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Caribbean rum, circa 1941
Caribbean rum, circa 1941

Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is then usually aged in oak and other barrels. The majority of rum production occurs in and around the Caribbean and along the Demerara River, Guyana in South America, though there are rum producers in places such as Australia, Fiji, India, Reunion Island, Mauritius, and elsewhere around the world. Image File history File links Government House rum, manufactured by the Virgin Islands Company distillery. ... Image File history File links Government House rum, manufactured by the Virgin Islands Company distillery. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ... For other uses, see Juice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably... Barrel can refer to: Barrels for storage. ... West Indies redirects here. ... The Demerara River is a river in eastern Guyana that rises in the central rainforests of the country and flows to the north for 346 kilometres without tributaries until it reaches the Atlantic Ocean. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Saint-Denis Regional President Paul Vergès (PCR) (since 1998) Departments Réunion Arrondissements 4 Cantons 49 Communes 24 Statistics Land area1 2,512 km² Population (Ranked 21st)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


Rum is produced in a variety of styles. Light rums are commonly used in cocktails, while golden and dark rums are appropriate for use in cooking as well as cocktails. Premium brands of rum are also available that are made to be consumed neat or on the rocks. Light rum (also known as silver or white rum), is a dry, light-bodied rum, light in color and lightly sweet in flavor. ... For other uses, see Cocktail (disambiguation). ...


Rum plays a part in the culture of most islands of the West Indies, and has famous associations with the British Royal Navy and piracy. Rum has also served as a popular medium of exchange that helped to promote slavery along with providing economic instigation for Australia's Rum Rebellion and the American Revolution.[2]. The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... Slave redirects here. ... This article is about the Australian rebellion. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...

Contents

Etymology

The origin of the word rum is unclear. A common claim is that the name was derived from rumbullion meaning "a great tumult or uproar".[1] Another claim is that the name is from the large drinking glasses used by Dutch seamen known as rummers, from the Dutch word roemer, a drinking glass.[2] Other options include contractions of the words saccharum, Latin for sugar, or arôme, French for aroma.[3] Regardless of the original source, the name was already in common use by May 1657 when the General Court of Massachusetts made illegal the sale of strong liquor "whether knowne by the name of rumme, strong water, wine, brandy, etc., etc."[3] For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... The Massachusetts General Court is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


In current usage, the name used for a rum is often based on the rum's place of origin. For rums from Spanish-speaking locales the word ron is used. A ron añejo indicates a rum that has been significantly aged and is often used for premium products. Rhum is the term used for rums from French-speaking locales, while rhum vieux is an aged French rum that meets several other requirements.


Some of the many other names for rum are Nelson's Blood, Kill-Devil, Demon Water, Pirate's Drink, Navy Neaters, and Barbados water.[4] A version of rum from Newfoundland is referred to by the name Screech, while some low-grade West Indies rums are called tafia.[citation needed] Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British victory in the war, during which he lost his life. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Newfoundland Screech is a particularly strong liquor sold in Newfoundland and originally imported from Jamaica, enjoys fame in many parts of Canada. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Tafia is a kind of cheap rum made from sugarcane juice. ...


History

Origins

The precursors to rum date back to antiquity. Development of fermented drinks produced from sugarcane juice is believed to have first occurred either in ancient India or China,[1] and spread from there. An example of such an early drink is brum. Produced by the Malay people, brum dates back thousands of years.[5] Marco Polo also recorded a 14th-century account of a "very good wine of sugar" that was offered to him in what is modern-day Iran.[1] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


The first distillation of rum took place on the sugarcane plantations of the Caribbean in the 17th century. Plantation slaves first discovered that molasses, a by-product of the sugar refining process, can be fermented into alcohol.[6] Later, distillation of these alcoholic by-products concentrated the alcohol and removed impurities, producing the first true rums. Tradition suggests that rum first originated on the island of Barbados. Regardless of its initial source, early Caribbean rums were not known for high quality. A 1651 document from Barbados stated, "The chief fuddling they make in the island is Rumbullion, alias Kill-Divil, and this is made of sugar canes distilled, a hot, hellish, and terrible liquor".[6] Slave redirects here. ... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ... A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ...


Colonial America

After rum's development in the Caribbean, the drink's popularity spread to Colonial America. To support the demand for the drink, the first rum distillery in the colonies was set up in 1664 on present-day Staten Island. Boston, Massachusetts had a distillery three years later.[7] The manufacture of rum became early Colonial New England's largest and most prosperous industry.[8] Although New England became a distilling center (due to the superior technical, metalworking and cooperage (barrel making) skills and abundant lumber), the rum produced there was lighter, more like whiskey, and lacked the character and aroma of the West Indies product. Though cheaper, anyone who could afford it much preferred the Carribean product. Rhode Island rum even joined gold as an accepted currency in Europe for a period of time.[9] Estimates of rum consumption in the American colonies before the American Revolutionary War had every man, woman, or child drinking an average of 3 Imperial gallons (13.5 liters) of rum each year.[10] This article is about the colonial history of the United States. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... This article is about the borough in New York City. ... Boston redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about military actions only. ... Imperial Measure was a former system of measurement used in some Commonwealth nations, most notably the United Kingdom and Canada. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ...


