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Encyclopedia > Ruhollah Khomeini
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini


In office
December 3, 1979 – June 3, 1989
Succeeded by Ali Khamenei

Born 24 September 1902(1902-09-24)
Khomein, Markazi Province, Persian Empire
Died June 4, 1989 (aged 86)
Tehran, Iran
Spouse Batoul Saqafi Khomeini
Children Ahmad, Mustafa & others; grandchildren: Hassan, Hussein,Ali Khomeini & Ali,Zahra,Atefeh Eshraghi
Religion Twelver Shi'a Islam

Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian: روح الله موسوی خمینی , ullāh Mūsawī Khumaynī) (September 24, 1902[1][2]June 3, 1989) was an Iranian politician and religious figure, and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran (Persia). Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader—the paramount political figure of the new Islamic Republic until his death. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... -1... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای, pronounced []) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[3] has been Supreme Leader of Iran since 1989 and before that was president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Khomein (in Persian خمین) is a city in central Iran, located in Markazi province, about 160 km from Qom and 350 km from Tehran. ... The Congregation Mosque of Narāgh. ... Persia redirects here. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Ahmad Khomeini (born Qom, 1945 - died 1994) was son of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Hojatoleslam Hussein Khomeini (in Persian: حسین خمینی) is the grandson of Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. ... Granddaughter of the late Supreme Ayatollah Khomeini, and wife of Mohammad Reza Khatami (since 1983), head of the Islamic Iran Participation Front, the main reformist party in the country. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آیت‌الله) is a high title given to major Shia clergymen. ... Sayyid (Arabic: سيد also rendered as syed, seyyed, sayyed, saiyed, or sayed) is an honorific title often given to descendants of Muhammad through his grandsons, Hussein and Hasan, the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahra and his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib (who was Muhammads younger cousin and... Farsi redirects here. ... Image File history File links Khomeini. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... -1... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September... Shah of Iran redirects here. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ...


Khomeini was a marja or marja al-taqlid, ("source of imitation"), providing religious leadership to many Twelver Shi'a Muslims, but is most famous for his political role. In his writings and preachings he expanded the Shi'a theory of velayat-e faqih, the "guardianship of the jurisconsult (clerical authority)" to include theocratic political rule by Islamic jurists and to provide the theological basis for his rule of Iran. Internationally he also made a great impact, and has been called "the virtual face of Islam in Western popular culture,"[3] during his reign as ruler of Iran. He was named Time's Man of the Year in 1979 and also one of Time magazine's 100 most influential people of the 20th century. Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... Guardianship of the Jurisprudents or Trusteeship of the Jurisconsults (Arabic: ولاية الفقيه Wilayat al-Faqih, Persian: Velayat-e-Faqih) is a Shia Twelver doctrine regarding Islamic leadership // Definition According to it, those most knowledgeable about Islamic law (Shariah) should assume a guiding or leading political role in society. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... TIME redirects here. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could...

Contents

Early life

A young Khomeini
A young Khomeini

Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini was born to Mustafa Musawi[4] and Hajiyah Aga Khanum in the town of Khomein,[5] about 300 kilometers (180 miles) south of Tehran, on[6] September 24, 1902.[1][2] His family allegedly descends from Muhammad through the seventh of the Twelve Imams, Musa al-Kazim;[5] thus, Khomeini is called a sayyid. Several of his close ancestors were dedicated to Islamic studies: his father and both of his grandfathers were all Shia clerics.[7] Khomeini's paternal grandfather, Sayid Ahmad Musawi Hindi, spent many years in India before returning to Persia to purchase a home in Khomein that his family would own until the late twentieth century.[4][8] [9] Khomeini's father was murdered when he was still a baby. Popular myth insists Khomeini's father was killed by the Shah of Iran. This is not true as the Shah would not come to power for another twenty-five years. Many historians today believe his father may have been the victim of a local dispute.[10][11][12] Khomeini's mother and one of his aunts proceeded to raise him until 1918, when both of them died.[13] Ruhollah Khomeini began to study the Qur'an, Islam's holiest book, and elementary Persian at age six.[14] The following year, he began to attend a local school, where he learned math, science, geography, and other traditional subjects.[13] Throughout his childhood, he would continue his religious and secular education with the assistance of his relatives, including his mother's cousin, Ja'far,[13] and his elder brother, Morteza Pasandideh.[15] Image File history File links Ayatollah_Khomeini_young. ... Image File history File links Ayatollah_Khomeini_young. ... Khomein (in Persian خمین) is a city in central Iran, located in Markazi province, about 160 km from Qom and 350 km from Tehran. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... Imam Musa al Kazim (November 10, 745 - September 4, 799) was the seventh Shia Imam (he is not accepted by the Ismailis as the seventh Imam). ... For the Lost character, please see Sayid Jarrah Sayyid () (plural Saadah) is an honorific title that is given to males accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, who were the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Farsi redirects here. ...


After World War I, arrangements were made for him to study at the Islamic seminary in Esfahan, but he was attracted, instead, to the seminary in Arak, under the leadership of Ayatollah Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi.[16] In 1920, Khomeini moved to Arak and commenced his studies.[17] The following year, Ayatollah Haeri Yazdi transferred the Islamic seminary to the holy city of Qom, southwest of Tehran, and invited his students to follow. Khomeini accepted the invitation, moved,[15] and took up residence at the Dar al-Shafa school in Qom.[18] Khomeini's studies included Islamic law (sharia) and jurisprudence (fiqh)[14], but by that time, Khomeini had also acquired an interest in poetry and philosophy (irfan). So, upon arriving in Qom, Khomeini sought the guidance of Mirza Ali Akbar Yazdi, a scholar of philosophy and mysticism. Yazdi died in 1924, but Khomeini would continue to pursue his interest in philosophy with two other teachers, Javad Aqa Maleki Tabrizi and Rafi'i Qazvini.[19][20] However, perhaps Khomeini's biggest influences were yet another teacher, Mirza Muhammad 'Ali Shahabadi,[21] and a variety of historic Sufi mystics, including Mulla Sadra and Ibn Arabi.[20] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Esfahan. ... Arak, (in Persian: اراک) previously known as Soltan-abad, is the center of Markazi province, Iran. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Grand Ayatollah Hajj Sheikh Abdolkarim Haeri Yazdi (Persian: عبدالكريم حائري يزدي; Arabic: عبد الكريم الحائري اليزدي; transliteration: ) (1859 — January 30, 1937) was a Shia Muslim cleric and marja. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Irfan (Arabic/Persian: عرفان) literally means knowing. ... The term Mirza, is used for a member of a royal family or a member of the highest aristocracy. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ملاصدرا or Mulla Sadra (aka Molla Sadra or Mollasadra) also called Sadr Ad-Din Ash- Shirazi (c. ... For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi. ...

