3rd century BC. The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... Variation of BrāhmÄ« with dates. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section uses Khmer characters which may be rendered as boxes or other nonsensical symbols. ... Javanese script is the script that Javanese is originally written in (not to be confused with Javascript, which is a programming language). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... The Nabatean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabateans in the 2nd century BC. Important inscriptions are found in Petra. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Avestan alphabet was created in the 3rd century AD for writing the hymns of Zarathustra (a. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...   The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Wulfila, used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... The Samaritan alphabet is a direct descendant of the paleo-Hebrew variety of the Phoenician alphabet, the more commonly known Hebrew alphabet having been adapted from the Aramaic alphabet under the Persian Empire. ... Photograph of Botorrita 1 (both sides), 1st century BC. The Iberian scripts (or Iberian alphabet) are two scripts (or two styles of the same script) found on the Iberian peninsula, the Northeast and South Iberian script. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Meroitic script is an alphabet of Egyptian (Hieroglyphic) origin used in Kingdom of Meroë. Some scholars, e. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Nearly all the segmental scripts (alphabets, but see below for more precise terminology) used around the globe were apparently derived from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet. ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... By Germanic Christianity is that phase in the history of Northern Europe understood, when the Germanic peoples of the Migration period and Viking Age adopted Christianity. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... Þþ Thorn, or þorn (Þ, þ), is a letter in the Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic alphabets. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...

Contents

Overview

The earliest runic inscriptions date from c150CE, and the alphabet was generally replaced by the Latin alphabet with Christianization, by c700CE in central Europe and by c1100CE in Scandinavia. However, the use of runes persisted for specialized purposes in Scandinavia, longest in rural Sweden until the early 20th Century (used mainly for decoration as runes in Dalarna and on Runic calendars). The three best known runic alphabets are: Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... There is also Norwegian region called Dalane. ... Runic calendar - Norwegian - carved wood. ...

The Younger Futhark is further divided into: Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Anglo-Saxon Futhorc are a runic alphabet, extended from the Elder Futhark, consisting of 29, and later even 33 characters. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...

  • the long-branch runes (also called Danish, although they were also used in Norway and Sweden)
  • the short-twig or Rök Runes (also called Swedish-Norwegian, although they were also used in Denmark)
  • the Hälsinge Runes (staveless runes)

The Younger Futhark developed further into:

  • the Marcomannic Runes
  • the Medieval Runes (1100–1500CE)
  • the Dalecarlian Runes (c1500–c1800CE)

The origins of the runic scripts are uncertain. Many characters of the elder futhark bear a close resemblance to characters from the Latin alphabet. Other candidates are the 5th to 1st century BCE Northern Italic alphabets, Lepontic, Rhaetic and Venetic, all closely related to each other and themselves descended from the Old Italic alphabet. These scripts bear a remarkable resemblance to the Futhark in many regards. (help· info) is a historical province or landskap in central Sweden. ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... (Redirected from 1st century BCE) (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Lepontic is an extinct Celtic language that was once spoken in Northern Italy between 700 BCE and 400 BCE. The language is only known from a few inscriptions discovered that were written in a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, which was related to the Old Italic alphabet. ... Raetic is an obscure language of antiquity, which used to be spoken in the eastern Alps, to the north and west of Venetic. ... Raetic is an obscure language of antiquity, which used to be spoken in the province of Raetia, in the eastern Alps, to the north and west of Venetic. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


Background

Inscription using both cipher runes, the elder futhark and the younger futhark, on the Rök Runestone
Inscription using both cipher runes, the elder futhark and the younger futhark, on the Rök Runestone

The runes were introduced to, or invented by, the Germanic peoples in the 1st or 2nd century. (The oldest known runic inscription dates to ca. the 160s and is found on a comb discovered in the bog of Vimose, Funen. The inscription reads harja; a disputed candidate for a 1st century inscription is on the Meldorf fibula). This period may correspond to the late Proto-Germanic or Common Germanic stage linguistically, with a continuum of dialects not yet clearly separated into the three branches of later centuries, viz. North Germanic, West Germanic and East Germanic. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (515x920, 90 KB)my own pic for wikipedia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (515x920, 90 KB)my own pic for wikipedia. ... The Rök Runestone features tent runes in its uppermost row. ... A black-and-white rendition of the text on one side of the Rök Stone. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 110s - 120s - 130s - 140s - 150s - 160s - 170s - 180s - 190s - 200s - 210s 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 Execution of Justin Martyr, Rome Date of earliest finds of Elder Futhark inscriptions in Vimose Marcomannic Wars Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor. ... Funen (Danish: Fyn) is the third largest island of Denmark, it has a population of 445,000 people. ... The Meldorf fibula is a Germanic fibula found in Meldorf, Schleswig-Holstein in 1979, dated to the mid to late 1st century AD (viz. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A North Germanic language is any of several Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the islands west of Scandinavia. ... West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... The tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of migrants who moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers between 600 - 300 BC. In historical times these tribes were differentiated as Goths, Burgundians and Vandals among others. ...


No distinction is made in surviving runic inscriptions between long and short vowels, although such a distinction was certainly present phonologically in the spoken languages of the time. Similarly, there are no signs for labiovelars in the Elder Futhark (such signs were introduced in both the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc and the Gothic alphabet as variants of p; see peorð.) A labiovelar sound is one produced with the lips and velum simultaneously. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...   The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Wulfila, used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... ᛈ is the rune denoting the sound p in the Old Futhark runic alphabet, in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem named peorð. It does not appear in the Younger Futhark. ...


The name given to the signs, contrasting them with Latin or Greek letters, is attested on a 6th century alamannic runestaff as runa, and possibly as runo on the Einang stone (c4th Century). The name is from a root run- (Gothic runa) meaning "secret" or "whisper". (C.f. also Finnish, where runo was loaned to mean "poem".) Area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of west Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, a river that is one of the largest tributaries of the Rhine, on land that is today... composite photograph of the inscription The Einang stone (Einangsteinen) is a rune stone near Fagernes, Norway. ...


Origins

Mythological

In old Scandinavian belief, the runes were of divine origin (Old Norse: reginkunnr) and this is attested as early as on the c. 600 AD Noleby Runestone (Runo fahi raginakundo toj[e'k]a... meaning "I prepare the suitable divine rune ..."[1]) and in an attestation from the 9th Century on the Sparlösa Runestone (Ok rað runaR þaR rægi[n]kundu meaning "And interpret the runes of divine origin"[2]). More notably, in Hávamál, stanza 80, the runes are also described as reginkunnr: Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... The Noleby Runestone, Fyrunga Runestone or Vg 63 is a rune stone in Proto-Norse which is engraved with the Elder Futhark. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The Sparlösa Runestone in Västergötland is the second most famous Swedish runestone after the Rök Runestone. ... Hávamál (Sayings of Hár, Sayings of the high one) is one of the poems of the Poetic Edda. ...

80. Þat er þá reynt,
er þú að rúnum spyrr
inum reginkunnum,
þeim er gerðu ginnregin
ok fáði fimbulþulr,
þá hefir hann bazt, ef hann þegir.[3]
80. Then ‘tis made manifest,
if of runes thou questionest him,
those to the high ones known,
which the great powers invented,
and the great talker painted,
that he had best hold silence.[4]

The eddic poem explains that their originator was the god Odin, and stanzas 138, 139 describe how Odin received the rune through his self-sacrifice. The text (in Old Norse and in English translation) is as follows: For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ...

