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Encyclopedia > Rum running

Rum-running is the business of These lollipops, above, were found to contain heroin when inspected by the DEA. Smuggling is illegal transport, in particular across a border. ...smuggling or transporting of Alcoholic beverages are drinks containing ethanol, popularly called alcohol. ...alcoholic beverages illegally, usually to circumvent A tax is an involuntary fee paid by individuals or businesses to a government. ...taxation or This article is about the prohibition of alcoholic beverages; separate articles on the prohibition of drugs in general and writs of prohibition are also available. ...prohibition. The term usually applies to transport of goods over water, over land it is commonly referred to as Bootlegging is the illegal sale or manufacture of cigarettes, liquor, and other consumer goods (such as compact discs or DVDs) subject to taxes for the purposes of evading those taxes, or licensing fees. ...bootlegging.


The term most likely originated at the start of This article is about the prohibition of alcoholic beverages; separate articles on the prohibition of drugs in general and writs of prohibition are also available. ...Prohibition in the The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ...United States (1920–1933), when ships from the nearby island of Map of the Bahamas with the Biminis positioned center left (click to enlarge). ...Bimini transported cheap Caribbean This article discusses rum the liquor. ...rum to Florida A Speakeasy was an establishment that was used for selling and drinking of alcoholic beverages during the period of U.S. history known as Prohibition, when selling or buying alcohol was illegal. ...speakeasies.


But This article discusses rum the liquor. ...rum's cheapness made it a low_profit item for the rum_runners, and they soon moved on to smuggling Canadian Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ...whiskey, French The word Champagne can have one of several meanings when stated alone. ...champagne and English This article concerns the beverage. ...gin to major cities like State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  _ Land 122,409 km²  _ Water 18,795 km² (13. ...New York and Alternative meanings: Boston (disambiguation) The 18th_century Old State House in Boston is surrounded by tall buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries. ...Boston, where prices ran high. It was said that some ships carried $200,000 in contraband in a single run — at a time when $50 a week was considered a good wage for an honest worker.

Contents

1 References and further reading

History

It wasn't long after the first taxes on alcoholic beverages that someone began to smuggle them. The British government had "revenue cutters" in place to stop smugglers as early as the 1500s. This article is about sea pirates. ...Pirates often made extra money running rum to heavily taxed This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ...colonies. There were also times when the sale of alcohol was limited for other purposes, such as laws against sales to American Indians in the old West, or local This article is about the prohibition of alcoholic beverages; separate articles on the prohibition of drugs in general and writs of prohibition are also available. ...prohibitions like the one on This article is about a Canadian province. ...Prince Edward Island between 1901 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...1901 and 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...1948.


By far the most famous period of rum_running began in the The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ...United States with the (Redirected from 18th Amendment) The Eighteenth Amendment may refer to the: Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution _ established Prohibition. ...18th Amendment (ratified January 16, 1919) and the The National Prohibition Act of 1919, more popularly known as the Volstead Act, enforced the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, dealing with the prohibition of alcohol. ...Volstead Act (passed October 28, 1919). This article is about the prohibition of alcoholic beverages; separate articles on the prohibition of drugs in general and writs of prohibition are also available. ...Prohibition began on January 16, 1920, when the Eighteenth Amendment went into effect.


At first, there was little action on the seas, but after several months the Coast Guard began reporting increased smuggling activity. This was the start of the Bimini–Bahamas rum trade and the introduction of Bill McCoy.


"The real McCoy"

The rum-runner William S. McCoy

Captain William S. McCoy was a boat builder and excursion boat captain in the Daytona Beach is a city located in Volusia County, Florida. ...Daytona Beach, Florida, area from 1900 to 1920. He was also reputed to be a non_drinker.


With the start of Prohibition he began to bring rum from Map of the Bahamas with the Biminis positioned center left (click to enlarge). ...Bimini and the National motto    Forward Upward Onward Together Location of Bahamas Official language English Capital Nassau Queen Elizabeth II Governor General Dame Ivy Dumont Prime Minister Perry Christie Area  _ Total  _ % water Ranked 155th 13,940 km² 28% Population  _ Total  _ Density Ranked 168th 303,611 22/km² Independence  _ Date From the United Kingdom...Bahamas into south Florida. The A coast guard is an organization devoted to saving the lives of shipwrecked mariners or people in danger at sea. ...Coast Guard soon caught up with him, so he began to bring the illegal goods to just outside of the U.S. territorial waters and let smaller boats and other captains take the risk of bringing it into shore.