Muslim scholar
Name: Ruhollah Musawi Khomeini
Title: Imam Khomeini
Birth: 24 September 1902[1][2]
Death: June 3, 1989 (aged 86)
Region: Iran
Maddhab: Shia Islam
Main interests: Fiqh, Irfan, Islamic philosophy, Islamic ethics, Hadith, politics
Notable ideas: Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists, Dynamic Fiqh
Works: Islamic Government, Tahrir-ol-vasyleh, Forty Hadith, Adab as Salat
Influences: Mulla Sadra, Abdol-Karim Haeri-Yazdi, Hassan Modarres, Mohammad-Ali Shah Abadi
Influenced: Mohammad Beheshti, Hossein-Ali Montazeri, Morteza Motahhari, Ali Khamenei, Akbar Hashemi, Fazel Lankarani

Ruhollah Khomeini was a lecturer at Najaf and Qum seminaries for decades before he was known in the political scene. He soon became a leading scholar of Shia Islam.[22] He taught political philosophy[23], Islamic history and ethics. Several of his students (e.g. Morteza Motahhari) later became leading Islamic philosophers and also marja. As a scholar and teacher, Khomeini produced numerous writings on Islamic philosophy, law, and ethics.[24] He showed an exceptional interest in subjects like philosophy and gnosticism that not only were usually absent from the curriculum of seminaries but were often an object of hostility and suspicion. [25] Muslim scholars are people who profess Islam as a religion and work in one or several fields of Islamic studies. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... -1... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Irfan (Arabic/Persian: عرفان) literally means knowing. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vilayat-e Faqih. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Twelvers. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... ملاصدرا or Mulla Sadra (aka Molla Sadra or Mollasadra) also called Sadr Ad-Din Ash- Shirazi (c. ... Grand Ayatollah Hajj Shaykh Abdolkarim Haeri Yazdi (Persian: عبدالكريم حائري يزدي; Arabic: عبد الكريم الحائري اليزدي; translit: ) (1859 — January 30, 1937) was a Shia Muslim cleric and marja. ... Seyyed Hassan Modarres (Persian: سید حسن مدرس)‎ (1870? - December 1, 1937), was an Persian/Iranian cleric and politician. ... Mohammad Beheshti Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (محمد حسینی بهشتی in Persian), (October 24, 1928 - June 28, 1981) was an Iranian cleric, the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic party, and the head of the Islamic Republics judicial system. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, professor, and politician. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای, pronounced []) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[3] has been Supreme Leader of Iran since 1989 and before that was president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... President Rafsanjani Akbar Hashemi Bahramani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی), famously known as Hashemi Rafsanjani (هاشمی رفسنجانی) (born August 25, 1934) is one of the most influential Iranian politicians, and the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Fazel Lankarani (1931 in Qom, Iran — June 16, 2007 in London, England) was the son of the late Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani, and a student of Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi. ... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, professor, and politician. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect god, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ...


Political aspects

Although during this scholarly phase of his life Khomeini was not politically active, the nature of his studies, teachings, and writings suggest that he believed early on in the importance of political involvement by clerics. Khomeini studied not only traditional subjects like Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh al-shari`ah), and principles (usul), but also philosophy and ethics. His teaching often focused on the importance of religion to practical social and political issues of the day. He was the first Iranian cleric to try to refute the outspoken advocacy of secularism in the 1940s. His first book, Kashf al-Asrar (Uncovering of Secrets) [26] published in 1942, was a point-by-point refutation of Asrar-e hazar salih (Secrets of a Thousand Years), a tract written by a disciple of Iran's leading anti-clerical historian, Ahmad Kasravi.[27] In addition, he went from Qom to Tehran to listen to Ayatullah Hasan Mudarris- the leader of the opposition majority in Iran's parliament during 1920s. Khomeini became a marja in 1963, following the death of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Husayn Borujerdi. Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Husayn Borujerdi (آیت الله العظمی حسین بروجردی in Persian, 1875 – 1962) was a Shia Grand Ayatollah. ...


Khomeini held a moderate standpoint vis-à-vis Greek Philosophy and regarded Aristotle as the founder of logic.[28] He was also influenced by Plato's philosophy. About Plato he said: "In the field of divinity, he has grave and solid views ...". [29] On the other hand, Khomeini attacks the philosophy of Descartes and regards it as weak. Among Islamic philosophers, Khomeini was mainly influenced by Avicenna and Mulla Sadra.[30] Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... For the lunar crater, see Avicenna (crater). ... ملاصدرا or Mulla Sadra (aka Molla Sadra or Mollasadra) also called Sadr Ad-Din Ash- Shirazi (c. ...


Literature and Poetry

Apart from philosophy, Khomeini was also interested in literature and poetry. His poetry collection was released after his death. Since his adolescent years, Khomeini has composed mystic, political and social poetry.

"We" and "I" are both from reason

That are used as ropes to bind
In mass of those who are drunk
Neither "I" is nor "We" to find[31]

His poetry works were published in three collections The Confidant, The Decanter of Love and Turning Point and Divan.[32]


Early political activity

At the age of 60, Khomeini found the arena of leadership open following the deaths of Ayatollah Sayyed Husayn Borujerdi (1961), the leading, although quiescent, Shiite religious leader; and Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani (1962), an activist cleric. The clerical class had been on the defensive ever since the 1920s when the secular, anti-clerical modernizer Reza Shah Pahlavi rose to power. The "White Revolution" of Reza's son Muhammad Reza Shah, was a further challenge to the ulama.[33] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... This article is about the White Revolution in Iran. ... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until 1979. ...


Opposition to the White Revolution

In January 1963, the Shah announced the "White Revolution," a six-point program of reform calling for land reform, nationalization of the forests, the sale of state-owned enterprises to private interests, electoral changes to enfranchise women and allow non-Muslims to hold office, profit-sharing in industry, and a literacy campaign in the nation's schools. Some of these initiatives were regarded as dangerous, Westernizing trends by traditionalists, especially by the powerful and privileged Shiite ulama (religious scholars).[34] This article is about the White Revolution in Iran. ... -1... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning vote) is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... Profit sharing, when used as a special term, refers to various incentive plans introduced by businesses that provide direct or indirect payments to employees that depend on companys profitability in addition to employees regular salary and bonuses. ... Ulema, a community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ...

Khomeini and his son Mustafa
Khomeini and his son Mustafa

Ayatollah Khomeini summoned a meeting of the other senior marjas of Qom and persuaded them to decree a boycott of the referendum on the White Revolution. On January 22, 1963 Khomeini issued a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah and his plans. Two days later the Shah took an armored column to Qom, and delivered a speech harshly attacking the ulama as a class. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...