Veit ec at ec hecc vindga meiði a
netr allar nío,
geiri vndaþr oc gefinn Oðni,
sialfr sialfom mer,
a þeim meiþi, er mangi veit, hvers hann af rótom renn.  


Við hleifi mic seldo ne viþ hornigi,
nysta ec niþr,
nam ec vp rvnar,
opandi nam,
fell ec aptr þaðan.

I know that I hung on a windy tree
nights all nine,
wounded with a spear and given to Odin,
myself to myself,
on that tree of which no man knows from where its roots run This article is about the number. ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ...


No bread did they give me nor a drink from a horn,
downwards I peered,
I took up the runes,
screaming I took them,
then I fell back from there

There are two accounts of how runes became known to mortal men. It is told in Rigsþula how Rig, identified as Heimdall in the introduction, sired three sons, Thrall (slave), Churl (freeman) and Jarl (noble), on human women. These sons became the ancestors of the three classes of men indicated by their names. When Jarl reached an age when he began to handle weapons and show other signs of nobility, Rig returned and having claimed him as a son, taught him the runes. In 1555, the exiled Swedish archbishop Olaus Magnus recorded a tradition that a man named Kettil Runske had stolen three rune staffs from Odin and learned the runes and their magic. Ríg is the name applied to a Norse god described as old and wise, mighty and strong in the Eddic poem Rígthula (Old Norse Rígþula - Song of Ríg). ... Look up Rig in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Heimdall returns Brisingamen to Freya Heimdall (Old Norse Heimdallr, the prefix Heim- means world, the affix -dallr is of uncertain origin, perhaps it means pole, bright, or valley) is one of the Æsir in Norse mythology. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Olaus Magnus, or Magni (Magnus, Latin for the Swedish Stora -- great -- is the family name, and not a personal epithet), reported as born in October 1490 in Linköping, and died on August 1, 1557, was a Swedish ecclesiastic and writer, who did pioneering work for the interest of Nordic... Kettil Runske was according to Olaus Magnus Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus (1555) a man who brought the runes to man, by stealing three rune staffs from Odin and from which he learnt the runes. ...


Historical

Main article: Elder Futhark
Codex Runicus, a vellum manuscript from c1300CE containing one of the oldest and best preserved texts of the Scanian Law, written entirely in runes.

The runes developed comparatively late, centuries after the Mediterranean alphabets from which they are probably descended. There are some similarities to alphabets of Phoenician origin (Latin, Greek, Italic) that cannot possibly all be due to chance; an Old Italic alphabet, more particularly the Raetic alphabet of Bolzano, is often quoted as a candidate for the origin of the runes, with only five Elder Futhark runes ( e, ï, j, ŋ, p) having no counterpart in the Bolzano alphabet (Mees 2000). This hypothesis is often denied by Scandinavian scholars, who usually favour a Latin origin for most or all of the runic letters (Odenstedt 1990; Williams 1996); cf. [1]. An Old Italic or "North Etruscan" thesis is supported by the inscription on the Negau helmet dating to the 2nd century BC (Markey 2001). This is in a northern Etruscan alphabet, but features a Germanic name, Harigast. New archaeological evidence came from Monte Calvario (Auronzo di Cadore). Note: This article contains special characters. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 409 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (775 × 1135 pixel, file size: 230 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Subject: AM 28 8vo, known as Codex runicus, a vellum manuscript from c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 409 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (775 × 1135 pixel, file size: 230 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Subject: AM 28 8vo, known as Codex runicus, a vellum manuscript from c. ... The Codex Runicus is one of the few runic texts found on parchment. ... The oldest known vernacular manuscript (B74) of the Scanian Law and the Scanian Ecclesiastical Law, dated to c. ... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Raetic is an obscure language of antiquity, which used to be spoken in the province of Raetia, in the eastern Alps, to the north and west of Venetic. ... Bolzano (Italian Bolzano; German: Bozen, archaic Botzen; Ladin: Bulsan; Latin: Bauzanum; many of the regions Italian languages/dialects use Bolzan or Bulsan) is a city in the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region of Italy. ... The Negau helmet usually refers to one of 28 bronze helmets from the 5th century BS, found in a cache in Negau, present Zenjak, in Slovenia on which is inscribed, in the Etruscan alphabet harigastiz fefakit. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...


The angular shapes of the runes are shared with most contemporary alphabets of the period used for carving in wood or stone. A peculiarity of the runic alphabet as compared to the Old Italic family is rather the absence of horizontal strokes. Runes were commonly carved on the edge of narrow pieces of wood. The primary grooves cut spanned the whole piece vertically, against the grain of the wood: curves are difficult to make, and horizontal lines get lost among the grain of the split wood. This vertical characteristic is also shared by other alphabets, such as the early form of the Latin alphabet used for the Duenos inscription. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Duenos inscription, as recorded by Heinrich Dressel. ...


The "West Germanic hypothesis" speculates on an introduction by West Germanic tribes. This hypothesis is based on claiming that the earliest inscriptions of c200CE, found in bogs and graves around Jutland (the Vimose inscriptions), exhibit word endings that, being interpreted by Scandinavian scholars to be Proto-Norse, are considered unresolved and having been long the subject of discussion. Inscriptions like wagnija, niþijo, and harija are supposed to incarnate tribenames, tentatively proposed to be Vangiones, the Nidensis and the Harii, tribes located in the Rhineland.[5] Since names ending in -io reflect Germanic morphology representing the Latin ending -ius, and the suffix -inius was reflected by Germanic -inio- [6], the question of the problematic ending -ijo in masculine Proto Norse would be resolved by assuming Roman (Rhineland) influences, while "the awkward ending -a of laguþewa (cf. Syrett 1994:44f.) can be solved by accepting the fact that the name may indeed be West Germanic."[7] However, it should be noted that in the early Runic period differences between Germanic languages are generally assumed to be minute. Another theory assumes a Northwest Germanic unity preceding the emergence of Proto-Norse proper from roughly the 5th century[8]. An alternative suggestion explaining the impossibility to classify the earliest inscriptions as either North or West Germanic is forwarded by È. A. Makaev, who assumes a "special runic koine", an early "literary Germanic" employed by the entire Late Common Germanic linguistic community after the separation of Gothic (2nd to 5th centuries), while the spoken dialects may already have been more diverse.[9] West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... The Germanic (also, Teutonic) peoples are the nations speaking Germanic languages, idioms descended from Proto-Germanic (spoken during the final centuries BC, the Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe). ... Finds from Vimose, Funen include some of the very oldest datable Elder Futhark inscriptions in late Proto-Germanic or early Proto-Norse (2nd to 3rd centuries AD). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Proto-Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old Norse language. ... The Vangiones were a tribe of the Belgae originally from the Upper Rhine valley. ... Among the Germanic tribes in Gaul mentioned by Tacitus in his Germania were the Harii. ... Northwest Germanic is a proposed grouping of the Germanic dialects. ... Proto-Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old Norse language. ... The literal meaning of the Greek word koine (κοινή) is common. It is used in several senses: Koiné Greek (Κοινή Ἑλληνική), a Greek dialect that developed from the Attic dialect (of Athens) and became the spoken language of Greece at the time of the Empire of Alexander the Great. ...


The genesis of the Elder Futhark was complete by the early 5th century, with the Kylver Stone being the first evidence of the futhark ordering as well as of the p rune. A modified variant of the Kylver inscription, on the original inscription some letters are mirrored, a few features missing and it also includes an unknown rune and an additional small inscription. ...