To support this demand for the molasses to produce rum, along with the increasing demand for sugar in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries, a labour source to work the sugar plantations in the Caribbean was needed. A triangular trade was established between Africa, the Caribbean, and the colonies to help support this need.[11] The exchange of slaves, molasses, and rum was quite profitable, and the disruption to the trade caused by the Sugar Act in 1764 may have even helped cause the American Revolution.[10] This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... An historic example of three way trade in the North Atlantic Triangular trade is a historical term indicating trade between three ports or regions. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Sugar Act (citation 4 Geo. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


The popularity of rum continued after the American Revolution with George Washington insisting on a barrel of Barbados rum at his 1789 inauguration.[12] Eventually the restrictions on rum from the British islands of the Caribbean combined with the development of American whiskey led to a decline in the drink's popularity. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ...


Naval rum

Rum's association with piracy began with English privateers trading on the valuable commodity. As some of the privateers became pirates and buccaneers, their fondness for rum remained, the association between the two only being strengthened by literary works such as Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island.[13] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850–December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet and travel writer, and a representative of neo-romanticism in English literature. ... For other uses, see Treasure Island (disambiguation). ...


The association of rum with the British Royal Navy began in 1655 when the British fleet captured the island of Jamaica. With the availability of domestically produced rum, the British changed the daily ration of liquor given to seamen from French brandy to rum.[14] While the ration was originally given neat, or mixed with lime juice, the practice of watering down the rum began around 1740. To help minimize the effect of the alcohol on his sailors, Admiral Edward Vernon directed that the rum ration be watered down before being issued, a mixture which became known as grog. While it is widely believed that the term grog was coined at this time in honor of the grogram cloak Admiral Vernon wore in rough weather [15], the term has been demonstrated to predate his famous orders with probable origins in the West Indies, perhaps of African etymology (see Grog). The Royal Navy continued to give its sailors a daily rum ration, known as a "tot," until the practice was abolished after July 31, 1970.[16] The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Grog issue on board the HMS Endymion; circa 1905 Rum measure reputed to be from Trafalgar Black Tot Day, on board the HMS Phoebe; 31 July, 1970 For other uses, see Grog (disambiguation). ... Grogram is a coarse fabric of silk mixed with wool or with mohair and often stiffened with gum. ... Grog issue on board the HMS Endymion; circa 1905 Rum measure reputed to be from Trafalgar Black Tot Day, on board the HMS Phoebe; 31 July, 1970 For other uses, see Grog (disambiguation). ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A story involving naval rum is that following his victory at the Battle of Trafalgar, Horatio Nelson's body was preserved in a cask of rum to allow transport back to England. Upon arrival, however, the cask was opened and found to be empty of rum. The pickled body was removed and, upon inspection, it was discovered that the sailors had drilled a hole in the bottom of the cask and drunk all the rum, in the process drinking Nelson's blood. Thus, this tale serves as a basis for the term Nelson's Blood being used to describe rum. It also serves as the basis for the term "Tapping the Admiral" being used to describe drinking the daily rum ration. The details of the story are disputed, with some historians claiming the term originated instead from a toast to Admiral Nelson.[17] Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British victory in the war, during which he lost his life. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Colonial Australia

See Also: Rum Rebellion

Rum became an important trade good in the early period of the colony of New South Wales. The value of rum was based upon the lack of coinage among the population of the colony, and due to the drink's ability to allow its consumer to temporarily forget about the lack of creature comforts available in the new colony. The value of rum was such that convict settlers could be induced to work the lands owned by officers of the New South Wales Corps. Due to rum's popularity among the settlers, the colony gained a reputation for drunkenness even though their alcohol consumption was less than levels commonly consumed in England at the time.[18] This article is about the Australian rebellion. ... NSW redirects here. ...


When William Bligh became governor of the colony in 1806, he attempted to remedy the perceived problem with drunkenness by outlawing the use of rum as a medium of exchange. In response to this action, and several others, the New South Wales Corps marched, with fixed bayonets, to Government House and placed Bligh under arrest. The mutineers continued to control the colony until the arrival of Governor Lachlan Macquarie in 1810.[19] 1814 portrait of William Bligh Vice-Admiral William Bligh FRS RN (9 September 1754 – 7 December 1817) was an officer of the British Royal Navy and colonial administrator. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Major General Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South Wales Major-General Lachlan Macquarie CB (31 January 1762[1] – 1 July 1824), British military officer and colonial administrator, served as Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821 and had a leading role in the social, economic and architectural development... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Caribbean light rum

Until the second half of the 19th century all rums were heavy or dark rums that were considered appropriate for the working poor, unlike the refined double-distilled spirits of Europe. In order to expand the market for rum, the Spanish Royal Development Board offered a prize to anyone who could improve the rum making process. This resulted in many refinements in the process which greatly improved the quality of rum.[20] One of the most important figures in this development process was Don Facundo Bacardí Massó, who moved from Spain to Santiago de Cuba in 1843. Don Facundo's experiments with distillation techniques, charcoal filtering, cultivating of specialized yeast strains, and aging with American oak casks helped to produce a smoother and mellower drink typical of modern light rums. It was with this new rum that Don Facundo founded Bacardí y Compañía in 1862.[21] Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Don Facundo Bacardi (1816 - 1886) was a Cuban (Spanish-born) rum businessman. ... Santiago de Cuba is the capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province in the south-eastern area of the island nation of Cuba, some 540 miles (869 km) east south-east of the Cuban capital of Havana. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Cathedral Of Rum at the Distillery in Puerto Rico near San Juan. ... This article is about 1862 . ...