Khomeini continued his denunciation of the Shah's programs, issuing a manifesto that bore the signatures of eight other senior Iranian Shia religious scholars. In it he listed the various ways in which the Shah had allegedly violated the constitution, condemned the spread of moral corruption in the country, and accused the Shah of submission to America and Israel. He also decreed that the Nowruz celebrations for the Iranian year 1342 (which fell on March 21, 1963) be canceled as a sign of protest against government policies. Shia may refer to a denomination of Islam, or related items, such as: Shia Islam, the second largest denomination of Islam, after Sunni Islam. ... Persepolis all nations stair case. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


On the afternoon of 'Ashura (June 3, 1963), Khomeini delivered a speech at the Feyziyeh madrasah drawing parallels between the infamous tyrant Yazid and the Shah, denouncing the Shah as a "wretched, miserable man," and warning him that if he did not change his ways the day would come when the people would offer up thanks for his departure from the country.[35]-1... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) (July 23, 645 - 683) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty and ruled from CE 680 until his death in 683. ...


On June 5, 1963, (15 of Khordad), two days after this public denunciation of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Khomeini was arrested. This sparked three days of major riots throughout Iran and led to the deaths of some 400. That event is now referred to as the Movement of 15 Khordad.[36] Khomeini was kept under house arrest for 8 months and released in 1964. is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Khordad was a newspaper published by Abdollah Noori. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September... Movement of 15 Khordad ( ‎ ​) which took place on June 5 in protest against arrestment of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...

Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...

Opposition against capitulation

During November 1964, Khomeini denounced both the Shah and the United States, this time in response to the "capitulations" or diplomatic immunity granted by the Shah to American military personnel in Iran [37] [38]. The famous "capitulation" law (or "status-of-forces agreement") would allow members of the U.S. armed forces in Iran to be tried in their own military courts. Khomeini was arrested in November 1964 and held for half a year. Upon his release, he was brought before Prime Minister Hasan Ali Mansur, who tried to convince Khomeini that he should apologize and drop his opposition to the government. Khomeini refused. In fury, Mansur slapped Khomeini's face.[39] Two weeks later, Mansur was assassinated on his way to parliament. Four members of the Fadayan-e Islam were later executed for the murder. Fadayan-e Islam was founded in 1946 as an Islamic fundamentalist organization. ...


Advisers to the Shah recommended executing the ayatollah perhaps, an accidental death. The Shah refused and sent Khomeini into exile to Iraq. "Former royalist officials now living in London, Paris and Los Angeles still grumble about the decision not to kill Khomeini in 1964."[40] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


Life in exile

Khomeini in his Exile
Khomeini in his Exile
Khomeini at Neauphle-le-Chateau

Khomeini spent more than 14 years in exile, mostly in the holy Shia city of Najaf, Iraq. Initially he was sent to Turkey on 4 November 1964 where he stayed in the city of Bursa for less than a year. He was hosted by a colonel in Turkish Military Intelligence named Ali Cetiner in his own residence, who couldn't find another accommodation alternative for his stay at the time.[41] Later in October 1965 he was allowed to move to Najaf, Iraq, where he stayed until being forced to leave in 1978, after then-Vice President Saddam Hussein forced him out (the two countries would fight a bitter eight year war 1980-1988 only a year after the two reached power in 1979) after which he went to Neauphle-le-Château in France on a tourist visa, apparently not seeking political asylum, where he stayed for four months. According to Alexandre de Marenches, chief of External Documentation and Counter-Espionage Service (now known as the DGSE), France would have suggested to the shah to "organize a fatal accident for Khomeini"; the shah declined the assassination offer, as that would have made Khomeini a martyr. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... For other uses, see Bursa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Neauphle-le-Château is a commune of the Yvelines département, in France. ... A tourist visa is not available for use for over a long period of time. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... Count Alexandre de Marenches (1921-1995 ) was a French military officer. ... The Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnage (External Documentation and Counter-Espionage Service, SDECE) was Frances external intelligence agency from November 6, 1944 to April 2, 1982 when it was replaced by the Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (DGSE). ... The Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (generally known as DGSE) is Frances external intelligence agency. ...


By the late 1960s Khomeini was a marja-e taqlid (model for imitation) for "hundreds of thousands" of Shia, one of six or so models in the Shia world.[42] Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed...


While in the 1940s Khomeini accepted the idea of a limited monarchy under the Iranian Constitution of 1906-1907—as evidenced by his book Kashf al-Asrar—by the 1970s he did not.


In early 1970 Khomeini gave a series of lectures in Najaf on Islamic government, later published as a book titled variously Islamic Government or Islamic Government: Authority of the Jurist (Hokumat-e Islami: Velayat-e faqih).

Main article: Hokumat-e Islami : Velayat-e faqih (book by Khomeini)

This was his most famous and influential work and laid out his ideas on governance (at that time):

  • That the laws of society should be made up only of the laws of God (Sharia), which cover "all human affairs" and "provide instruction and establish norms" for every "topic" in "human life." [43]
  • Since Shariah, or Islamic law, is the proper law, those holding government posts should have knowledge of Sharia. Since Islamic jurists or faqih have studied and are the most knowledgeable in Sharia, the country's ruler should be a faqih who "surpasses all others in knowledge" of Islamic law and justice,[44] (known as a marja`), as well as having intelligence and administrative ability. Rule by monarchs and/or assemblies of "those claiming to be representatives of the majority of the people" (i.e. elected parliaments and legislatures) has been proclaimed "wrong" by Islam.[45]
  • This system of clerical rule is necessary to prevent injustice, corruption, oppression by the powerful over the poor and weak, innovation and deviation of Islam and Sharia law; and also to destroy anti-Islamic influence and conspiracies by non-Muslim foreign powers. [46]

A modified form of this wilayat al-faqih system was adopted after Khomeini and his followers took power, and Khomeini was the Islamic Republic's first "Guardian" or Supreme Leader. Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... A Faqih is an expert in fiqh, or, Islamic jurisprudence. ... Marjaˤ (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid (Arabic: مرجع التقليد, Persian: مرجع تقليد), literally means Source of Imitation, Reference of Emulation or Source of Tradition and refers to the second highest authority on religion and law in Twelver Shia Islam after Muhammad and Shia Imams. ... Guardianship of the Jurisprudents or Trusteeship of the Jurisconsults (Arabic: ولاية الفقيه Wilayat al-Faqih, Persian: Velayat-e-Faqih) is a Shia Twelver doctrine regarding Islamic leadership // Definition According to it, those most knowledgeable about Islamic law (Shariah) should assume a guiding or leading political role in society. ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ...

Khomeini in Turkey where it is prohibited to wear a religious turban in government institutions
Khomeini in Turkey where it is prohibited to wear a religious turban in government institutions

In the meantime, however, Khomeini was careful not to publicize his ideas for clerical rule outside of his Islamic network of opposition to the Shah which he worked to build and strengthen over the next decade. Cassette copies of his lectures fiercely denouncing the Shah as (for example) "... the Jewish agent, the American snake whose head must be smashed with a stone", [47] became common items in the markets of Iran, [48] helped to demythologize the power and dignity of the Shah and his reign. Aware of the importance of broadening his base, Khomeini reached out to Islamic reformist and secular enemies of the Shah, despite his long-term ideological incompatibility with them. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


After the 1977 death of Dr. Ali Shariati, an Islamic reformist and political revolutionary author/academic/philosopher who greatly popularized the Islamic revival among young educated Iranians, Khomeini became the most influential leader of the opposition to the Shah perceived by many Iranians as the spiritual, if not political, leader of revolt. Adding to his mystique was the circulation among Iranians in the 1970s of "an old Shia saying attributed to the Imam Musa al-Jafar." Prior to his death in 799, al-Jafar was said to have prophesied that `A man will come out from Qom and he will summon people to the right path. There will rally to him people resembling pieces of iron, not to be shaken by violent winds, unsparing and relying on God.` Khomeini was said to match this description.[49] Ali Shariati (Persian: علی شريعتی‎) (1933–1977) was an Iranian sociologist, well known and respected for his work in the field of sociology of religion. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ...


