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Encyclopedia > Rump Parliament

The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Pride's Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... Prides Purge was the occasion when troops under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the House of Commons all those who were not supporters of Oliver Cromwell. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... Spanish nobles are classified either as Grandees (also called Peers) or as Titled Nobles. ... The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Ireland, and King of Scots from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Under English, and later British law, high treason is the crime of disloyalty to the Sovereign. ...


The Rump sat until 20 April 1653, and then was reassembled, after The Protectorate, on 7 May 1659. The Long Parliament was recreated from the Rump on 21 February 1660 when General George Monck reinstated the members 'secluded' by Pride. The Speaker throughout the Rump Parliament's existence was the Speaker of the Long Parliament, William Lenthall. April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... The Protectorate in English history refers specifically to the English government of 1653 to 1659 under the direct control of Oliver Cromwell, who assumed the title of Lord Protector of the newly declared Commonwealth of England (later the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland) after the English Civil War. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... William Lenthall (1591 – September 3, 1662), was an English politician of the Civil War period, Speaker of the House of Commons. ...


The word "rump" normally refers to the back end of an animal; its use meaning "remnant" was first recorded in the above context. Since 1649, the term "rump parliament" has been used to refer to any parliament left over after the true parliament has formally dissolved.

Contents

Execution of Charles I

When it became obvious to the Grandees in the Army and Parliament that they could not negotiate a settlement with King Charles I and they could not trust him to resist raising an army to attack them, they came to the conclusion that they would have to kill him.[citation needed] The House of Commons on 13 December 1648 broke off negotiations with the King. Two days later, the Council of Officers of the New Model Army voted that the King be moved from the Isle of Wight, where he was prisoner, to Windsor "in order to the bringing of him speedily to justice". In the middle of December the King was moved from Windsor to London. December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... The Isle of Wight is an English island and county, off the southern English coast, to the south of the county of Hampshire. ... Windsor (IPA: usually , but also ) is a suburban town and tourist destination in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, South East England. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ...


On 4 January 1649, an ordinance was passed by the House of Commons to set up a High Court of Justice in order to try Charles I for high treason in the name of the people of England. The House of Lords rejected it and as it did not get royal consent, Charles would ask at the start of his trial on 20 January in Westminster Hall "I would know by what power I am called hither. I would know by what authority, I mean lawful [authority]", to which there was no strong legal answer to be given under the constitutional arrangements of the time. Charles was found guilty with fifty nine Commissioners (Judges) signing the death warrant. January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Under English, and later British law, high treason is the crime of disloyalty to the Sovereign. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Regicides of Charles I are considered to be the 59 Commissioners (Judges) who formed the tribunal that tried King Charles I of England and signed his death warrant, along with other officials who participated in his trial or execution, and Hugh Peters an influential republican preacher. ...


On 30 January, the execution of Charles I was delayed by several hours so that the House of Commons could pass an emergency bill to make it an offence to proclaim a new King, and to declare the representatives of the people, the House of Commons, as the source of all just power. On 6 February the House of Lords was abolished; the monarchy went the same way on 7 February, and a Council of State established on 14 February. This was followed up on 19 May 1649 with An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth which formally created the Commonwealth of England. January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The English Council of State was first appointed by the Rump Parliament on 14 February 1649 after the execution of King Charles I. It was abolished on 25 April 1660 by the Convention Parliament just before the Restoration Charless execution on 30 January was delayed for several hours so... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO ( English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Republic  - Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell [of Commonwealth]    - by Rump_Parliament AD May 19, 1649  Area    - Total 130,395 km²   50,346 sq mi  Currency Pound sterling...