Magic and Divination

The Björketorp Runestone. It is 4.2 m tall.
The Björketorp Runestone. It is 4.2 m tall.

In the Ljóðatal section of the Hávamál, the runes are attributed with the power to bring that which is dead to life:- Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1728x2304, 1468 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Runic alphabet Björketorp Runestone Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1728x2304, 1468 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Runic alphabet Björketorp Runestone Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Hávamál (Sayings of Hár, Sayings of the high one) is one of the poems of the Poetic Edda. ...

Þat kann ec iþ tolpta,
ef ec se a tre vppi
vafa virgilná:
sva ec rist oc i rvnom fác,
at sa gengr gvmi
oc melir viþ mic.[2]

A twelfth [spell] I know;
when I see aloft upon a tree
A corpse swinging from a rope,
Then I cut and paint runes
So that the man walks
And speaks with me.

The earliest runic inscriptions were certainly not coherent texts of any length, but simple markings on artifacts (e.g. bracteates, combs, etc.), giving the name of either the craftsman or the proprietor, or, sometimes, remaining a linguistic mystery. Because of this, it is possible that the early runes were not so much used as a simple writing system, but rather as magical signs to be used for charms, or for divination. The name rune itself, taken to mean "secret, something hidden", seems to indicate that knowledge of the runes was originally considered esoteric, or restricted to an elite. The eerie 6th century Björketorp Runestone warns in Proto-Norse using the word rune in both senses: A bracteate (from the Latin bractea, a thin piece of metal) is a flat, thin, single-sided gold coin produced in Northern Europe predominantly during the Migration Period of the Germanic Iron Age, but the name is also used for later produced coins of silver produced in Central Europe during... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... The Runestone The Björketorp Runestone (DR 360 U) in Blekinge, Sweden, is part of a grave field which includes menhirs, both solitary and forming stone circles. ... Proto-Norse, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old...

Haidzruno runu, falahak haidera, ginnarunaz. Arageu haeramalausz uti az. Weladaude, sa'z þat barutz. Uþarba spa.

I, master of the runes(?) conceal here runes of power. Incessantly (plagued by) maleficence, (doomed to) insidious death (is) he who breaks this (monument). I prophesy destruction / prophecy of destruction.[10]

The same curse and use of the word rune is also found on the Stentoften Runestone. There are also some inscriptions suggesting a medieval belief in the magical significance of runes, such as the Franks Casket (700CE) panel. The Stentoften Runestone (DR 357 U) is a runestone which contains a curse in Proto-Norse, and the runestone was discovered in 1823 by the dean O. Hammer. ... The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Runic Casket) is a little whalebone chest, dateable from its pagan elements to the early 7th century, decorated with images and Futhorc runic inscriptions. ...


However, it has proven difficult to find unambiguous traces of runic "oracles": Although Norse literature is full of references to runes, it nowhere contains specific instructions on divination. There are at least three sources on divination with rather vague descriptions that may or may not refer to runes, Tacitus's Germania, Snorri Sturluson's Ynglinga saga and Rimbert's Vita Ansgari. Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ...


The first source, Tacitus' Germania, describes "signs" chosen in groups of three. For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ...


A second source is the Ynglinga saga, where Granmar, the king of Södermanland, goes to Uppsala for the blót. There, the "chips" fell in a way that said that he would not live long (Féll honum þá svo spánn sem hann mundi eigi lengi lifa). The Ynglinga saga was originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet Snorri Sturluson about 1225. ... Granmar was a king of Södermanland, in Snorri Sturlusons Heimskringla. ... (frequently shortened to Sörmland in Sweden, particularly locally) is a historical province or landskap on the south eastern coast of Sweden. ... Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds. ... The Blót was the pagan Germanic sacrifice to Norse gods and Elves. ...


The third source is Rimbert's Vita Ansgari, where there are three accounts of what seems to be the use of runes for divination, but Rimbert calls it "drawing lots". One of these accounts is the description of how a renegade Swedish king Anund Uppsale first brings a Danish fleet to Birka, but then changes his mind and asks the Danes to "draw lots". According to the story, this "drawing of lots" was quite informative, telling them that attacking Birka would bring bad luck and that they should attack a Slavic town instead. Rimbert (or Rembert), archbishop in Hamburg-Bremen between 865 - 888 AD. Revered as a saint particularly in Friesland. ... Vita Ansgari, the biography of Ansgar, written by Rimbert, his successor as archbishop in Hamburg-Bremen. ... Anund Uppsale or Anoundus ruled Sweden together with his brother Björn at Hauge, according to Rimbert and Hervarar saga (he and Björn are also mentioned by Adam of Bremen). ... Location in Sweden During the Viking Age, Birka or Birca  , on the island of Björkö (also Bierkø, literally: Birch Island) in Sweden, was an important trading center which handled goods from Scandinavia as well as Central and Eastern Europe and the Orient. ...


The lack of knowledge on historical usage of the runes has not stopped modern authors from extrapolating entire systems of divination from what few specifics exist, usually loosely based on the runes' reconstructed names and additional outside influence (see runic divination). Divination according to Ralph Blum in progress The Elder Futhark may well have been used for magical and occult purposes historically; the name rune itself, taken to mean secret, something hidden, seems to indicate that knowledge of the runes was originally considered esoteric, or restricted to an elite. ...


A recent study of runic magic suggests that runes were used to create magical objects such as amulets (MacLeod and Mees 2006), but not in a way that would indicate that runic writing was any more inherently magical than were other writing systems such as Latin or Greek.


Common use

Church bell from Saleby, Västergötland, Sweden, containing an inscription from 1228 in the Runic alphabet
Church bell from Saleby, Västergötland, Sweden, containing an inscription from 1228 in the Runic alphabet

Some later runic finds are on monuments (rune stones), which often contain solemn inscriptions about people who died or performed great deeds. For a long time it was assumed that this kind of grand inscription was the primary use of runes, and that their use was associated with a certain societal class of rune-carvers. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Church bell from Saleby, Västergötland, Sweden containing an inscription from 1228 in the Runic alphabet A church bell is a bell which is rung in a (especially Christian) church either to signify the hour or the time for worshippers to go to church, perhaps to attend a wedding... Saleby is a village in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. ...   is one of the historical provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the southwest of Sweden. ... A rune stone in Lund Rune stones are stones with runic inscriptions dating from the early Middle Ages but are found to have been used most prominently during the Viking Age. ...


However, in the middle of the 1950s, about 600 inscriptions known as the Bryggen inscriptions were found in Bergen. These inscriptions were made on wood and bone, often in the shape of sticks of various sizes, and contained inscriptions of an everyday nature — ranging from name tags, prayers (often in Latin), personal messages, business letters, expressions of affection, to bawdy phrases of a profane and sometimes even vulgar nature. Following this find, it is nowadays commonly assumed that at least in late use, Runic was a widespread and common writing system. The Bryggen inscriptions are a find of some 600 runic inscriptions on wood (mostly pine) and bone found from 1955 and forth at Bryggen (and its surroundings) in Bergen, Norway. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


In the later Middle Ages, runes were also used in the Clog almanacs (sometimes called Runic staff, Prim or Scandinavian calendar) of Sweden. The authenticity of some monuments bearing Runic inscriptions found in Northern America is disputed, but most of them date from modern times. Runic calendar - Norwegian - carved wood. ...