As protest grew so did his profile and importance. Although thousands of kilometers away from Iran in Paris, Khomeini set the course of the revolution, urging Iranians not to compromise and ordering work stoppages against the regime.[50] During the last few months of his exile, Khomeini received a constant stream of reporters, supporters, and notables, eager to hear the spiritual leader of the revolution.[51]


Supreme leader of Islamic Republic of Iran

Return to Iran

Arrival of Khomeini on February 1, 1979 When asked about his feelings of returning from exile in the plane, he responded none
Arrival of Khomeini on February 1, 1979 When asked about his feelings of returning from exile in the plane, he responded none
Main article: Iranian Revolution

Khomeini had refused to return to Iran until the Shah left. On January 16, 1979, the Shah did leave the country (ostensibly "on vacation"), never to return. Two weeks later, on Thursday, February 1, 1979, Khomeini returned in triumph to Iran, welcomed by a joyous crowd estimated at at least six million by ABC News reporter Peter Jennings, who was reporting the event from Tehran. Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... Peter Charles Archibald Ewart Jennings, CM (July 29, 1938 – August 7, 2005) was a Canadian-American journalist and news anchor. ...


On the airplane on his way to Iran, Khomeini was asked by reporter Peter Jennings: "What do you feel in returning to Iran?" Khomeini answered "Hich ehsâsi nadâram" (I don't feel a thing). This statement was considered reflective of his mystical or puritanical belief that Dar al-Islam, rather than the motherland, was what mattered, and also a warning to Iranians who hoped he would be a "mainstream nationalist leader" that they were in for disappointment.[52] In Islamic theology and legal interpretations, the ultimate aim of Islam is to bring the whole world under the dominion of Islam. ...


Khomeini adamantly opposed the provisional government of Shapour Bakhtiar, promising "I shall kick their teeth in. I appoint the government. I appoint the government by support of this nation."`[53][54] On February 11 [(Bahman 22)], Khomeini appointed his own competing interim prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan, demanding, "since I have appointed him, he must be obeyed." It was "God's government," he warned, disobedience against which was a "revolt against God."[55] Shapour Bakhtiar Shapour Bakhtiar (  ) (also Shapur Bakhtiar) (Persian: شاپور بختیار ShāpÅ«r Bakhtīār) (born 1914 or 1915 - August 6, 1991) was an Iranian politician and the last Prime Minister of Iran under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان In Persian) (September, 1907? - January 20, 1995) (also spelled Mahdi Bazargan) was head of Irans interim government, virtually Irans first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. ...


Establishment of new government

As Khomeini's movement gained momentum soldiers began to defect to his side, and Khomeini declared jihad on soldiers who did not surrender. [56] On February 11 [(Bahman 22)], as revolt spread and armories were taken over, the military declared neutrality and the Bakhtiar regime collapsed.[57] On March 30, 1979, and March 31, 1979, a referendum to replace the monarchy with an Islamic Republic passed with 98% voting yes (sic). [58] is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Islamic constitution and its opposition

Although revolutionaries were now in charge and Khomeini was their leader, many revolutionaries, both secular and religious, did not approve and/or know of Khomeini's plan for Islamic government by wilayat al-faqih, which involved rule by a marja` Islamic cleric -- i.e., by him.[59] Nor did the new provisional constitution for the Islamic Republic, which revolutionaries had been working on with Khomeini's approval, include the post of supreme Islamic clerical ruler.[60] At the same time, as the undisputed leader of the revolution with enormous mass support, Khomeini had considerable leeway to change the direction of the revolution. In the coming months, Khomeini and his supporters worked to suppress these former allies now becoming opponents, and rewrite the proposed constitution. Newspapers were closed, and those protesting the closings were attacked.[61] Opposition groups such as the National Democratic Front and Muslim People's Republican Party were attacked and finally banned.[62] Through a combination of popular support and questionable balloting pro-Khomeini candidates gained an overwhelming majority of the seats of the Assembly of Experts[63] which revised the proposed constitution. The new constitution included an Islamic jurist Supreme Leader of the country, and a Council of Guardians to veto un-Islamic legislation and screen candidates for office, disqualifying those found un-Islamic. Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of...


In November 1979 the new constitution of the Islamic Republic was passed by referendum. Khomeini himself became instituted as the Supreme Leader (supreme jurist ruler), and officially decreed as the "Leader of the Revolution." On February 4, 1980, Abolhassan Banisadr was elected as the first president of Iran. Helping pass the controversial constitution was the Iran hostage crisis. Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Abolhassan Banisadr Abolhassan Banisadr (Persian: ابوالحسن بنی‌صدر;born March 22, 1933) was the first elected President of Iran after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. ...


Hostage crisis

Main article: Iran hostage crisis

On 22 October 1979, the Shah was admitted into the United States for medical treatment for lymphoma. There was an immediate outcry in Iran and on November 4, 1979, a group of students, all of whom were ardent followers of Khomeini, seized the United States embassy in Tehran, taking 63 American citizens as hostage. After a delay, Khomeini supported the hostage-takers under the slogan "America can't do a damn thing." Fifty two of the hostages were held prisoner for 444 days — an event usually referred to as the Iran hostage crisis. The hostage-takers justified this violation of long-established international law as a reaction to American refusal to hand over the Shah for trial and execution. On February 23, 1980, Khomeini proclaimed Iran's Majlis would decide the fate of the American embassy hostages, and demanded that the United States hand over the Shah for trial in Iran for crimes against the nation. Although the Shah died less than a year later, this did not end the crisis. Supporters of Khomeini named the embassy a "Den of Espionage", and publicized the weapons, electronic listening devices, other equipment and many volumes of official and secret classified documents they found there. Others explain the length of the imprisonment on what Khomeini is reported to have told his president: "This action has many benefits. ... This has united our people. Our opponents do not dare act against us. We can put the constitution to the people's vote without difficulty, and carry out presidential and parliamentary elections." [64] The new theocratic constitution did successfully pass its referendum one month after the hostage-taking, which did succeed in splitting its opposition -- radicals supporting the hostage taking and moderates opposing it. [65][66] Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... The Iran hostage crisis began with the seizure of the American embassy in Tehran; following the release of the hostages in 1981 the embassy was taken over and used by the Revolutionary Guard, and became popularly known as the U.S. Den of Espionage. ...