1649–1653

Between 1649 and 1653, the Rump passed a number of Acts in the area of Religion, Law, and Finance. Most of the members of the Rump wanted to promote "godliness", but also to restrict the more extreme puritan sects like the Quakers and the Ranters. An Adultery Act of May 1650 imposed the death penalty for adultery and fornication; the Blasphemy Act of August 1650 was aimed at curbing extreme religious "enthusiasm". To stop extreme evangelicals from preaching, they formed a "Committee for the Propagation of the Gospel" which issued licenses to preach. To allow Puritans freedom of worship, they repealed the Elizabethan requirement of compulsory attendance at (an Anglican) Church. As lawyers were overrepresented in the Rump Parliament, the Rump did not respond to the popular requests made by the Levellers to change the archaic and expensive legal system. The Rump raised revenue through the sale of Crown lands and Church property both of which were popular. However revenue raised through excise levies and through an Assessment Tax on land were not as popular as they affected everyone who owned property. The proceeds from confiscated Royalist estates were a valuable source of income, but it was a two edged sword. It ingratiated Parliament to people like John Downes who were making a fortune from the business but it did nothing to heal the wounds of the Civil War. The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... The Ranters were a radical English sect in the time of the Commonwealth, who were regarded as heretical by the established Church of that period. ... The Levellers were a mid 17th century English political party, who came to prominence during the English Civil Wars. ... John Downes (1609-c. ...


Oliver Cromwell

In 1653, after learning that Parliament was attempting to stay in session despite an agreement to dissolve, and having failed to come up with a working constitution, Cromwell’s patience ran out. On April 20 he attended a sitting of Parliament and listened to one or two speeches. Then he stood up and harangued the members of the Rump in a speech which has often been paraphrased as "You have sat too long for any good you have been doing lately… Depart, I say; and let us have done with you. In the name of God, go!" He then called in a troop of soldiers, under the command of Major-General Thomas Harrison, ordering them to clear the chamber and to "Take away that fool's bauble" referring to the Speaker's Mace, the symbol of Parliamentary power. Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599–September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... Thomas Harrison (1606 - October 14, 1660) was a Puritan soldier and later a leader of the Fifth monarchy men. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Within a month of the Rump's dismissal, Oliver Cromwell on the advice of Harrison and with the support of other officers in the Army, sent a request to Congregational churches in every county to nominate those they considered fit to take part in the new government. On 4 July a Nominated Assembly, nicknamed the "Assembly of Saints" or the Barebone's Parliament (named after one of its members), took on the role of more traditional English Parliaments. For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... The Barebones Parliament, which is also known as the Nominated Assembly of Saints and the Little Parliament, came into being on July 4, 1653. ... Barebones Parliament, also known as the Nominated Assembly and the Parliament of Saints, came into being on July 4, 1653, and was the last attempt of the English Commonwealth to find a stable political form before the installation of Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector. ...


End of the Rump Parliament

Richard Cromwell, the third (and eldest surviving) son of Oliver Cromwell, was appointed Lord Protector after his father's death. He called the Third Protectorate Parliament in 1659. However, along with the Army, it was unable to form a stable government and after seven months the Army removed him and on 6 May 1659, it reinstalled the Rump Parliament. The Rump Parliament issued a declaration establishing a "Commonwealth without a king, single person, or house of lords". However after a few months divisions in the Commonwealth were settled by force of arms. On the 12 October the Rump voted to declare the seven commissioners' responsibility for the Army void and appointed Charles Fleetwood commander-in-chief under the Speaker of the House. The next day on 13 October 1659 the Army in London under the command of John Lambert assisted by Charles Fleetwood excluded the Rump from Parliament by locking the doors to the Palace of Westminster and stationing armed guards outside. Lambert and Fleetwood created a 23 member Committee of Safety to govern the country in place of the Rump with General Fleetwood and Lambert directly under him, commander of the Army in England and Scotland. Richard Cromwell (October 4, 1626- July 12, 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and was Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from September 3, 1658 until May 25, 1659. ... Lord Protector is a particular British English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... The Third Protectorate Parliament sat for one session from 27 January until 22 April 1659 with Chaloner Chute and Thomas Bampfield as the Speakers of the House. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... Charles Fleetwood (died 4 October 1692), English Parliamentary soldier and politician, third son of Sir Miles Fleetwood of Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire, and of Anne, daughter of Nicholas Luke of Woodend, Bedfordshire, was admitted into Grays Inn on 30 November 1638. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... See: John Lambert, Parliamentary general in the English Civil War. ... Charles Fleetwood (died 4 October 1692), English Parliamentary soldier and politician, third son of Sir Miles Fleetwood of Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire, and of Anne, daughter of Nicholas Luke of Woodend, Bedfordshire, was admitted into Grays Inn on 30 November 1638. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament or Westminster Palace, in London, England is where the two Houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (the House of Lords and the House of Commons) meet to conduct their business. ... The Committee of Safety, established by the Parliamentarians in July 1642, was the first of a number of successive committees set up to oversee the English Civil War against King Charles. ...