Categorization

Dividing rum into meaningful groupings is complicated by the fact that there is no single standard for what constitutes rum. Instead rum is defined by the varying rules and laws of the nations that produce the spirit. The differences in definitions include issues such as spirit proof, minimum aging, and even naming standards. Alcoholic proof is a measure of how much ethanol is in an alcoholic beverage, and is approximately twice the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV, the unit that is commonly used presently). ...


Examples of the differences in proof is Colombia, requiring their rum possess a minimum alcohol content of 50 ABV, while Chile and Venezuela require only a minimum of 40 ABV. Mexico requires rum be aged a minimum of 8 months; the Dominican Republic, Panama and Venezuela require two years. Naming standards also vary, Argentina defining rums as white, gold, light, and extra light. Barbados uses the terms white, overproof, and matured, while the United States defines rum, rum liqueur, and flavored rum.[22] In Australia Rum is divided into Dark Rum (Under Proof known as UP, Over Proof known as OP, and triple distilled) and White Rum. Alcohol by volume (ABV) is an indication of how much alcohol (expressed as a percentage) is included in an alcoholic beverage. ...


Despite these differences in standards and nomenclature, the following divisions are provided to help show the wide variety of rums that are produced.


Regional Variations

Within the Caribbean, each island or production area has a unique style. For the most part, these styles can be grouped by the language that is traditionally spoken. Due to the overwhelming influence of Puerto Rican rum, most rum consumed in the United States is produced in the Spanish-speaking style.

  • English-speaking islands and countries are known for darker rums with a fuller taste that retains a greater amount of the underlying molasses flavor. Rums from Barbados, Bermuda, Belize, the Demerara region of Guyana, and Jamaica are typical of this style.
  • French-speaking islands are best known for their agricultural rums (rhum agricole). These rums, being produced exclusively from sugar cane juice, retain a greater amount of the original flavor of the sugar cane and are generally more expensive than molasses-based rums. Rums from Haïti, Guadeloupe, Marie-Galante and Martinique are typical of this style.

Cachaça is a spirit similar to rum that is produced in Brazil. Seco, from Panama, is also a spirit similar to rum, but also similar to vodka, since it is triple distilled. The Indonesian spirit Batavia Arrack, or Arrak, is a spirit similar to rum that includes rice in its production.[23] Mexico produces a number of brands of light and dark rum, as well as other less expensive flavored and unflavored sugar cane based liquors, such as aguardiente de caña and charanda. In some cases cane liquor is flavored with mezcal to produce a pseudo-tequila-like drink.[citation needed] Demerara was one of the original British colonies that was joined into the colony of British Guiana, now Guyana. ... Haiti is a country situated on the western third of the island of Hispaniola and the smaller islands of La Gonâve, La Tortue (Tortuga), Grande Caye, and Ile a Vache in the Caribbean Sea, east of Cuba; the Dominican Republic shares Hispaniola with Haiti. ... Marie-Galante, an island of the Caribbean Sea in the Guadeloupe archipelago of the French West Indies, and as part of the Guadeloupe Département doutre-mer, is a constitutional part of France. ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (IPA: ) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil. ... Arrack refers to strong spirits distilled mainly in South and South East Asia from fermented fruits, grains, sugarcane, or the sap of coconuts or other palm trees. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A cheap commercial bottle of Mexican Mezcal bought in Cancun. ... Various brands of tequila Tequila is a spirit made primarily in the area surrounding Tequila, a town in the western Mexican state of Jalisco, 65 km northwest of Guadalajara and in the highlands of Jalisco, 65 km east of Guadalajara. ...


A spirit known as Aguardiente, distilled from molasses infused with anise, with additional sugarcane juice added after distillation, is produced in Central America and northern South America.[24] Aguardiente is the Spanish generic name for alcoholic drinks between 29 and 45 percent alcohol, meaning fiery water, or, literally burning water [1] (as it burns the throat of the drinker). ... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


In West Africa, and particularly in Liberia, cane juice (also known as Liberian rum [25] or simply CJ within Liberia itself[26], is a cheap, strong spirit distilled from sugar cane, which can be as strong as 86 per cent proof[27].


Within Europe, a similar spirit made from sugar beet is known as tuzemák (from tuzemský rum, domestic rum) in the Czech Republic and Kobba Libre on the Åland Islands.[citation needed] Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... “Aland” redirects here. ...


In Germany, a cheap substitute of dark rum is called Rum-Verschnitt (literally: cut rum). This distilled beverage is made of genuine dark rum (often from Jamaica), rectified spirit, and water. Very often, caramel coloring is used, too. The relative amount of genuine rum it contains can be quite low since the legal minimum is at only 5 percent, but the taste of Rumverschnitt is still very similar to genuine dark rum. In Austria, a similar rum called Inländerrum or domestic rum is available. Look up substitute in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rectified spirit or rectified alcohol is high concentration alcohol purified by the process of rectification (repeated or fractional distillation). ... Caramel coloring is caramel used as a food coloring; like caramel candy, it is made by controlled heating of sugar, generally in the presence of acids or alkalis and possibly other compounds, a process called caramelization. ...