See also: October Surprise

An October surprise is American political jargon describing a stunning news event with the potential to influence the outcome of an election, particularly one for the presidency. ...

Relationship with other Islamic and non-aligned countries

Khomeini believed in Muslim unity and solidarity and the export of Islamic revolution throughout the world. "Establishing the Islamic state world-wide belong to the great goals of the revolution." [67] He declared the birth week of Muhammad (the week between 12th to 17th of Rabi' al-awwal) as the Unity week. Then he declared the last Friday of Ramadan as International Day of Quds in 1979. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Rabi al-awwal ( ربيع الأول ) is the third month in the Islamic calendar. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Despite his devotion to Islam, Khomeini also emphasized international revolutionary solidarity, expressing support for the PLO, the IRA, Cuba, and the South African anti-apartheid struggle.


Iran-Iraq War

Main article: Iran-Iraq War

Shortly after assuming power, Khomeini began calling for Islamic revolutions across the Muslim world, including Iran's Arab neighbor Iraq,[68] the one large state besides Iran with a Shia majority population. At the same time Saddam Hussein, Iraq's secular Arab nationalist Ba'athist leader, was eager to take advantage of Iran's weakened military and (what he assumed was) revolutionary chaos, and in particular to occupy Iran's adjacent oil-rich province of Khuzestan, and, of course, to undermine Iranian Islamic revolutionary attempts to incite the Shi'a majority of his country. Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Baath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in Damascus in the 1940s as the original secular Arab nationalist movement, to combat Western colonial rule. ... Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ...


With what many Iranians believe was the encouragement of the United States, Saudi Arabia and other countries, Iraq soon launched a full scale invasion of Iran, starting what would become the eight-year-long Iran-Iraq War (September 1980 - August 1988). A combination of fierce resistance by Iranians and military incompetence by Iraqi forces soon stalled the Iraqi advance and by early 1982 Iran regained almost all the territory lost to the invasion. The invasion rallied Iranians behind the new regime, enhancing Khomeini's stature and allowed him to consolidate and stabilize his leadership. After this reversal, Khomeini refused an Iraqi offer of a truce, instead demanding reparation and toppling of Saddam Hussein from power.[69][70][71] Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


Outside powers supplied arms to both sides during the war, but the West wanted to be sure the Islamic revolution did not spread to other parts of the oil-exporting Persian Gulf and began to supply Iraq with whatever help it needed. Most military sales came from the USSR and the USA, and also from France, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt. Most rulers of other Muslim countries also supported Iraq out of opposition to the Islamic ideology of Islamic Republic of Iran, which threatened their own native monarchies. On the other hand most Islamic parties and organizations supported Islamic unity with Iran, especially the Shiite ones.[citation needed] Occident redirects here. ... Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ...


The war continued for another six years, with 450,000 to 950,000 casualties on the Iranian side and at a cost estimated by Iranian officials to total USD $300 billion.[72]


As the costs of the eight-year war mounted, Khomeini, in his words, “drank the cup of poison” and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations. He strongly denied however that pursuit of overthrow of Saddam had been a mistake. In a `Letter to Clergy` he wrote: `... we do not repent, nor are we sorry for even a single moment for our performance during the war. Have we forgotten that we fought to fulfill our religious duty and that the result is a marginal issue?`[73]


As the war ended, the struggles among the clergy resumed and Khomeini’s health began to decline.


Rushdie fatwa

In early 1989, Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for the assassination of Salman Rushdie, an India-born British author. Khomeini claimed that Rushdie's assassination was a religious duty for Muslims because of his alleged blasphemy against Muhammad in his novel, The Satanic Verses. Rushdie's book contains passages that many Muslims – including Ayatollah Khomeini – considered offensive to Islam and the prophet, but the fatwa has also been attacked for violating the rules of fiqh by not allowing the accused an opportunity to defend himself, and because "even the most rigorous and extreme of the classical jurist only require a Muslim to kill anyone who insults the Prophet in his hearing and in his presence."[74] This article is about the controversy over the novel by Salman Rushdie. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... This article is about the controversy over the novel by Salman Rushdie. ... For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For the verses known as Satanic Verses, see Satanic Verses. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Though Rushdie publicly apologized, the fatwa was not revoked. Khomeini explained,

Even if Salman Rushdie repents and becomes the most pious man of all time, it is incumbent on every Muslim to employ everything he has got, his life and wealth, to send him to Hell. [75]

Rushdie himself was not killed but Hitoshi Igarashi, the Japanese translator of the book The Satanic Verses, was murdered and two other translators of the book survived attempted assassinations. [76] Hitoshi Igarashi , 1947—July 11, 1991) was the Japanese translator of Salman Rushdies novel The Satanic Verses. ... This article is about the controversy over the novel by Salman Rushdie. ...


More of Khomeini's fataawa were compiled in The Little Green Book, Sayings of Ayathollah Khomeini, Political, Philosophical, Social and Religious


Life under Khomeini

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Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


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In a speech given to a huge crowd after returning to Iran from exile February 1, 1979, Khomeini made a variety of promises to Iranians for his coming Islamic regime: A popularly elected government that would represent the people of Iran and with which the clergy would not interfere. He promised that “no one should remain homeless in this country,” and that Iranians would have free telephone, heating, electricity, bus services and free oil at their doorstep. While many changes came to Iran under Khomeini, these promises have yet to be fulfilled in the Islamic Republic. [77][78][79][80][81][82] is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Khomeini was more interested in the religious devotion of Muslims than their material prosperity -- six months after his first speech he expressed exasperation with complaints about the sharp drop in Iran's standard of living: `I cannot believe that the purpose of all these sacrifices was to have less expensive melons` [83]


Under Khomeini's rule, Sharia (Islamic law) was introduced, with the Islamic dress code enforced for both men and women by Islamic Revolutionary Guards and other Islamic groups[84] Women were required to cover their hair, and men were not allowed to wear shorts. The Iranian educational curriculum was Islamized at all levels with the Islamic Cultural Revolution; the "Committee for Islamization of Universities"[85] carried this out thoroughly. Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islamic Cultural Revolution was when the universities were shut down after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 in Iran for about two years to purge them of Western influences and bring them in line with Islam. ...


Suppression of enemies and opposition

Opposition to the religious rule of the clergy or Islamic government in general was often met with harsh punishments. In a talk at the Fayzieah School in Qom, August 30, 1979, Khomeini warned opponents: "Those who are trying to bring corruption and destruction to our country in the name of democracy will be oppressed. They are worse than Bani-Ghorizeh Jews, and they must be hanged. We will oppress them by God's order and God's call to prayer."[86] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Detail from miniature painting The Prophet, Ali, and the Companions at the Massacre of the Prisoners of the Jewish Tribe of Beni Qurayzah, illustration of a 19th century text by Muhammad Rafi Bazil. ...


The Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his family left Iran and escaped harm, but hundreds of former members of the overthrown monarchy and military met their end in firing squads, with critics complaining of "secrecy, vagueness of the charges, the absence of defense lawyers or juries", or the opportunity of the accused "to defend themselves." [87] In later years these were followed in larger numbers by the erstwhile revolutionary allies of Khomeini's movement -- Marxists and socialists, mostly university students -- who opposed the theocratic regime. [88] Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September...


In the 1988 massacre of Iranian prisoners, following the People's Mujahedin of Iran operation Forough-e Javidan against the Islamic Republic, Khomeini issued an order to judicial officials to judge every Iranian political prisoner and kill those who would not repent anti-regime activities. Estimates of the number executed vary from 1,400 [89] to 30,000.[90][91][92] In the summer on 1988, immediately after Iran accepted the cease-fire in the Iran-Iraq war, the Iranian government carried out a systematic slaughter of the political prisoners across the country especially those the government called hypocrites (Monafeghs). ... MKO redirects here. ...


Although many hoped the revolution would bring freedom of speech and press, this was not to be. In defending forced closing of opposition newspapers and attacks on opposition protesters by club-wielding vigilantes, Khomeini explained, `The club of the pen and the club of the tongue is the worst of clubs, whose corruption is a 100 times greater than other clubs.` [93]


Minority religions

Life for religious minorities has been mixed under Khomeini and his successors. Earlier statements by Khomeini were antagonistic towards Jews, but shortly after his return from exile in 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa ordering that Jews and other minorities (except Baha'is) be treated well. [94] [95] In power, Khomeini distinguished between Zionism as a secular political party that enjoys Jewish symbols and ideals and Judaism as the religion of Moses.[96] As Haroun Yashyaei, a film producer and former chairman of the Central Jewish Community in Iran has said: This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...

Take it from me, the Jewish community here faces no difficulties. If some people left after the revolution, maybe it's because they were scared. [97]

By law, four of the 270 seats in parliament are reserved for three non-Islamic minority religions. Khomeini also called for unity between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims (Sunni Muslims are the largest religious minority in Iran).[98]


Non-Muslim religious minorities, however, do not have equal rights in Khomeini's Islamic Republic. Senior government posts are reserved for Muslims. Jewish, Christian and Zoroastrian schools must be run by Muslim principals.[99] Compensation for death paid to the family of a non-Muslim was (by law) less than if the victim was a Muslim. (This was recently changed, with non-Muslims families now receiving just as much.[citation needed]) Conversion to Islam is encouraged by entitling converts to inherit the entire share of their parents (or even uncle's) estate if their siblings (or cousins) remain non-Muslim.[100] Iran's non-Muslim population has fallen dramatically. For example, the Jewish population in Iran dropped from 80,000 to 30,000 in the first two decades of the revolution.[101]


Unlike the other non-Muslims in Iran, the 300,000 members of the Bahá'í Faith, are actively harassed. "Some 200 of whom have been executed and the rest forced to convert or subjected to the most horrendous disabilities." [102] Starting in late 1979 the new government systematically targeted the leadership of the Bahá'í community by focusing on the Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly (NSA) and Local Spiritual Assemblies (LSAs); prominent members of NSAs and LSAs were either killed or disappeared.[103] Like most conservative Muslims, Khomeini believed them to be apostates, for example issuing a fatwa stating: This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Spiritual Assembly is a term given by `Abdul-Bahá to refer to elected leadership councils that govern the Baháí Faith. ... Spiritual Assembly is a term given by `Abdul-Bahá to refer to elected leadership councils that govern the Baháí Faith. ...

It is not acceptable that a tributary [non-Muslim who pays tribute] changes his religion to another religion not recognized by the followers of the previous religion. For example, from the Jews who become Bahai's nothing is accepted except Islam or execution.[104]

and emphasized that the Bahá'ís would not receive any religious rights, since he believed that the Bahá'ís were a political rather than religious movement.[105][106]

the Baha'is are not a sect but a party, which was previously supported by Britain and now the United States. The Baha'is are also spies just like the Tudeh [Communist Party]. [107] The Tudeh Party of Iran (f. ...

During the drafting of the new constitution the wording intentionally excluded the Bahá'ís from protection as a religious minority.[108]

Main article: Persecution of Bahá'ís

The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ...

Emigration and economy

Many Shia Iranians have also left the country. While the revolution has made Iran more strict Islamically, an estimated "two to four million entrepreneurs, professionals, technicians, and skilled craftspeople (and their capital)" have emigrated to other countries. Partly as a result, the economy has not prospered in terms of inflation, unemployment and living standards. [109] [110] The poor have also exhibited dissatisfaction. Absolute poverty rose by nearly 45% during the first 6 years of the Islamic revolution [111] and on several occasions the mustazafin have rioted, protesting the demolition of their shantytowns and rising food prices. Disabled war veterans have demonstrated against mismanagement of the Foundation of the Disinherited.[112]


Death and funeral

After eleven days in a hospital for an operation to stop internal bleeding, Khomeini died of heart attack on Saturday, June 3, 1989, at the age of 86. [113] Iranians poured out into the cities and streets to mourn Khomeini's death in a "completely spontaneous and unorchestrated outpouring of grief." [114]-1... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...

Despite the hundred-degree heat, crushing mobs created an impassable sea of black for miles as they wailed, chanted and rhythmically beat themselves in anguish ... As the hours passed, fire trucks had to be brought in to spray water on the crowd to provide relief from the heat, while helicopters were flown in to ferry the eight killed and more than four hundred injured ... " [115]

Iranian officials aborted Khomeini’s first funeral, after a large crowd stormed the funeral procession, nearly destroying Khomeini's wooden coffin in order to get a last glimpse of his body. At one point, Khomeini's body actually almost fell to the ground, as the crowd attempted to grab pieces of the death shroud. The second funeral was held under much tighter security. Khomeini's casket was made of steel, and heavily armed security personnel surrounded it. In accordance with Islamic tradition, the casket was only to carry the body to the burial site. Khomeini's grave is now housed within a larger mausoleum complex.


Successorship

Grand Ayatollah Hossein Montazeri, a major figure of the Revolution, was designated by Khomeini to be his successor as Supreme Leader. The principle of velayat-e faqih and the Islamic constitution called for the Supreme Ruler to be a marja or grand ayatollah, and of the dozen or so grand ayatollahs living in 1981 only Montazeri accepted the concept of rule by Islamic jurist.[116] In 1989 Montazeri began to call for liberalization, freedom for political parties. Following the execution of thousands of political prisoners by the Islamic government, Montazeri told Khomeini `your prisons are far worse than those of the Shah and his SAVAK.`[117] After a letter of his complaints was leaked to Europe and broadcast on the BBC a furious Khomeini ousted him from his position as official successor. Ayatollah Montazeri Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri (Persian: حسین علی منتظری), styled His Honourable Eminence, born in 1922, was one of the leaders of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and is a Grand Ayatollah (a Shia marja) and as such is considered one of the highest ranking authorities in Shia Islam today. ... Guardianship of the Jurisprudents or Trusteeship of the Jurisconsults (Arabic: ولاية الفقيه Wilayat al-Faqih, Persian: Velayat-e-Faqih) is a Shia Twelver doctrine regarding Islamic leadership // Definition According to it, those most knowledgeable about Islamic law (Shariah) should assume a guiding or leading political role in society. ... Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed...


