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Encyclopedia > Ruki

Ruki is the term for a sound law in the Satem group, especially Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian: Sound change or phonetic change is a historical process of language change consisting in the replacement of one speech sound or, more generally, one phonetic feature by another in a given phonological environment. ... The Satem division of the Indo-European family includes the following branches: Indo-Iranian, Baltic and Slavic, Armenian, Albanian, perhaps also a number of barely documented extinct languages, such as Phrygian, Thracian, and Dacian (see: Indo-European languages). ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Balto-Slavic languages are an Indo-European language family, consisting of the (possibly genetically related) Baltic languages and Slavic languages. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

s > š / r, u, K, i _

i.e. a sibilant [s] is retracted to [ʃ] after i,u,r, and after velars (i.e. k which may have developed from earlier k, g, gh). Due to the character of the retraction, it was probably an apical sibilant (as in Spanish), rather than the dorsal of English. The first phase - s > š seems to be universal, the later retroflexion (in Sanskrit and probably in Proto-Slavic as well) is due to levelling of the sibilant system, and so is the third phase - the retraction to velar [x] in Slavic and also in some Middle Indian languages, with paralels in e.g. Spanish. This rule was first formulated for the Indo-European by Holger Pedersen, and it is known sometimes as Pedersen law. The voiceless alveolar fricatives are a type of consonantal sound. ... The voiceless postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम्) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... This article or section should include material from Common Slavonic Proto-Slavic is a reconstructed language which is a common ancestor of all Slavic languages. ...


The name of the term comes from the sounds which cause the phonetic change. It associates with a Russian word which means 'hands' or 'arms'.


The rule was formulated for Sanskrit first. Next it was proposed to be valid for all Satem languages. In fact, it functions unexceptionally only in Indo-Iranian languages. In Baltic and Albanian it is less or more limited or affected by other sound laws, in such or another way. Never the less, it has to have been universal in these branches of the IE languages, and the lack of i.e. Slavic reflexes before consonants is rather due to merger of these with the reflexes of other sibilants. Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम्) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... The Satem division of the Indo-European family includes the following branches: Indo-Iranian, Baltic and Slavic, Armenian, Albanian, perhaps also a number of barely documented extinct languages, such as Phrygian, Thracian, and Dacian (see: Indo-European languages). ... Indo-Iranian languages (also called Aryan languages) are the eastern-most group of the living Indo-European languages. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... Sound change or phonetic change is a historical process of language change consisting in the replacement of one speech sound or, more generally, one phonetic feature by another in a given phonological environment. ...


In Slavic languages the process is regular before a vowel but it does not take place before consonants. The final result is the velar fricative x which is even more retracted than š. This velar fricative changed back into š before a front vowel and j. The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ...


In Indo-Iranian *r and *l merged, and the change worked even after the new sound. This has been an argument for many scholars for the later influence of Iranian languages on Proto-Slavonic. There are obvious drawbacks in the theory - the two sounds must have been very close (r/l), so that both could have triggered the change in Indo-Iranian, and what's more, there are no real examples of this change working in Slavonic, and it is also doubtful, that only this change (ruki) and no other such change of sibilants (e.g. s > h) was borrowed into Slavonic.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Was Slavic a Prussian Dialect? (5020 words)
Iranian evidence indicates that the ruki law, though not older than the rise of palatals k', g', g'h, themselves, is older than their assimilation.
Thus, the ruki law condition with k, most typical in word-non-initial position, was eliminated by metathesis very early in word-initial position and its reflex was also eliminated, that is, replaced by diffuse s-.
The merger of ruki law š with š from palatal k' is as old as the change of k' to š or k as in ašis or vaškas.
Digimon Tamers Psych Profiles (2485 words)
Ruki feels that if she wears a skirt or any other strictly feminine clothing (undergarments don't count, so don't get any ideas you perverts), she will end up like her mother.
Rumiko explains to Ruki that she means everything to her, and gives her a home-made mended-heart t-shirt to replace the broken-heart one.
Ruki eventually overcomes most of her problems with friendship and love, though she was still deeply hurt by her father's absence, leaving an 'unwanted' feeling within her.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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