Sir Arthur Haselrig appealed to other Army generals to support the Rump against Fleetwood and Lambert. Fearing anarchy, General George Monck, commander-in-chief of the English army in Scotland, declared that he was ready to uphold Parliament's authority and march at the head of his army to London. Lambert marched north against Monck in November 1659, but Lambert's army began to melt away, and he was kept in suspense by Monck till his whole army deserted and he returned to London almost alone. On 24 December 1659 the chastened Fleetwood approached the Speaker, William Lenthal, asking him to recall the Rump. The same day Lenthall took possession of the Tower and appointed commissioners for its government. The Rump met again on 26 December 1659. Parliament declared Monck commander-in-chief in England as well as Scotland. Sir Arthur Haselrig, 2nd Baron(died January 7, 1661), English parliamentarian, is best remembered as one of the five members of parliament whom King Charles I of England attempted to arrest in 1642, an event that helped precipitate the English Civil War. ... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ...


In January 1660, Monck marched into England, as Lambert's supporters in the Army were cashiered and his authority crumbled. When Sir Thomas Fairfax emerged from retirement to declare his support for Monck, Army support for Monck became almost unanimous. Monck entered London in February 1660 and he allowed the Presbyterian members, 'secluded' in Pride's Purge of 1648, to re-enter parliament on 21 February 1660. The Long Parliament dissolved itself on 16 March 1660 after preparing legislation for the Convention Parliament which formally invited King Charles II to be the English monarch in what has become known as the Restoration. Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Baron Fairfax of Cameron (January 17, 1612 - November 12, 1671), parliamentary general and commander-in-chief during the English Civil War, the eldest son of Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Baron Fairfax of Cameron, was born at Denton, near Otley, Yorkshire. ... Prides Purge was the occasion when troops under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the House of Commons all those who were not supporters of Oliver Cromwell. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in leap years). ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ...


See also

The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a king, or the person responsible for it. ... List of Parliaments of England is a list of the sittings of the Parliament of England, from the reign of Edward IV to 1707 with some earlier named parliaments. ...

Links and references

  • British Civil Wars: Rump Parliament
  • Chambers' Book of Days:April 20th With a censored version of Cromwell's speech.
  • http://castorblog.com/archives/000275.html with an uncensored version of Cromwell's speech.
  • Full text of the Act erecting a High Court of Justice for the Trial of Charles I January 6, 1649
  • Full text of the Sentence of the High Court of Justice upon the King, 27 January, 1649
  • Full text of The Death Warrant of Charles I, 29 January, 1649
  • Full text of the Act appointing a Council of State, 13 February, 1649
  • Full text of the Act abolishing the Office of King, 17 March, 1649
  • Full text of the Act abolishing the House of Lords, 19 March, 1649
  • Full text of the Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth, 19 May, 1649
  • Full text of the Act declaring what Offences shall he adjudged Treason under the Commonwealth, 17 July, 1649
  • Full text of the Declaration by Oliver Cromwell and the Council of Officers after putting an End to the Long Parliament, 22 April, 1653

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rump Parliament - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1485 words)
The Long Parliament was recreated from the Rump on 21 February 1660 when General George Monck reinstated the members 'secluded' by Pride.
The Speaker throughout the Rump Parliament's existence was the Speaker of the Long Parliament, William Lenthall.
As lawyers were overrepresented in the Rump Parliament, the Rump did not respond to the popular requests made by the Levellers to change the archaic and expensive legal system.
Long Parliament - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1039 words)
Parliament was also responsible for the impeachment and subsequent execution of the king's advisers, Archbishop William Laud and Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford.
In the wake of the ejections, the remnant, the Rump Parliament, arranged for the trial and execution of Charles I. It was also responsible for the setting up of the Commonwealth of England in 1649.
The Long Parliament was preceded by the Short Parliament, was purged by Pride to become the Rump Parliament was restored by Monck and succeded by the Convention Parliament.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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