Writers in the West report that the amendment made to Iran's constitution removing the requirement that the Supreme Leader to be a Marja, was to deal with the problem of a lack of any remaining Grand Ayatollahs willing to accept "velayat-e faqih."[118][119][120] However, others say the reason marjas were not elected was because of their lack of votes in the Assembly of Experts, for example Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Golpaygani had the backing of only 13 members of the assembly. Furthermore, there were other marjas present who accepted "velayat-e faqih"[121][122][123] Grand Ayatollah Hossein Montazeri continued his criticism of the regime and in 1997 was put under house arrest for questioning the unaccountable rule exercised by the supreme leader.[124][125][126] He was released in 2003. Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... This page is a partial list of the Marja Taqleeds (Grand Ayatollahs), which are followed by Usulli Shia Muslims around the world. ... In Iran, the Velayat-e faqih refers to the controversial concept of guardianship of the jurist. ... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ... Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Golpaygani (1898-1993) was born in Gogad village, near the city of Golpaygan, Iran. ... In Iran, the Velayat-e faqih refers to the controversial concept of guardianship of the jurist. ... Ayatollah Montazeri Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri (Persian: حسین علی منتظری), styled His Honourable Eminence, born in 1922, was one of the leaders of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and is a Grand Ayatollah (a Shia marja) and as such is considered one of the highest ranking authorities in Shia Islam today. ...


Political thought and legacy

Main article: Political thought and legacy of Khomeini

See also: History of political Islam in Iran Ayatollah Khomeini Further information: Ruhollah Khomeini The Political thought and legacy of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Mustafavi Khomeini refers to the religious and political ideas and legacy of that leader of the Iranian Revolution, one of the major revolutions of the 20th century. ... This article addresses the roots and the developmental history of Islamic fundamentalism in Iran. ...

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Throughout his many writings and speeches, Khomeini's views on governance evolved. Originally declaring rule by monarchs or others permissible so long as sharia law was followed [127] Khomeini later adamantly opposed monarchy, arguing that only rule by a leading Islamic jurist (a marja`), would insure Sharia was properly followed (wilayat al-faqih), [128] before finally insisting the ruling jurist need not be a leading one and Sharia rule could be overruled by that jurist if necessary to serve the interests of Islam and the "divine government" of the Islamic state. [129] Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Marjaˤ (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid (Arabic: مرجع التقليد, Persian: مرجع تقليد), literally means Source of Imitation, Reference of Emulation or Source of Tradition and refers to the second highest authority on religion and law in Twelver Shia Islam after Muhammad and Shia Imams. ... Guardianship of the Jurisprudents or Trusteeship of the Jurisconsults (Arabic: ولاية الفقيه Wilayat al-Faqih, Persian: Velayat-e-Faqih) is a Shia Twelver doctrine regarding Islamic leadership // Definition According to it, those most knowledgeable about Islamic law (Shariah) should assume a guiding or leading political role in society. ...


Khomeini's concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (ولایت فقیه, velayat-e faqih) [10] did not win the support of the leading Iranian Shi'i clergy of the time. Towards the 1979 Revolution, many clerics gradually became disillusioned with the rule of the Shah, although none came around to supporting Khomeini's vision of a theocratic Islamic Republic.[130] For other uses, see Vilayat-e Faqih. ...


Whether Khomeini's ideas are compatible with democracy and whether he intended the Islamic Republic to be a democratic republic is disputed. According to the state-run Aftab News, [131] both ultraconservative (Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi) and reformist opponents of the regime (Akbar Ganji and Abdolkarim Soroush) believe he did not, while regime officials and supporters like Ali Khamenei[132], Mohammad Khatami and Mortaza Motahhari[133] believe Khomeini intended the Islamic republic to be democratic and that it is so.[134] Khomeini himself also made statements at different times indicating both support and opposition to democracy.[135] Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi (Persian: محمد تقی مصباح یزدی) (born 1934) is an Iranian Shia cleric and politician. ... Akbar Ganji (Persian: اکبر گنجی , born 31 January 1960 in Qazvin) is an Iranian journalist and writer. ... Image:Soroush. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای, pronounced []) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[3] has been Supreme Leader of Iran since 1989 and before that was president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, University lecturer, and politician. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ...


One scholar, Shaul Bakhash, explains this disagreement as coming from Khomeini's belief that the huge turnout of Iranians in anti-Shah demonstrations during the revolution constituted a `referendum` in favor of an Islamic republic.[136] Khomeini also wrote that since Muslims must support a government based on Islamic law, Sharia-based government will always have more popular support in Muslim countries than any government based on elected representatives.[137] Shaul Bakhash is a reigning doyen of Persian studies at George Mason University where he is Clarence J. Robinson Professor of History. ...


Khomeini offered himself as a "champion of Islamic revival" and unity, emphasising issues Muslims agreed upon - the fight against zionism and imperialism - and downplaying Shia issues that would divide Shia from Sunni.[138] Khomeini strongly opposed close relations with neither Eastern or Western Bloc nations, believing the Islamic world should be its own bloc, or rather converge into a single unified power.[139] He viewed Western culture as being inherently decadent and a corrupting influence upon the youth. The Islamic Republic banned or discouraged popular Western fashions, music, cinema, and literature.[140] In the Western world it is said "his glowering visage became the virtual face of Islam in Western popular culture" and "inculcated fear and distrust towards Islam."[141] This has particularly been the case in the United States where Khomeini and the Islamic Republic are remembered for the American embassy hostage taking and accused of sponsoring hostage-taking and terrorist attacks,[142][143] and which continues to apply economic sanctions against Iran. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... This article outlines economic, trade, scientific and military Sanctions against Iran, which has been put forward by the U.S. government, or under U.S. pressure. ...


Before taking power Khomeini expressed support for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; in Sahifeh Nour (Vol.2 Page 242), he states: "We would like to act according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. We would like to be free. We would like independence." However once in power Khomeini took a firm line against dissent, warning opponents of theocracy for example: "I repeat for the last time: abstain from holding meetings, from blathering, from publishing protests. Otherwise I will break your teeth."[144] Iran adopted an alternative human rights declaration, the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, in 1990 (one year after Khomeini's death), which diverges in key respects from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[citation needed] The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective on human rights, and...