Grades

Example of dark, spiced, and light rums.
Example of dark, spiced, and light rums.

The grades and variations used to describe rum depend on the location that a rum was produced. Despite these variations the following terms are frequently used to describe various types of rum: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1941x1890, 407 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1941x1890, 407 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ...

  • Light Rums, also referred to as light, silver, and white rums. In general, light rum has very little flavor aside from a general sweetness, and serves accordingly as a base for cocktails. Light rums are sometimes filtered after aging to remove any color.
  • Gold Rums, also called amber rums, are medium-bodied rums which are generally aged. These gain their dark color from aging in wooden barrels (usually the charred white oak barrels that are the byproduct of Bourbon Whiskey).
  • Spiced Rum: These rums obtain their flavor through addition of spices and, sometimes, caramel. Most are darker in color, and based on gold rums. Some are significantly darker, while many cheaper brands are made from inexpensive white rums and darkened with artificial caramel color.
  • Dark Rum, also known as black rum, classes as a grade darker than gold rum. It is generally aged longer, in heavily charred barrels. Dark rum has a much stronger flavor than either light or gold rum, and hints of spices can be detected, along with a strong molasses or caramel overtone. It is used to provide substance in rum drinks, as well as color. In addition to uses in mixed drinks, dark rum is the type of rum most commonly used in cooking.
  • Flavored Rum: Some manufacturers have begun to sell rums which they have infused with flavors of fruits such as mango, orange, citrus, coconut, and limke which is a lime rum found in Sweden. These serve to flavor similarly themed tropical drinks which generally comprise less than 40% alcohol, and are also often drunk neat or on the rocks.
  • Overproof Rum is rum which is much higher than the standard 40% alcohol. Most of these rums bear greater than 75%, in fact, and preparations of 151 to 160 proof occur commonly.
  • Premium Rum: As with other sipping spirits, such as Cognac and Scotch, a market exists for premium and super-premium rums. These are generally boutique brands which sell very aged and carefully produced rums. They have more character and flavor than their "mixing" counterparts, and are generally consumed without the addition of other ingredients.

Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ... Species About 35 species, including: Mangifera altissima Mangifera applanata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera decandra Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera griffithii Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck[1] Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ...

Production methodology

Unlike some other spirits, such as Cognac and Scotch, rum has no defined production methods. Instead, rum production is based on traditional styles that vary between locations and distillers. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ...


Fermentation

Sugarcane is harvested to make sugarcane juice and molasses.
Sugarcane is harvested to make sugarcane juice and molasses.

Most rum produced is made from molasses. Within the Caribbean, much of this molasses is from Brazil.[12] A notable exception is the French-speaking islands where sugarcane juice is the preferred base ingredient.[1] Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical...


Yeast and water are added to the base ingredient to start the fermentation process. While some rum producers allow wild yeast to perform the fermentation, most use specific strains of yeast to help provide a consistent taste and predictable fermentation time.[28] Dunder, the yeast-rich foam from previous fermentations, is the traditional yeast source in Jamaica.[29] "The yeast employed will determine the final taste and aroma profile," says Jamaican master blender Joy Spence.[1] Distillers that make lighter rums, such as Bacardi, prefer to use faster-working yeasts.[1] Use of slower-working yeasts causes more esters to accumulate during fermentation, allowing for a fuller-tasting rum.[28] Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... Dunder is the yeast-rich foam leftovers from one batch of rum that is used to start the yeast culture of a second batch. ... The Cathedral Of Rum at the Distillery in Puerto Rico near San Juan. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ...


Distillation

As with all other aspects of rum production, there is no standard method used for distillation. While some producers work in batches using pot stills, most rum production is done using column still distillation.[28] Pot still output contains more congeners than the output from column stills and thus produces a fuller-tasting rum.[1] Pot stills in Scotland A pot still is a type of still used in distilling spirits such as whisky or brandy. ... A column still also called a continuous still, patent still, or coffey still is a variety of still that consists of two columns. ... A congener (from Latin roots meaning born together or within the same race or kind) has several different meanings depending on the field in which it is used. ...


Aging and blending

Many countries require that rum be aged for at least one year. This aging is commonly performed in used bourbon casks,[28] but may also be performed in stainless steel tanks or other types of wooden casks. Due to the tropical climate common to most rum-producing areas, rum matures at a much faster rate than is typical for Scotch or Cognac. An indication of this faster rate is the angel's share, or amount of product lost to evaporation. While products aged in France or Scotland see about 2% loss each year, rum producers may see as much as 10%.[28] After aging, rum is normally blended to ensure a consistent flavor. As part of this blending process, light rums may be filtered to remove any color gained during aging. For darker rums, caramel may be added to the rum to adjust the color of the final product. Whiskey barrels at the Jack Daniels distillery Barrels for aging wine in Napa Valley An aging barrel is a barrel used to age wine or distilled spirits such as whiskey, brandy, or rum. ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Oak casks in ricks used store and age bourbon. ... Scotch whisky, often called simply Scotch, is a distilled spirit made in Scotland. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Angels share describes a phenomenon of winemaking or aging after distillation. ... Vaporization redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ... Caramel candy For other uses, see Caramel (disambiguation). ...