Gothic runes

Theories of the existence of separate Gothic runes have been advanced, even identifying them as the original alphabet from which the Futhark were derived, but these have little support in actual findings (mainly the spearhead of Kovel, with its right-to-left inscription, its T-shaped tiwaz and its rectangular dagaz). If there ever were genuinely Gothic runes, they were soon replaced by the Gothic alphabet. The letters of the Gothic alphabet, however, as given by the Alcuin manuscript (9th century), are obviously related to the names of the Futhark. The names are clearly Gothic, but it is impossible to say whether they are as old as, or even older than, the letters themselves. A handful of Elder Futhark inscriptions were found in Gothic territory, such as the 4th century ring of Pietroassa. Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Very few Elder Futhark inscriptions in the Gothic language have been found in the territory historically settled by the Goths (Wielbark culture, Chernyakhov culture). ... Tyr rune The t-rune ᛏ is named after Tyr, and was identified with this god. ... The d-rune (Unicode U+16DE ) is called Daeg day in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem. ...   The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Wulfila, used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... This article is about the scholar Alcuin of York. ... Very few Elder Futhark inscriptions in the Gothic language have been found in the territory historically settled by the Goths (Wielbark culture, Chernyakhov culture). ...


Later development

As Proto-Germanic evolved into its later language groups, the words assigned to the runes and the sounds represented by the runes themselves began to diverge somewhat, and each culture would either create new runes, rename or rearrange its rune names slightly, or even stop using obsolete runes completely, to accommodate these changes. Thus, the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc has several runes peculiar to itself to represent diphthongs unique to (or at least prevalent in) the Anglo-Saxon dialect. However, the fact that the younger Futhark has sixteen runes, while the Elder Futhark has twenty four, is not fully explained by the some six hundred years of sound changes that had occurred in the North Germanic language group. The development here might seem rather astonishing, since the younger form of the alphabet came to use fewer different rune-signs at the same time as the development of the language led to a greater number of different phonemes than had been present at the time of the older futhark. For example, voiced and unvoiced consonants merged in script, and so did many vowels, while the number of vowels in the spoken language increased. From about 1100, this disadvantage was eliminated in the medieval runes, which again increased the number of different signs to correspond with the number of phonemes in the language. In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... A North Germanic language is any of several Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the islands west of Scandinavia. ...


Corpus

The largest group of surviving Runic inscription are Viking Age Younger Futhark runestones, most commonly found in Sweden. Another large group are medieval runes, most commonly found on small objects, often wooden sticks. The largest concentration of runic inscriptions are the Bryggen inscriptions found in Bergen, more than 650 in total. Elder Futhark inscriptions number around 350, about 260 of which are from Scandinavia, of which about half are on bracteates. Anglo-Saxon Futhorc-inscriptions number around 100 items. Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... The Bryggen inscriptions are a find of some 600 runic inscriptions on wood (mostly pine) and bone found from 1955 and forth at Bryggen (and its surroundings) in Bergen, Norway. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... A bracteate (from the Latin bractea, a thin piece of metal) is a flat, thin, single-sided gold coin produced in Northern Europe predominantly during the Migration Period of the Germanic Iron Age, but the name is also used for later produced coins of silver produced in Central Europe during... The Anglo-Saxon Futhorc are a runic alphabet, extended from the Elder Futhark, consisting of 29, and later even 33 characters. ...


The following table lists the number of known inscriptions (in any alphabet variant) by geographical region:[citation needed]

Area number of rune inscriptions
Sweden 3432
Norway 1552
Denmark 844
Scandinavian total 5826
Continental Europe except Scandinavia and Frisia 80
Frisia 20
The British Isles except Ireland > 200
Greenland > 100
Iceland < 100
Ireland 16
Faroes 9
Non-Scandinavian total > 500
Total > 6400

In the burial mound of Maes Howe in Orkney are many runic inscriptions, believed to have been made by Vikings in the 12th Century. See Maeshowe although there are no internal photographs. Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ... The Faroe Islands (Faroese: Føroyar, meaning Sheep Islands) are a group of islands in the north Atlantic Ocean between Scotland and Iceland. ... Maes Howe is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland Orkney (off northern Scotland). ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... Maeshowe Maeshowe Entrance Maeshowe (or Maes Howe) is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland Orkney, Scotland. ...


Elder Fuþark

Main article: Elder Futhark

The Elder Futhark, used for writing proto-Norse (urnordisk, urnordiska), consist of twenty-four runes, often arranged in three rows of eight. The earliest known sequential listing of the full set of 24 runes dates to c400CE and is found on the Kylver Stone in Gotland. The 24 Elder Futhark runes with their common transliterations are: Note: This article contains special characters. ... Proto-Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old Norse language. ... A modified variant of the Kylver inscription, on the original inscription some letters are mirrored, a few features missing and it also includes an unknown rune and an additional small inscription. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ...

f f u u th,þ þ a a r r k k g g w w
h h n n i i j j ï,ei ï p p z z s s
t t b b e e m m l l ŋ ŋ d d o o

Image File history File links Runic_letter_fehu. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_uruz. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_thurisaz. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_ansuz. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_raido. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_kauna. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_gebo. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_wunjo. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_haglaz. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_naudiz. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_isaz. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_jeran. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_iwaz. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_pertho. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_algiz. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_sowilo. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_tiwaz. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_berkanan. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_ehwaz. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_mannaz. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_laukaz. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_ingwaz. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_dagaz. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_othalan. ...

Names

Each rune most probably had a name, chosen to represent the sound of the rune itself. The names are, however, not directly attested for the Elder Futhark themselves. Reconstructed names in Proto-Germanic have been suggested for them by[citation needed], based on the names given for runes of the later alphabets in the rune poems and the names of the letters of the Gothic alphabet. Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The rune poems list the letters of a runic alphabet with a short verse characterizing each one. ...   The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Wulfila, used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ...

f fehu "wealth, cattle"
u ûruz "aurochs" (or ûram "water / slag"?)
th,þ þurisaz "giant"
a ansuz "one of the Aesir" (or ahsam "ear (of corn)"?)
r raidô "ride, journey"
k kaunan "ulcer, illness"
g gebô "gift"
w wunjô "comfort, glory, joy"
h haglaz "hail (the precipitation)"
n naudiz "need"
i îsaz "ice"
j jera "year" or "harvest"
ï,ei îhaz / îwaz "yew"
p perþô? "chance, fate, orlog"
R algiz "elk"?
s sôwilô "Sun"
t tîwaz (Tiwaz or Tyr, God of War)
b berkanan "birch"
e ehwaz "horse"
m mannaz "man"
l laguz "lake" (or laukaz "leek"?)
ŋ ingwaz Yngvi, Earth God
d dagaz "day"
o ôþalan "estate, inheritance"