The rum_running business was very good, and McCoy soon bought a Gloucester knockabout Two_masted fishing schooner A schooner is a type of sailing ship characterized by the use of fore_and_aft sails on two or more masts. ...schooner named Arethusa at auction and renamed her Tomika. He installed a larger auxiliary, mounted a concealed A machine gun is a fully_automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ...machine gun on her deck and refitted the fish pens below to accommodate as much contraband as she could hold. She became one of the most famous of the rum_runners, along with his two other ships hauling mostly Irish and Canadian whiskey, as well as other fine liquors and wines, to ports from State nickname: The Pine Tree State Other U.S. States Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Governor John Baldacci Official languages None Area 86,542 km² (39th)  _ Land 80,005 km²  _ Water 11,724 km² (13. ...Maine to State nickname: Everglade State, Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush Official languages English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  _ Land 137,374 km²  _ Water 30,486 km² (17. ...Florida.


In the days of rum running, it was common for captains to add water to the bottles to stretch their profits, or to re_label it as better goods. Italian sparkling wines became French The word Champagne can have one of several meanings when stated alone. ...champagne; unbranded liquor became top_of_the_line name brands. McCoy became famous for never watering his booze, and selling only real top_quality product. Soon all the swells of the "Roaring '20s" were looking for " The Real McCoy is a phrase used throughout much of the English-speaking world to mean the real thing or the genuine article. ...the real McCoy", and the phrase lives on to this day. (See that article for other possible etymologies of the phrase.)


On 15 November 1923, McCoy and Tomika encountered the U.S. revenue cutter Seneca, just inside U.S. territorial waters. A boarding party attempted to board, but McCoy chased them off with the machine gun. Tomika tried to run, but the Seneca placed a shell just off her hull, and Bill McCoy's days as a rum_runner were over.

The Rum Line

McCoy is credited with the idea of bringing large ships just to the edge of the three-mile limit of U.S. jurisdiction, and there selling his wares to "contact boats," local fishermen and small boat captains. The small, quick boats could more easily outrun Coast Guard ships and could dock in any small river or eddy and transfer their cargo to a waiting truck. Soon others were following suit; the three-mile limit became known as "the Rum Line" and the ships waiting were called "Rum Row." The Rum Line was extended to a 12-mile limit by an act of A congress is a gathering of people, especially a gathering for a political purpose. ...Congress on April 21, 1924, which made it harder for the smaller and less seaworthy craft to make the trip.


The Rum Line wasn't the only front for the Coast Guard. Rum_runners often made the trip through Canada is an independent sovereign state in northern North America, the northern_most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ...Canada via the The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes on or near the United States_Canadian border. ...Great Lakes and the The Saint Lawrence Seaway in its broadest sense (see Great Lakes Waterway) is the system of canals that permits ocean_going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes as far as Lake Superior. ...Saint Lawrence Seaway, and down the west coast to This article is about the city in California. ...San Francisco and This article is about the largest city in California. ...Los Angeles. The Gulf of Mexico also teemed with ships running from The United Mexican States or Mexico ( Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered to the north by the United States of America, to the southeast by Guatemala and Belize, to...Mexico and the National motto    Forward Upward Onward Together Location of Bahamas Official language English Capital Nassau Queen Elizabeth II Governor General Dame Ivy Dumont Prime Minister Perry Christie Area  _ Total  _ % water Ranked 155th 13,940 km² 28% Population  _ Total  _ Density Ranked 168th 303,611 22/km² Independence  _ Date From the United Kingdom...Bahamas to the Louisiana is a southern state of the United States of America. ...Louisiana swamps and State nickname: Camellia State, The Heart of Dixie¹, Yellowhammer State Other U.S. States Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Governor Robert Riley Official languages English Area 135,765 km² (30th)  _ Land 131,426 km²  _ Water 4,338 km² (3. ...Alabama coast. By far the biggest Rum Row was in the New York/Philadelphia area off the State nickname: The Garden State Other U.S. States Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Governor Richard Codey Official languages None defined Area 22,608 km² (47th)  _ Land 19,231 km²  _ Water 3,378 km² (14. ...New Jersey coast, where as many as 60 ships were seen at one time.


With that much competition, the suppliers often flew large banners advertising their wares and threw parties with Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ...prostitutes on board their ships to draw customers. Rum Row was completely lawless, and many crews armed themselves not against government ships but against the other rum_runners, who would sometimes sink a ship and hijack its cargo rather than make the run to Canada or the Caribbean for fresh supplies.


The ships

On the government's side were an assortment of A patrol boat is a small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defence duties. ...patrol boats, inshore patrol and harbor cutters. Most of the patrol boats were of the "six_bit" variety: 75_foot craft with a top speed of about 12 knots. There were also an assortment of launches, harbor tugs and miscellaneous small craft.