In cuisine

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Besides rum punch, cocktails such as the Cuba Libre and Daiquiri have well-known stories of their invention in the Caribbean. Tiki culture in the US helped expand rum's horizons with inventions such as the Mai Tai and Zombie. Other well-known cocktails containing rum include the Piña Colada, a drink made popular by Rupert Holmes' song "Escape (The Piña Colada Song)",[30] and the Mojito. Cold-weather drinks made with rum include the Rum toddy and Hot Buttered Rum.[31] In addition to these well-known cocktails, a number of local specialties utilize rum. Examples of these local drinks include Bermuda's Dark and Stormy (Gosling's Black Seal rum with ginger beer), and the Painkiller from the British Virgin Islands. Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... For other meanings of Cuba Libre see Cuba libre (disambiguation) The Cuba Libre (IPA /kuβ̞aliβ̞ɾe/ in Spanish, /kjuːbÊŒ liːbɹeɪ/ in English) is a cocktail made of Cola, lime, and rum. ... This article is about the mixed drink. ... Tiki culture refers to a mid-20th-century theme used in Polynesian-style restaurants and clubs originally in the United States and then, to a lesser degree, around the world. ... Look up mai tai in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Zombie is a strong cocktail made of fruit juices and rum, so named for its perceived effects on the drinker. ... Piña Colada (Spanish, strained pineapple : piña, pineapple + colada, strained) is a sweet, rum-based cocktail containing light rum, coconut cream and pineapple juice. ... Rupert Holmes (born February 24, 1947 in Northwich, Cheshire, England) is a composer and writer who grew up in the northern New York City suburb of Nanuet, New York, and attended nearby Nyack High School. ... Escape (later known as Escape (The Piña Colada Song)) was the highest-charting hit for Rupert Holmes, and is one of the most easily-recognized songs of the past few decades. ... For unincorporated area in the USA, see Mojito, New Jersey. ... Hot toddy is a name, used in the English-speaking world (originally Scotland), for a mixed drink that is served hot. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Ginger beer is a type of carbonated beverage, flavored primarily with ginger, lemon and sugar. ...


Rum may also be used as a base in the manufacture of liqueurs. Spiced Rum is made by infusing rum with a combination of spices. Another combination is jagertee, a mixture of rum and black tea. Bottles of strawberry liqueur A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavoured with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Although Jagertee is easily concocted, ready-made mixtures which also contain sugar and spice are sold in shops. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ...


Rum may also be used in a number of cooked dishes. It may be used as a flavoring agent in items such as rum balls or rum cakes. Rum is commonly used to macerate fruit used in fruitcakes and is also used in marinades for some Caribbean dishes. Rum is also used in the preparation of Bananas Foster and some hard sauces. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A slice of traditional fruitcake For the Jimmy Buffett album, see Fruitcakes (album). ... . ... Bananas Foster Bananas Foster is a dessert made from bananas and vanilla ice cream, with the sauce made from butter, brown sugar, cinnamon, dark rum, and banana liqueur. ... Hard sauce is a cold dessert sauce made by creaming or beating butter and sugar with rum, brandy, whiskey, vanilla or other flavoring. ...


Ti Punch is short for "petit punch", little punch. This is a very traditional drink in the French-speaking region of the Caribbean. The TiPunch is a rum-based mixed drink that is especially popular in Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guyana, and other French-speaking Carribean states. ...


See also

Rum is distilled in a wide variety of locations by a number of different producers. ... Rum producing has long been an important part of Puerto Ricos economy. ... Wikibooks Bartending has a page on the topic of Cocktails A cocktail is a style of mixed drink made predominantly with a distilled beverage, such as vodka, gin, whiskey, rum, or tequila, mixed with another drink other than water. ... Bay rum is the name of a cologne or an after-shave. ... Rum-running is the business of smuggling or transporting of alcoholic beverages illegally, usually to circumvent taxation or prohibition. ... A rum row refers to any line of ships that anchored beyond the three mile limit near large U.S. cities on the east coast to off-load their cargoes of alcoholic beverages onto speed boats during national prohibition (1920-1933). ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (IPA: ) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil. ... The American Whiskey Trail[1] is a cultural heritage and tourism initiative of the Distilled Spirits Council in cooperation with historic Mount Vernon. ... Seco Herrerano is considered the national alcoholic beverage of Panama. ...