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Fe rune represents the f-sound. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ur The rune ᚢ representing the sound u is called Ur in all three rune poems, however with different meanings: Norwegian ᚢ er af illu jarne; Dross comes from bad iron; the reindeer often races over the frozen snow. ... Binomial name Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Slag is also an early play by David Hare. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The rune expressing the is called Thurs (Þurs giant, see Jotun) in the Icelandic and Norwegian rune poems: In Anglo-Saxon England, the same rune was called Thorn and it survives as the letter Þ. The corresponding Gothic letter, , is called þiuþ. This lack of agreement makes it difficult to reconstruct... The giants Fafner and Fasolt seize Freyja in Arthur Rackhams illustration to Richard Wagners version of the Norse myths. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The a-rune , Younger Futhark was probably named after the Æsir, in Proto-Germanic *Ansuz. ... The Aesir (Old Norse Æsir, singular Áss, feminine Ásynja, feminine plural Ásynjur) are the principal pantheon of gods in Norse mythology. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Raidô ride, journey is the suggested Proto-Germanic name of the r-rune of the Elder Futhark &#5809;. The name is attested for the same rune in all three rune poems, Norwegian Ræið Icelandic Reið, Anglo-Saxon Rad, as well as for the corresponding letter of the Gothic alphabet... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The k-rune &#5810; (Younger Futhark &#5812;, Anglo-Saxon Futhorc &#5811;) is called Kaun in both the Norwegian and Icelandic rune poems, meaning ulcer. The reconstructed Proto-Germanic name is Kaunan. ... Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gyfu Gyfu is the name for the g-rune áš· in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem, meaning gift or generosity: áš· Gyfu gumena byþ gleng and herenys, wraþu and wyrþscype and wræcna gehwam Generosity brings credit and honour, which support ones dignity; it furnishes help and subsistence to... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Categories: Language stubs | Old English language | Runes | Uncommon Latin letters ... Look up joy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Haglaz Haglaz or Hagalaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the h-rune , meaning hail (the precipitation). ... This article is about the precipitation. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Naudiz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the n-rune &#5822;, meaning need, distress. In the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, it is continued as &#5822; nyd, in the Younger Futhark as &#5822;, Icelandic naud, Norse naudhr. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Isaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the i-rune &#5825;, meaning ice. In the Younger Futhark it is called Iss in Icelandic and isa in Norse. ... This article is about water ice. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... J&#257;ra or J&#275;ra harvest, (good) year is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the j-rune &#5827;. In the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, it is continued as &#5828; G&#275;r and &#5857; Ior. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Eihwaz Eihwaz (Ihwaz; *Ä«haz or *Ä«waz) was a Proto-Germanic word for yew, and the reconstructed name of the rune ᛇ. The rune survives in the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc as ᛇ Ä’oh yew (note that eoh horse has a short diphtong). ... Binomial name L. Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia. ... Image File history File links Runic_letter_pertho. ... ᛈ is the rune denoting the sound p in the Old Futhark runic alphabet, in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem named peorð. It does not appear in the Younger Futhark. ... Ørlög is an Old Norse concept, similar to fate and wyrd. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Algiz is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic name for the &#5833; rune, representing Proto-Germanic final z. ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Trundholm Sun Chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tyr rune The t-rune ᛏ is named after Tyr, and was identified with this god. ... This article is about Tyr, the god. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Berkanan is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the b-rune &#5842;, meaning birch. In the Younger Futhark it is called bjarken in Icelandic and bjarkan in Norse. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ehwaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the e-rune &#582;, meaning horse (cognate to Latin equus). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mannaz or Manwaz is the Proto-Germanic term for man, in the gender-neutral sense of person, human being. The word developed into Old English man, mann human being, person, (c. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Laguz Laguz or Laukaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the l-rune ᛚ, laguz meaning water or lake and laukaz meaning leek. In the Anglo-Saxon rune poem, it is called lagu ocean. In the Younger Futhark it is called lögr waterfall in Icelandic and logr water in... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Leek (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Yngvi-Freyr constructs the Temple at Uppsala, by Hugo Hamilton (1830) In Scandinavian mythology, Yngvi, Ingui or Ing appears to have been the older name for the god Freyr (orginally an epitheton, meaning lord). Proto-Germanic *Ingwaz was one of the three sons of Mannus and the legendary ancestor of... Yngvi, Ingui or Ing appears to have been the older name for the god Freyr, which meant lord. In Scandinavian mythology, Yngvi, alternatively Yngve, was the progenitor of the Yngling lineage, a legendary dynasty of Swedish kings from whom the earliest historical Norwegian kings in turn claimed to be descended... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The d-rune (Unicode U+16DE ) is called Daeg day in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Odal rune. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Frisian and Anglo-Saxon Fuþorc

Main article: Anglo-Saxon Futhorc
The Fuþorc
The Fuþorc

The Futhorc are an extended alphabet, consisting of 29, and later even 33 characters. It was used probably from the 5th century onward. There are competing theories as to the origins of the Anglo-Saxon Fuþorc. One theory proposes that it was developed in Frisia and later spread to England. Another holds that runes were introduced by Scandinavians to England where the fuþorc was modified and exported to Frisia. Both theories have their inherent weaknesses and a definitive answer likely awaits more archaeological evidence. Futhorc inscriptions are found e.g. on the Thames scramasax, in the Vienna Codex, in Cotton Otho B.x (Anglo-Saxon rune poem) and on the Ruthwell Cross. The Anglo-Saxon Futhorc are a runic alphabet, extended from the Elder Futhark, consisting of 29, and later even 33 characters. ... Image created by me. ... Image created by me. ... Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Thames scramasax is a 9th century weapon, recovered from the Thames at Battersea, London. ... The Codex Vindobonensis 795 (Vienna Codex) is a 9th century manuscript. ... The Lindisfarne Gospels is but one of the treasures collected by Sir Robert Cotton. ... The rune poems list the letters of a runic alphabet with a short verse characterizing each one. ... One or more images would improve this articles quality. ...


The Anglo-Saxon rune poem has: feoh, ur, thorn, os, rad, cen, gyfu, wynn, haegl, nyd, is, ger, eoh, peordh, eolh, sigel, tir, beorc, eh, mann, lagu, ing, ethel, daeg, ac, aesc, yr, ior, ear. The rune poems list the letters of a runic alphabet with a short verse characterizing each one. ...


The expanded alphabet has the additional letters cweorth, calc, cealc and stan. It should be mentioned that these additional letters have only been found in manuscripts.


Feoh, þorn, and sigel stood for [f], [þ], and [s] in most environments, but voiced to [v], [ð], and [z] between vowels or voiced consonants. Gyfu and wynn stood for the letters yogh and wynn which became [g] and [w] in Middle English. The letter yogh (Èœ ȝ; Middle English: ogh) was used in Middle English and Middle Scots, representing y (IPA: ) and various velar phonemes. ... Capital wynn (left), lowercase wynn (right) Wynn () (also spelled Wen or en) is a letter of the Old English alphabet. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the...


Younger Fuþark

Main article: Younger Futhark

The Younger Fuþark, also called Scandinavian Fuþark, is a reduced form of the Elder Futhark, consisting of only 16 characters. The reduction correlates with phonetic changes when Proto-Norse evolved into Old Norse. They are found in Scandinavia and Viking Age settlements abroad, probably in use from the 9th century onward. They are divided into long-branch (Danish) and short-twig (Swedish and Norwegian) runes. The difference between the two versions has been a matter of controversy. A general opinion is that the difference was functional, i.e. the long-branch runes were used for documentation on stone, whereas the short-branch runes were in every day use for private or official messages on wood. Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Proto-Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old Norse language. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ...


Names

Closeup of the runes on the Björketorp Runestone
Closeup of the runes on the Björketorp Runestone

The Icelandic and Norwegian rune poems have 16 runes, with the letter names fe ("wealth"), ur ("iron"/"rain"), Thurs, As/Oss, reidh ("ride"), kaun ("ulcer"), hagall ("hail"), naudhr/naud ("need"), is/iss ("ice"), ar ("plenty"), sol ("sun"), Tyr, bjarkan/bjarken ("birch"), madhr/madr ("man"), logr/lög ("water"), yr ("yew"). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1693 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Runic alphabet ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1693 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Runic alphabet ... The Runestone The Björketorp Runestone (DR 360 U) in Blekinge, Sweden, is part of a grave field which includes menhirs, both solitary and forming stone circles. ... The rune poems list the letters of a runic alphabet with a short verse characterizing each one. ... The rune expressing the is called Thurs (Þurs giant, see Jotun) in the Icelandic and Norwegian rune poems: In Anglo-Saxon England, the same rune was called Thorn and it survives as the letter Þ. The corresponding Gothic letter, , is called þiuþ. This lack of agreement makes it difficult to reconstruct... The a-rune , Younger Futhark was probably named after the Æsir, in Proto-Germanic *Ansuz. ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Algiz rune Algiz or sometimes Elhaz is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic name for the ᛉ rune, representing Proto-Germanic final z. ...