At the start, the rum_runner fleet consisted of a ragtag flotilla of fishing boats, excursion boats, and small merchant craft. But as prohibition wore on, the stakes got higher and the ships became more specialized. Large merchant ships like McCoy's Tomika waited on Rum Row, but specialized high_speed craft were built for the ship_to_shore runs. These high_speed boats were often luxury A yacht was originally defined as a light, fast sailing vessel used to convey important persons. ...yachts and Categories: Stub | Boat types ...speedboats fitted with powerful aircraft engines, machine guns, and armor plating. Rum_runners often kept cans of used engine oil handy to pour on hot exhaust manifolds, in case a smoke screen was needed to escape the revenue ships.


The rum_runners were definitely faster and more maneuverable. Add to that the fact that a rum_running captain could make several hundred thousand dollars a year. In comparison, the Coast Guard Commandant is a military title and can mean any of the following: The commander of a specialized military corps. ...Commandant made just $6,000 annually, and seamen made $30/week. These huge rewards meant the rum_runners were willing to take big risks. They ran without lights at night and in fog, risking life and limb. Often the shores were littered with bottles from a rum_runner who hit a In geography, a bar is a linear shoaling landform feature within a body of water. ...sandbar or a A reef surrounding an islet. ...reef in the dark at high speed and sank.


The Coast Guard relied on hard work, excellent reconnaissance and big guns to get their job done. To add to the problem, it was not uncommon for rum_runners' ships to be sold at auction shortly after a trial — often right back to the original owners! Some ships were captured three or four times before they were finally sunk or retired. Plus the Coast Guard had other duties, and often had to let a rum_runner go in order to assist a sinking vessel or other emergency.


Organized crime

As the profits from rum_running grew, it attracted many legitimate businessmen, including Joseph Joe Patrick Kennedy, Sr. ...Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., father of the future President, who purportedly financed rum_running operations from Canada is an independent sovereign state in northern North America, the northern_most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ...Canada and represented several British alcohol distillers. Large profits also attract less legitimate businessmen, and it was not long before the Mob got involved. Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ...Organized crime had no experienced seamen, however, so their involvement was largely in transporting the product from the dock to the A Speakeasy was an establishment that was used for selling and drinking of alcoholic beverages during the period of U.S. history known as Prohibition, when selling or buying alcohol was illegal. ...speakeasies and running the clubs. Dutch Schultz, byname of Arthur Flegenheimer (6 August 1902–24 October 1935), was a New York City-area gangster of the 1920s and 30s. ...Dutch Schultz was the kingpin of bootlegging on This article is about Long Island in New York State. ...Long Island, New York — a prime gateway to New York City and Boston. He was known to hijack other bootleggers' trucks and have the booze delivered to his own clubs. The drivers could either join his gang or be killed. Another area where the Mob came in handy was Bribery is the practice of offering a professional money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics in a variety of professions. ...bribery and For other uses, see Blackmail (disambiguation). ...blackmail. Many a police officer or watchman was "convinced" to be absent when a certain boat docked and was unloaded. Policemen in the 1920s made between $20 and $40 a week, and an envelope with a few twenties went a long way. Sometimes the bribe was a portion of the cargo.


The end of Prohibition

On December 5, 1933, the Amendment XXI (the Twenty_first Amendment) of the United States Constitution ended Prohibition. ...21st Amendment ended Prohibition, and with it the rum_running business. Most of the rum ships were sold or scrapped, and their crews either went into the In most seafaring countries, the merchant marine (or merchant navy) is a fleet of ships used for commerce that sometimes complements the navy. ...merchant marine or the The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...U.S. Navy, which was gearing up for Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. ...World War II. Surprisingly, the Navy welcomed the ex–rum_runners as skilled and experienced seamen (some with battle experience), often giving them non_commissioned officer ranks.


The Coast Guard shield The United States Coast Guard is the coast guard of the United States. ...Coast Guard emerged from Prohibition a new service, larger and more effective. Many of the skills they learned battling the rumrunners went to defend the U.S. coastline during the war.


See also

  • The U.S Bureau of Prohibition or the Prohibition Service was a part of the Federal Government of the United States formed in 1927 to enforce the National Prohibition Act of 1919, commonly known as the Volstead Act, which enforced the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution by enforcing...Bureau of Prohibition
  • This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...Bootleg
  • These lollipops, above, were found to contain heroin when inspected by the DEA. Smuggling is illegal transport, in particular across a border. ...Smuggling

External links

References and further reading

  • Malcolm F. Willoughby. Rum War at Sea. Fredonia Books. 2001. ISBN 1589631056.
  • Alastair Moray. The diary of a rum_runner. P. Allan & Co. Ltd. 1929. ISBN 0317850688.
  • Robert Carse. Rum row. ASIN B00005XTWC.
  • Don Miller. I was a rum runner. Lescarbot Printing Ltd. 1979. ASIN B0007BXM6G.
  • Everett S. Allen. The black ships: Rumrunners of Prohibition. Little, Brown. 1979. ISBN 0316032581.

 
 

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