Brands

A bottle of Angostura Aromatic Bitters The House of Angostura (also known as Angostura Limited) is a Trinidad and Tobago company famous for the production of angostura bitters, invented by the companys founder. ... Appleton Estate is a sugar estate and distillery originating from Jamaica. ... The Cathedral Of Rum at the Distillery in Puerto Rico near San Juan. ... Bambu Rum is handcrafted in Antigua and is the only rum that is quadruple distilled and tripled filtered. ... Miquel Barcelo is a Spanish painter, born in 1957, in Felanitx, Mallorca, Spain. ... A bottle of 8-year-old Réserve Spéciale produced by Rhum Barbancourt . Rhum Barbancourt is a rum producing company based in Haiti. ... Beenleigh Rum is an Australian brand of rum. ... Adolfo Bermudez, an american professional wrestler Andres Bermudez Cean-Bermudez → Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez Chanel Bermudez is a model who worked for Playboy Ched Bermudez is a Filipina actress Enrique Bermúdez was commander of the Contras. ... Brugal is one of the top best made and popularest rums of the Dominican Republic along with the other dominican rums which are also known as the 3 Bs Barcelo and Bermudez. ... Bundaberg Rum is a dark rum produced in Bundaberg, Australia, often referred to as Bundy. Bundaberg Rum was first produced 1888 after some local sugar millers proposed using the excess molasses produced in their mills to make rum. ... A bottle of Cacique rum. ... Caney may refer to: Caney, Kansas Caney, Oklahoma This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Captain Morgan, as pictured on the product packaging. ... Carupano is a town on the Venezuelan Caribbean coast, situated at the opening of two valleys, 65 miles northeast of the city of Cuman. ... °°°°°°°°°°°→→→→→→→→→→→→§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§ Prince Rupert, an archetypical cavalier For other uses, see Cavalier (disambiguation). ... Centenario is a bureau of The City of Tijuana in Baja California, Mexico. ... Coruba is a New Zealand brand of rum. ... Cruzans Estate line Cruzan Rum is a rum producer located in Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. ... Ron Don Q, alternatively known as Don Q, is a Puerto Rican rum brand. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A bottle of Flor de Caña Gran Reserva Flor de Caña (Spanish, loosely translated to Flower of Sugar Cane) is a brand of rum from Nicaragua. ... Look up Goodwill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Goslings Black Seal Rum, on far left Goslings Rum is a brand of rum, founded in 1806 by James Gosling in Bermuda after leaving his home in London. ... Green Island can refer to: // In Australia Green Island National Park, Queensland Green Island Nature Reserve, Tasmania Green Island Nature Reserve, Western Australia Buller, Whittell And Green Islands Nature Reserve, Western Australia In the British Isles Green Island, Isles of Scilly Green Island, Jersey, Channel Islands In the U.S... Guantanamera (girl from Guantánamo) is perhaps the best known Cuban song and that countrys most noted patriotic song. ... Havana Club is a brand of rum, made in Santa Cruz del Norte, Cuba. ... Wingdings version of the Jolly Roger (character N). Many pirates created their own individualized versions. ... Macuro (10. ... Malibu Rum is a rum made in Barbados with natural coconut extract. ... Matusalem & Company is a family-owned manufacturer of premium Caribbean rum. ... Mount Gay Rum is produced by Mount Gay Distilleries Ltd. ... Montilla a town of southern Spain, in the province of Cordova, 32 miles south of the city of Cordova, by the Cordova-Bobadilla railway. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Newfoundland Screech is a particularly strong liquor sold in Newfoundland and originally imported from Jamaica, enjoys fame in many parts of Canada. ... Old Monk is a vatted Indian Rum, blended and aged for 7 years (Old Monk also comes in a more expensive 12 year old version). ... Pussers is a brand name of rum produced by Pussers Ltd, on Tortola in the British Virgin Islands. ... Ron Diaz is a talk show host on sports radio station WDAE-AM in Tampa, Florida. ... Santa Teresa may refer to: Santa Teresa, ES, Brazil Santa Teresa, New Mexico Santa Teresa, neighborhood of San Jose, California This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Norman Sailor Jerry Collins (1911-1973) Considered the foremost American tattoo artist of his time, Sailor Jerry is widely considered to the dominant figure in the art of tattooing as it is practiced in the USA today. ... Stroh is a strong spiced rum from Austria. ... Tanduay originated from the word tanguay, an old Tagalog term for peninsula. ... Wray and Nephews is a brand of rum originating in Jamaica. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Pacult, F. Paul. "Mapping Rum By Region", Wine Enthusiast Magazine, July 2002. 
  2. ^ Blue, p. 72–73
  3. ^ a b Blue p. 73
  4. ^ Rajiv. M. "A Caribbean drink", The Hindu, March 12, 2003. 
  5. ^ Blue p. 72
  6. ^ a b Blue p. 70
  7. ^ Blue p. 74
  8. ^ David J., Hanson, Ph.D. (1995). History of Alcohol and Drinking around the World. Early Modern Period, paragraph 11. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  9. ^ Blue p. 76
  10. ^ a b Tannahill p. 295
  11. ^ Tannahill p. 296
  12. ^ a b Frost, Doug. "Rum makers distill unsavory history into fresh products", San Francisco Chronicle, January 6, 2005. 
  13. ^ Pack p. 15
  14. ^ Blue p. 77
  15. ^ Tannahill p. 273
  16. ^ Pack p. 123
  17. ^ Blue p. 78
  18. ^ Clarke p. 26
  19. ^ Clarke p. 29
  20. ^ Barty-King, H. (1983). Rum Yesterday and Today. Heinemann, Toronto, Canada. 
  21. ^ Blue p. 89
  22. ^ Blue p. 81–82
  23. ^ Cooper p. 60
  24. ^ Selsky, Andrew. "Age-old drink losing kick", The Miami Herald, 2003-09-15. 
  25. ^ [1]
  26. ^ Surreptitious drug abuse and the new Liberian reality: an overview
  27. ^ Photo-article on Liberian village life
  28. ^ a b c d e Vaughan, Mark. "Tropical Delights", Cigar Aficionado, 1 June 1994. 
  29. ^ Cooper p. 54
  30. ^ Blue p. 80
  31. ^ Cooper p.54–55

is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...