Evolution

In the 7th century appeared an intermediary form of runes between the Elder Futhark and the Younger Futhark, but there are very few inscriptions. Two of them are the Stentoften Runestone and the Björketorp Runestone, where the haglaz rune has evolved into having the same form as the h-rune of the younger futhark, but it is used for an a-phoneme. The k-rune, which looks like a Y is a transition form between and in the two futharks. Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Stentoften Runestone (DR 357 U) is a runestone which contains a curse in Proto-Norse, and the runestone was discovered in 1823 by the dean O. Hammer. ... The Runestone The Björketorp Runestone (DR 360 U) in Blekinge, Sweden, is part of a grave field which includes menhirs, both solitary and forming stone circles. ... Haglaz Haglaz or Hagalaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the h-rune , meaning hail (the precipitation). ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


The two futharks were in parallel use for some time, and one example of this is the Rök Runestone. A black-and-white rendition of the text on one side of the Rök Stone. ...

the Younger Futhark (long-branch runes)

from Swedish wiki (created by Den fjättrade ankan) File links The following pages link to this file: Runic alphabet Categories: GFDL images ... from Swedish wiki (created by Den fjättrade ankan) File links The following pages link to this file: Runic alphabet Categories: GFDL images ...

Long-branch runes

The long-branch runes are the following signs:

short-twig runes

from Swedish wiki (created by Den fjättrade ankan) File links The following pages link to this file: Runic alphabet Categories: GFDL images ... from Swedish wiki (created by Den fjättrade ankan) File links The following pages link to this file: Runic alphabet Categories: GFDL images ...

Short-twig runes

The short-twig runes (or Rök runes) are a simplified version of the long-branch runes, consisting of the following sixteen signs:


- The requested page title was invalid, empty, or an incorrectly linked inter-language or inter-wiki title. ...

staveless runes

from Swedish wiki (created by Den fjättrade ankan) File links The following pages link to this file: Runic alphabet Categories: GFDL images ... from Swedish wiki (created by Den fjättrade ankan) File links The following pages link to this file: Runic alphabet Categories: GFDL images ...

Hälsinge Runes (staveless runes)

The Hälsinge runes are named after the traditional province of Hälsingland in Sweden, where they were first noted in modern times. However, they were used in a considerably larger area, and they were used between the 10th and 12th centuries. The runes seem to be a simplification of the Swedish–Norwegian runes and lack vertical strokes, hence the name 'staveless.' They cover the same set of letters as the other Younger Futhark alphabets. This variant has no assigned Unicode range (as of Unicode 4.0).
staveless runes. ...   Hälsingland?, is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


"Marcomannic runes"

Marcomannic runes
Marcomannic runes

In a treatise called de inventione litterarum, preserved in 8th and 9th century manuscripts, mainly from the southern part of the Carolingian Empire (Alemannia, Bavaria), ascribed to Hrabanus Maurus, a runic alphabet consisting of a curious mixture of Elder Futhark with Anglo-Saxon Futhorc is recorded. The alphabet is traditionally called "Marcomannic runes", but it has no connection with the Marcomanni and is rather an attempt of Carolingian scholars to represent all letters of the Latin alphabets with runic equivalents. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (904x372, 69 KB) The table contains Marcomannic runes, created by User:Schreiber on 21 March 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Runic alphabet ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (904x372, 69 KB) The table contains Marcomannic runes, created by User:Schreiber on 21 March 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Runic alphabet ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... Alemannia (red) and Upper Burgundy (green) around AD 1000. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Rabanus Maurus Magnentius (c. ... The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ...


Medieval Runes

Medieval Runes
Medieval Runes

In the Middle Ages, the younger futhark in Scandinavia was expanded, so that it once more contained one sign for each phoneme of the old Norse language. Dotted variants of voiceless signs were introduced to denote the corresponding voiced consonants, or vice versa, voiceless variants of voiced consonants, and several new runes also appeared for vowel sounds. Inscriptions in medieval Scandinavian runes show a large number of variant rune-forms, and some letters, such as s, c and z, were often used interchangeably.[11][12] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Medieval runes were in use until the 15th Century. Of the total number of Norwegian runic inscriptions preserved today, most are medieval runes. Notably, more than 600 inscriptions using these runes have been discovered in Bergen since the 1950s, mostly on wooden sticks (the so-called Bryggen inscriptions). This indicates that runes were in common use side by side with the Latin alphabet for several centuries. Indeed some of the medieval runic inscriptions are actually in Latin language. County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2006) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... The Bryggen inscriptions are a find of some 600 runic inscriptions on wood (mostly pine) and bone found from 1955 and forth at Bryggen (and its surroundings) in Bergen, Norway. ...


Dalecarlian Runes

According to Carl-Gustav Werner, "in the isolated province of Dalarna in Sweden a mix of runes and Latin letters developed."(Werner 2004, p. 7) The Dalecarlian runes came into use in the early 16th Century and remained in some use up to the 20th Century. Some discussion remains on whether their use was an unbroken tradition throughout this period or whether people in the 19th and 20th centuries learned runes from books written on the subject. The character inventory was mainly used for transcribing Elfdalian. There is also Norwegian region called Dalane. ... Älvdalen Municipality in Dalarna Elfdalian (Övdalsk in Elfdalian, Älvdalska or Älvdalsmål in Swedish) is a linguistic variety of the Scandinavian language branch spoken in the old parish of Övdaln, which is located in the southern part of Älvdalen Municipality in Northern Dalarna, Sweden. ...


Modern use

The Germanic runes have seen numerous usages in modern use, usually in association with or referencing Germanic paganism. ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ...


Occultism and Nazi Germany

From 1933, the Nazi SS badge displayed two Sig Runes.
From 1933, the Nazi SS badge displayed two Sig Runes.

One of the important figures in Germanic mysticism and runic revivalism in the late 19th and early 20th century was the Austrian occultist, mysticist and völkisch author Guido von List. Image File history File links Flag_Schutzstaffel. ... Image File history File links Flag_Schutzstaffel. ... SS unit insignia was a form of uniform insignia used by the S.S. between the years of 1932 and 1945. ... Two Sig Runes: The symbol of the Nazi SS Sig Rune is the name given by Guido von List for the Sigel or s rune of the futhark. ... Armanenschaft jewellery and ritual items from England, including the Armanen runes, ring and stick; Fyrfos pin; Schwarze Sonne ear-rings and pin (and Zierscheiben necklace); Mjollnir ear-rings and necklace; Wolfsangel pin; Unicursal Hexagram necklace; and Sidereal Pendulum. ... The hard-to-translate word völkisch has connotations of folksy, folkloric, and populist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In 1908, List published in Das Geheimnis der Runen ("The Secret of the Runes") a set of 18 so-called "Armanen Runes", based on the Younger Futhark and runes of List's own introduction, which were allegedly revealed to him in a state of temporary blindness after a cataract operation on both eyes in 1902. Circular arrangement of the Armanen runes. ...