References

  • Blue, Anthony Dias (2004). The Complete Book of Spirits : A Guide to Their History, Production, and Enjoyment. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-054218-7. 
  • Clarke, Frank G. (2002). The History of Australia. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31498-5. 
  • Cooper, Rosalind (1982). Spirits & Liqueurs. HPBooks. ISBN 0-89586-194-1. 
  • Pack, James (1982). Nelson's Blood: The Story of Naval Rum. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-944-8. 
  • Tannahill, Reay (1973). Food in History. Stein and Day. ISBN 0-8128-1437-1. 

HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ...

Further reading

  • Curtis, Wayne (2006). And a Bottle of Rum: A History of the New World in Ten Cocktails. Crown. (author interview)
  • Williams, Ian (2005). Rum: A Social and Sociable History of the Real Spirit of 1776. Nation Books.  (extract)
  • Broom, Dave (2003). Rum. Abbeville Press. 
  • Arkell, Julie (1999). Classic Rum. Prion Books. 
  • Coulombe, Charles A (2004). Rum: The Epic Story of the Drink that Changed Conquered the World. Citadel Press. 
  • Smith, Frederick (2005). Caribbean Rum: A Social and Economic History. University Press of Florida.  (Introduction)

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Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of an alcohol includes many other compounds. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... An American-produced bottle of ginjō-shu sake. ... The relationship between alcohol consumption and health has been the subject of formal scientific research since at least 1926, when Dr. Raymond Pearl published his book, Alcohol and Longevity, in which he reported his finding that drinking alcohol in moderation was associated with greater longevity than either abstaining or drinking... Alcohol advertising is the promotion of alcoholic beverages by alcohol producers through a variety of media. ... Image:Frans Hals 002 . ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... Rice wine refers to alcoholic beverages made from rice. ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ... Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiǔ, lit. ... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... A glass of mint kvass. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... Finlandia Sahti, Finnish sahti label Sahti is a traditional beer from Finland made from a variety of grains, malted and unmalted, including barley, rye, wheat, and oats; sometimes bread made from these grains is fermented instead of malt itself. ... Main article: Chinese wine Gouqi jiu(zh:枸杞酒) is one kind of fruit alcoholic beverage made from Gouqi. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Various brands of tequila Tequila is a spirit made primarily in the area surrounding Tequila, a town in the western Mexican state of Jalisco, 65 km northwest of Guadalajara and in the highlands of Jalisco, 65 km east of Guadalajara. ... A cheap commercial bottle of Mexican Mezcal bought in Cancun. ... The Amaretto Disaronno square bottle The term amaretto refers to a sweet liqueur made from a basic infusion of the stones of drupe fruits, such as peaches, as well as a related almond biscotto. ... A reservoir glass filled with a naturally-colored verte, next to an absinthe spoon. ... Arak Rayan, from Syria. ... A small souvenir bottle of ouzo Ouzo (ούζο) is a Greek anise-flavored liqueur that is widely consumed in Greece. ... Rakı becomes cloudy white, when mixed with water. ... A glass of diluted pastis French pastis Pastis is an anise-flavored liqueur and apéritif from France, typically containing 40-45% alcohol by volume, although there exist alcohol-free varieties. ... Sambuca is an Italian aniseed-flavored, usually colorless liqueur. ... For other uses, see Applejack. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Irish Whiskeys For the novel of the same name, see Irish Whiskey (novel). ... Whisky production in Japan began around 1870, but the first commercial production was in 1923, when the countrys first distillery—Yamazaki—opened. ... An Indian liquor made from either coconut or the juice of the cashew apple. ... Arrack refers to strong spirits distilled mainly in South and South East Asia from fermented fruits, grains, sugarcane, or the sap of coconuts or other palm trees. ... Malibu Rum is a rum made in Barbados with natural coconut extract. ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... Kirschwasser, German for cherry water, (pronounced ), often known simply as Kirsch (German for cherry), is a clear brandy made from double distillation of the fermented juice of a small black cherry. ... Limoncello [limontlːo] is a lemon liqueur produced in the south of Italy, mainly in the region around the Gulf of Naples and the coast of Amalfi and Islands of Ischia and Capri, but also in Sicily, Sardinia and the Maltese island of Gozo. ... For other uses, see Pisco (disambiguation). ... A bottle of apricot Hungarian Pálinka. ... A traditional bottle of slivovitz, plum rakia Croatian Sljivovica and Slovenian Slivovka, two different names for the same drink, a plum rakia Rakia or Rakija (Bulgarian: , Croatian and Bosnian (rakija), Albanian: , Macedonian and Serbian: , Slovenian: , Romanian: ) is hard liquor similar to brandy, made by distillation of fermented fruits, popular throughout... Schnapps is a type of distilled beverage. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... 1956 Armagnac Armagnac (IPA [aʁmaɲak]), the region of France, has given its name to its distinctive kind of brandy or eau de vie, made of the same grapes as Cognac and undergoing the same aging in oak barrels, but with column still distillation (Cognac is distilled in pot... Bärenjäger is a honey-flavoured liqueur based on vodka, made by Teucke & König in Germany. ... Polish Krupnik Krupnik, or Krupnikas as it is known in Lithuanian, is a traditional sweet vodka, similar to a liqueur, based on grain spirit and honey, popular in Poland and Lithuania. ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Oak casks in ricks used store and age bourbon. ... Corn whiskey is an American whiskey made from a mash made up of at least 80 percent maize, or corn. ... Tennessee whiskey is a type of American whiskey. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Ţuică (in Romanian , sometimes spelled tuica, tzuika, tsuika, tsuica, or tzuica), is a traditional Romanian alcoholic beverage, usually made from plums. ... A glass of grappa Grappa is a fragrant grape-based pomace brandy of between 30% and 80% alcohol by volume (60 to 160 proof), of Italian origin. ... Orujo is a liquor obtained from the distillation of the pomace of the grape. ... Zivania (also Zivana) (Greek: Ζιβανία) is a traditional Greek-Cypriot distillate produced in the island of Cyprus from pomace (or marcs), the residue of grapes that were pressed during the winemaking process (including the stems and seeds) mixed with high-quality dry wines produced from the local grape varieties of Cyprus. ... Tsikoudia or raki is a grape-based spirit from the island of Crete (Greece), made from the distillation of pomace, i. ... Tsipouro (Greek: Τσίπουρο) is a distilled alcoholic beverage, more precisely a pomace brandy, from Greece and in particular Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, and the island of Crete, where the same spirit with a stronger aroma is known as tsikoudia. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... A bottle and glass of Linie brand akvavit. ... Brennivín is an Icelandic schnapps, considered the countrys signature alcoholic beverage. ... Snaps is a small shot of a strong alcoholic beverage taken during the course of a meal, very much like the German schnapps. ... Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: ) or Shaojiu is potent Chinese alcohol. ... Kaoliang jiu (literally sorghum liquor; often called simply kaoliang) is a strong distilled liquor, made from fermented sorghum (which is called gaoliang in Chinese). ... Rice baijiu (Chinese: 米白酒; pinyin: mǐbáijiǔ), also known as rice fragrance baijiu (米香型白酒), is a variety of distilled beverage popular in China. ... Soju is a distilled beverage native to Korea and traditionally made from rice. ... Awamori (泡盛) is an alcoholic beverage indigenous to and unique to Okinawa, Japan. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ... Rye whiskey describes two types of whiskies, theoretically distilled from rye. ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (IPA: ) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil. ... Aguardiente is the Spanish generic name for alcoholic drinks between 29 and 45 percent alcohol, meaning fiery water, or, literally burning water [1] (as it burns the throat of the drinker). ... Falernum is a sweet syrup used in Tropical and Caribbean drinks. ... This page is about the drink, for the locality, go to Guaro Guaro is the name of a kind of liquor in many places in Central America. ... Seco Herrerano is considered the national alcoholic beverage of Panama. ... Shōchū ) is a distilled alcoholic beverage popular in Japan. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... Canadian whisky is whisky made in Canada; by law it must be aged there at least three years in a barrel. ... Jenever (also known as genever or jeniever), is the juniper-flavored and strongly alcoholic traditional liquor of the Netherlands and Flanders, from which gin has evolved. ... Revenue men at the site of moonshine stills, Kentucky, 1911 or earlier For other uses, see Moonshine (disambiguation). ... In scuba diving, the word cocktail also means a hazard with diving with some rebreathers: it means a caustic solution resulting from water reaching and dissolving the absorbent. ... The shot glass containing Midori was dropped into a shandy, making a fairly potent beer cocktail. ... Wikibooks Bartending has a page on the topic of Cocktails A cocktail is a style of mixed drink made predominantly with a distilled beverage, such as vodka, gin, whiskey, rum, or tequila, mixed with another drink other than water. ... Serving multiple flaming cocktails can be an impressive skill to learn. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... A wine cocktail is a mixed drink similar to a true cocktail. ... It has been suggested that glogg be merged into this article or section. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2941 words)
Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation.
To support this demand for the molasses to produce rum, along with the increasing demand for sugar in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries, a labor source to work the sugar plantations in the Caribbean was needed.
The value of rum was based upon the lack of coinage among the population of the colony, and due to the drink's ability to allow its consumer to temporarily forget about the lack of creature comforts available in the new colony.
Rum (disambiguation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (138 words)
Rum, a spirit made from sugar-cane by-products such as molasses or sugar cane juice.
Hence Sultanate of Rum, a Seljuk sultanate (conquered on Byzantium, the 'second Rome') from 1077 to 1307; later the Ottoman Rüm Province, in northern Anatolia.
Rùm (or Rum or Rhum), a Scottish island.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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