Runes have been used in Nazi symbolism by Nazis and neo-Nazi groups that associate themselves with Germanic traditions, mainly the Sigal, Eihwaz, Tyr, Odal and Algiz runes. The twentieth century German Nazi Party was notable for their extensive use of graphic symbolism, most notably the Hakenkreuz (swastika) which it used as its principal symbol, and, in the form of the swastika flag, became the state flag of Nazi Germany. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Eihwaz (or Eiwaz, Îgwaz) is the Proto-Germanic word for yew, and the reconstructed name of the rune &#5831;. Its is commonly transliterated as ei or ï. Its phonetic value at the time of the invention of the Futhark (2nd century) was not necessarily a diphtong, but possibly a vowel somewhere... Tyr rune The t-rune ᛏ is named after Tyr, and was identified with this god. ... The Odal rune. ... Algiz is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic name for the &#5833; rune, representing Proto-Germanic final z. ...


The fascination that runes seem to have exerted on the Nazis can be traced to Guido von List. His rune row, however, was later rejected by the Nazis for that of the official Nazi runeologist Karl Maria Wiligut (See Wiligut runes). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Karl Maria Wiligut (alias Weisthor) (December 10, 1866 - January 3, 1946) was also known as Himmlers Rasputin. He was born in Vienna in what was then Austria-Hungary. ... The Wiligut runes are a runic row developed by Karl Maria Wiligut in 1934, Wiligut rejected Guido von Lists Armanen runes and his overall philosophy. ...


In Nazi contexts, the s-rune is referred to as "Sig" (after List, probably from Anglo-Saxon Sigel). The "Wolfsangel", while not a rune historically, has the shape of List's "Gibor" rune. Two Sig Runes: The symbol of the Nazi SS Sig Rune is the name given by Guido von List for the Sigel or s rune of the futhark. ... Vertical alignment Horizontal alignment The Wolfsangel (German for wolfs hook) is a symbol which when used in the context of Nazi or Neo-Nazi organisations is described as looking like an Eihwaz rune but modified by an additional central stroke. ...


Another modern day runic row is the Uthark commonly known through the work of the Swedish scholar and occultist Thomas Karlsson, founder of the 'Ordo Draconis et Atri Adamantis' (or Dragon Rouge), and refers to them as the 'Night-side of the Runes'. This runic row and theory had however been the subject of an earlier study by the Swedish philologist Sigurd Agrell [3]. The Runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters known as runes, formerly used to write Germanic languages, mainly in Scandinavia and the British Isles. ... Thomas Karlsson is a member of heavy metal bands Therion and Shadowseeds. ... Dragon Rouge or the Ordo Draconis et Atri Adamantis, is a society whose members practice occult arts and aim to explore dark magic. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ...


Neopaganism and New Age

As forms of Neopaganism can be quite different and have very different origins, recognition and usage of runes can vary considerably.


As with Germanic paganism in general, the runes are a major element in Germanic neopaganism used for a wide variety of purposes in varying senses of reconstructionism, depending on the type of group. ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... The Mjolnir is one of the primary symbols of Germanic neopaganism. ... Romuva Spring JorÄ— festival in Kulionys, Lithuania in 2006. ...


New Agers and some Wiccans may also sometimes use runes under various (generally non-reconstructive) conditions, such as divination. New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... Divination according to Ralph Blum in progress The Elder Futhark may well have been used for magical and occult purposes historically; the name rune itself, taken to mean secret, something hidden, seems to indicate that knowledge of the runes was originally considered esoteric, or restricted to an elite. ...


Modern popular culture

Historical and fictional runes appear commonly in modern popular culture, particularly in fantasy literature, video games, and various other forms of media.


Symbols from the Runic alphabet were used on the medallions awarded to contestants in the 2007 reality television series The Pick Up Artist. A medallion is a piece of metal, usually carved or engraving, that is used as a medal, or worn on the body as a special symbol. ... The Pick-up Artist may refer to: The Pick-up Artist (film), a 1987 film starring Molly Ringwald and Robert Downey Jr. ...


J. R. R. Tolkien

In J. R. R. Tolkien's novel The Hobbit, the Anglo-Saxon runes are used on a map to emphasize its connection to the Dwarves. They were also used in the initial drafts of The Lord of the Rings, but later were replaced by the Cirth rune-like alphabet invented by Tolkien. Tolkien redirects here. ... This article is about the book. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Dwarves (also known as the Naugrim) are beings of short stature who all possess beards and are often friendly with Hobbits, although long suspicious of Elves. ... This article is about the novel. ...   This chart showing the runes shared by the Angerthas Daeron and Angerthas Moria is presented in Appendix E of The Return of the King. ...


Unicode

Runic alphabets are assigned Unicode range 16A0–16FF. This block is intended to encode all shapes of runic letters. Each letter is encoded only once, regardless of the number of alphabets in which it occurs. The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...


The block contains 81 symbols: 75 runic letters (16A0–16EA), three punctuation marks (Runic Single Punctuation 16EB ᛫, Runic Multiple Punctuation 16EC ᛬ and Runic Cross Punctuation 16ED ᛭), and three runic symbols that are used in mediaeval calendar staves ("Golden number Runes", Runic Arlaug Symbol 16EE ᛮ, Runic Tvimadur Symbol 16EF ᛯ and Runic Belgthor Symbol 16F0 ᛰ). Characters 16F1–16FF are unassigned (as of Unicode Version 5.0). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Runic calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Runic calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Runic calendar. ...


Unicode fonts that support the runic range include:

Table of runic letters (U+16A0–U+16EA): A few projects exist to provide free software Unicode typefaces, i. ... Junicode (short for Junius-Unicode) is a free Unicode font for mediaevalists. ... Free UCS Outline Fonts (also known as, freefont) is a project for developing fonts by collecting characters from other free fonts and joining them in one package. ... Caslon Roman is a serif style Caslon family TrueType Unicode font, developed by George Williams. ... Code2000 is a digital font which includes characters and symbols from a very large range of writing systems. ... Everson Mono is a monospaced transitional sans serif Unicode font whose development by Michael Everson began in 1995. ... Titus Cyberbit Basic is a Unicode font designed by Bitstream and the TITUS (Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien) for Unicode 4. ...

16A0 fehu feoh fe f 16B0 on 16C0 dotted-n 16D0 short-twig-tyr t 16E0 ear
16A1 v 16B1 raido rad reid r 16C1 isaz is iss i 16D1 d 16E1 ior
16A2 uruz ur u 16B2 kauna 16C2 e 16D2 berkanan beorc bjarkan b 16E2 cweorth
16A3 yr 16B3 cen 16C3 jeran j 16D3 short-twig-bjarkan b 16E3 calc
16A4 y 16B4 kaun k 16C4 ger 16D4 dotted-p 16E4 cealc
16A5 w 16B5 g 16C5 long-branch-ar ae 16D5 open-p 16E5 stan
16A6 thurisaz thurs thorn 16B6 eng 16C6 short-twig-ar a 16D6 ehwaz eh e 16E6 long-branch-yr
16A7 eth 16B7 gebo gyfu g 16C7 iwaz eoh 16D7 mannaz man m 16E7 short-twig-yr
16A8 ansuz a 16B8 gar 16C8 pertho peorth p 16D8 long-branch-madr m 16E8 Icelandic-yr
16A9 os o 16B9 wunjo wynn w 16C9 algiz eolhx 16D9 short-twig-madr m 16E9 q
16AA ac a 16BA haglaz h 16CA sowilo s 16DA laukaz lagu logr l 16EA x
16AB aesc 16BB haegl h 16CB sigel long-branch-sol s 16DB dotted-l 16EB single punctuation
16AC long-branch-oss o 16BC long-branch-hagall h 16CC short-twig-sol s 16DC ingwaz 16EC multiple punctuation
16AD short-twig-oss o 16BD short-twig-hagall h 16CD c 16DD ing 16ED cross punctuation
16AE o 16BE naudiz nyd naud n 16CE z 16DE dagaz daeg d 16EE arlaug symbol
16AF oe 16BF short-twig-naud n 16CF tiwaz tir tyr t 16DF othalan ethel o 16EF tvimadur symbol
16F0 belgthor symbol
Runic
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
U+ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
16A0
16B0
16C0
16D0
16E0
16F0  

See also

Other scripts, reminiscent of, based on or related to runes: Note: This article contains special characters. ... The rune poems list the letters of a runic alphabet with a short verse characterizing each one. ... A rune stone in Lund Rune stones are stones with runic inscriptions dating from the early Middle Ages but are found to have been used most prominently during the Viking Age. ... Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaaes illustration of a part of the inscription. ... Erilaz is a Migration period Proto-Norse word attested on various Elder Futhark inscriptions, which has often been interpreted to mean magician or rune master, viz. ... Solomon and Saturn is a work in the corpus of Anglo-Saxon literature. ... The Codex Runicus is one of the few runic texts found on parchment. ... The Computus Runicus refers to a runic calendar from Gotland, written by the Danish physician and antiquarian Ole Worm (Olaus Wormius) in 1328. ... Divination according to Ralph Blum in progress The Elder Futhark may well have been used for magical and occult purposes historically; the name rune itself, taken to mean secret, something hidden, seems to indicate that knowledge of the runes was originally considered esoteric, or restricted to an elite. ...

Note: This article contains special characters. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Circular arrangement of the Armanen runes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...   This chart showing the runes shared by the Angerthas Daeron and Angerthas Moria is presented in Appendix E of The Return of the King. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Orkhon tablet Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script Orkhon script The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic... Hungarian Runes (Hungarian: , ( ) or simply ) is a type of runic writing system used by the Magyars (mainly by Székely Magyars) prior to AD 1000. ... No extant evidence of pre-Christian (i. ... Siglas Poveiras that serve as a base to most used symbols. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Transcription and translation provided by Rundata.
  2. ^ Transcription and translation provided by Rundata.
  3. ^ Hávamál at «Norrøne Tekster og Kvad», Norway.
  4. ^ Thorpe's translation, at the Northvegr foundation.
  5. ^ Looijenga, J. H. (1997). Runes around the North Sea and on the Continent 150-700CE, dissertation, Groningen University.
  6. ^ Weisgerber 1968:135, 392ff. and Weisgerber 1966/67:207
  7. ^ Looijenga, J. H. (1997). Runes around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150-700, dissertation, Groningen University.
  8. ^ Penzl (1994) assumes a period of "Proto-Nordic-Westgermanic" unity down to the 5th century and the Gallehus horns inscription. H. Penzl, Language (1994), p. 186; in greater detail in Englisch: Eine Sprachgeschichte nach Texten von 350 bis 1992 : vom Nordisch-Westgermanischen zum Neuenglischen (1994); the division between Northwest Germanic and Proto-Norse is somewhat arbitrary, see Elmer H. Antonsen, On Defining Stages in Prehistoric Germanic, Language (1965), p. 36
  9. ^ cited after . Antonsen (1965), p. 36
  10. ^ Translation provided by Rundata.
  11. ^ Jacobsen & Moltke, 1941–42, p. VII
  12. ^ Werner, 2004, p. 20

Rundata - phreakin great guy, pwnz u all! telecommications fanatic website here - * rundata. ... Rundata - phreakin great guy, pwnz u all! telecommications fanatic website here - * rundata. ... Copies of the Golden Horns exhibited at the National Museum of Denmark. ... Rundata - phreakin great guy, pwnz u all! telecommications fanatic website here - * rundata. ...

References

  • Bammesberger, A and G. Waxenberger (eds), Das fuþark und seine einzelsprachlichen Weiterentwicklungen, Walter de Gruyter (2006), ISBN 3-11-019008-7.
  • Blum, Ralph. (1932. The Book of Runes - A Handbook for the use of Ancient Oracle : The Viking Runes,Oracle Books, St. Martin's Press, New York, ISBN 0-312-00729-9.
  • Brate, Erik (1922). Sveriges runinskrifter, (online text in Swedish)
  • Düwel, Klaus (2001). Runenkunde, Verlag J.B. Metzler (In German).
  • Jacobsen, Lis; Erik Moltke (1941–42). Danmarks runeindskrifter. Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaards Forlag. 
  • Looijenga, J. H. (1997). Runes around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150-700, dissertation, Groningen University.
  • MacLeod, Mindy, and Bernard Mees (2006). Runic Amulets and Magic Objects" . The Boydell Press, Woodbridge.
  • Markey, T.L. (2001). A tale of the two helmets: Negau A and B. Journal of Indo-European Studies 29: 69-172.
  • Mees, Bernard (200). The North Etruscan thesis of the origin of the runes. Arkiv for nordisk fililogi 115: 33-82.
  • Odenstedt, Bengt (1990). On the Origin and Early History of the Runic Script, Uppsala, ISBN 9185352209.
  • Page, R.I. (1999). An Introduction to English Runes, The Boydell Press, Woodbridge. ISBN 0-85115-946-X.
  • Prosdocimi, A.L. (2003-4). Sulla formazione dell'alfabeto runico. Promessa di novità documentali forse decisive. Archivio per l'Alto Adige. XCVII-XCVIII:427-440
  • Robinson, Orrin W. (1992). Old English and its Closest Relatives: A Survey of the Earliest Germanic Languages Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1454-1
  • Spurkland, Terje (2005). Norwegian Runes and Runic Inscriptions", Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-186-4
  • Werner, Carl-Gustav (2004). The allrunes Font and Package[4]PDF.
  • Williams, Henrik. (1996). The origin of the runes. Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik' 45: 211-18.
  • Williams, Henrik (2004). "Reasons for runes," in The First Writing: Script Invention as History and Process, Cambridge University Press, pp. 262-273. ISBN 0-521-83861-4

“PDF” redirects here. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Negau helmet usually refers to one of 28 bronze helmets from the 5th century BS, found in a cache in Negau, present Zenjak, in Slovenia on which is inscribed, in the Etruscan alphabet harigastiz fefakit. ...

Encoding

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Esoteric Rune Study


Runes see also: Rune poems · Runestones · Runology · Runic divination
Elder Fuþark:          
Anglo-Saxon Fuþorc: o c ȝ eo x œ   a æ y ea
Younger Fuþark: ą     a               ʀ        
transliteration: f u þ a r k g w · h n i j ï p z s · t b e m l ŋ d o

  Results from FactBites:
 
Verbix -- conjugate Runic Swedish verbs (221 words)
Runic Swedish developed from Old Scandinavian, which was a common Germanic language spoken by all ancient Scandinavians.
Runic writing appeared rather late in the history of writing and is clearly derived from one of the alphabets of the Mediterranean area.
A likely theory is that the runic alphabet was developed by the Goths, a Germanic people, from the Etruscan alphabet of northern Italy and was perhaps also influenced by the Latin alphabet in the 1st or 2nd century BC.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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