Many of Khomeini's political and religious ideas were considered to be progressive and reformist by leftist intellectuals and activists prior to the Revolution. However, once in power his ideas often clashed with those of modernist or secular Iranian intellectuals. This conflict came to a head during the writing of the Islamic constitution when many newspapers were closed by the government. Khomeini angrily told the intellectuals:

Yes, we are reactionaries, and you are enlightened intellectuals: You intellectuals do not want us to go back 1400 years. You, who want freedom, freedom for everything, the freedom of parties, you who want all the freedoms, you intellectuals: freedom that will corrupt our youth, freedom that will pave the way for the oppressor, freedom that will drag our nation to the bottom. [145] Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ...

In contrast to Khomeini's alienation from Iranian intellectuals was his embrace of international revolution and Third World solidarity which "took precedence over Muslim fraternity, in an utter departure from all other Islamist movements." Until Khomeini's death the Iranian press - which was controlled by his supporters - "devoted extensive coverage to non-Muslim revolutionary movements (from the Sandinistas to the African National Congress and the Irish Republican Army) and downplayed the role of the Islamic movements considered conservative, such as the Afghan mujahidin."[146] For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Sandinista! is also the name of a popular music album by The Clash. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , literally strugglers) is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle. ...


Khomeini also emphasized the serious nature of life: "Allah did not create man so that he could have fun. The aim of creation was for mankind to be put to the test through hardship and prayer."[147]


Appearance, habits

Khomeini is described as "slim," but athletic and "heavily boned." He was "fairly tall by the Iranian standards of his day", at a height of 1.76 meters (5 ft 9 in).[148] He was known for his punctuality:

He's so punctual that if he doesn't turn up for lunch at exactly ten past everyone will get worried, because his work is regulated in such a way that he turned up for lunch at exactly that time every day. He goes to bed exactly on time. He eats exactly on time. And he wakes up exactly on time. He changes his frock every time he comes back from the mosque. [149]

and for his aloof and stern demeanor. He is said to have "variously inspired admiration, awe, and fear from those around him."[150] His practice of moving "through the halls of the madresehs never smiling at anybody or anything. ... his practice of ignoring his audience while he thought contributed to his charisma." [151] He preached that `there are no jokes in Islam. There is no humor in Islam.`[152]


Khomeini also refusing to eat or drink in a restaurant unless he knew for sure the waiter was a Muslim.[153] He was one of the Shia marja who adhered to traditional beliefs of Islamic cleanliness holding that non-Moslems - like urine, excrement, blood, wine, sweat of the excrement-eating camels, etc. - were one of eleven impure things contact with which required major ritual washing or Ghusl before prayer or salah.[154][155] Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... This is a sub-article to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence and cleanliness. ... Ghusl (غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full Ablution in Islam. ... Salat redirects here. ...


Mystique

Even more famous was his mystique. He benefited from the widespread circulation of "an old Shia saying" attributed to the Imam Musa al-Kazim who is said to have prophesied shortly before his death in 799 that Imam Musa al Kazim (November 10, 745 - September 4, 799) was the seventh Shia Imam (he is not accepted by the Ismailis as the seventh Imam). ...

`A man will come out from Qom and he will summon people to the right path. There will rally to him people resembling pieces of iron, not to be shaken by violent winds, unsparing and relying on God.` [156] Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ...

Khomeini was the first and only Iranian cleric to be addressed as "Imam", a title hitherto reserved in Iran for the twelve infallible leaders of the early Shi'a.[157] He was also associated with the Mahdi or 12th Imam of Shia belief in a number of ways. One of his titles was Na'eb-e Imam (Deputy to the [Twelfth Imam). His enemies were often attacked as taghut and mofsidin fi'l-arz (corrupters of the earth), religious terms used for enemies of the Twelfth Imam. Many of the officials of the overthrown Shah's government executed by Revolutionary Courts were convicted of "fighting against the Twelfth Imam". When a deputy in the majlis asked Khomeini if he was the `promised Mahdi`, Khomeini did not answer, "astutely" neither confirming nor denying the title.[158] This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shia doctrine) and is specifically about the Shia twelver conception of the term. ... It has been suggested that Mahdi be merged into this article or section. ... In Islamic context, Taghut refers to idolatry, considered impurity. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ...


In late 1978 a rumour swept the country that Khomeini's face could be seen in the full moon.

Tears of joy were shed and huge quantities of sweets and fruits were consumed as millions of people jumped for joy, shouting `I've seen the Imam in the moon.` The event was celebrated in thousands of mosques with mullahs reminding the faithful that a sure sign of the coming of the Mahdi was that the sun would rise in the West. Khomeini, representing the sun, was now in France and his face was shining in the moon like a sun. People were ready to swear on the Qur'an that they had seen Khomeini's face in the moon. Even the Tudeh Party [the party of "Scientific Socialism"] shared in the [enthusiasm]. Its paper Navid wrote: `Our toiling masses, fighting against world-devouring imperialism headed by the blood-sucking United States, have seen the face of their beloved Imam and leader, Khomeini the Breaker of Idols, in the moon. A few pipsqueaks cannot deny what a whole nation has seen with its own eyes.` [159] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muhammad al-Mahdi. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Tudeh Party of Iran (f. ... Scientific Socialism is the term used by Friedrich Engels to describe the socio-political-economic theory pioneered by Karl Marx. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ...

As the revolution gained momentum, even some non-supporters exhibited awe, called him "magnificently clear-minded, single-minded and unswerving."[160] His image was as "absolute, wise, and indispensable leader of the nation"[161]

The Imam, it was generally believed, had shown by his uncanny sweep to power, that he knew how to act in ways which others could not begin to understand. His timing was extraordinary, and his insight into the motivation of others, those around him as well as his enemies, could not be explained as ordinary knowledge. This emergent belief in Khomeini as a divinely guided figure was carefully fostered by the clerics who supported him and spoke up for him in front of the people. [162]

Even many secularists who firmly disapproved of his policies were said to feel the power of his "messianic" appeal.[163] Comparing him to a father figure who retains the enduring loyalty even of children he disapproves of, journalist Afshin Molavi writes of the defenses of Khomeini he's "heard in the most unlikely settings": This article concerns secularism, the exclusion of religion and supernatural beliefs. ...

A whiskey-drinking professor told an American journalist that Khomeini brought pride back to Iranians. A women's rights activist told me that Khomeini was not the problem; it was his conservative allies who had directed him wrongly. A nationalist war veteran, who held Iran's ruling clerics in contempt, carried with him a picture of `the Imam`. [164]

Another journalist tells the story of how an Iranian who had just gotten done telling her how he wanted his son to leave the country and "repeatedly made the point that life had been better" under the Shah, turned "ashen faced" and speechless upon hearing the 85+-year-old Imam might be dying, pronouncing `This is terrible for my country.`[165]


Family and descendants

Khomeini with grandson Hussein Khomeini and granddaughter Zahra Eshraghi.
Khomeini with grandson Hussein Khomeini and granddaughter Zahra Eshraghi.

In 1929, (some say 1931[166]) Khomeini married Batoul Saqafi Khomeini, the 11-year-old[167] daughter of a cleric in Tehran. By all acounts their marriage was harmonious and happy.[168] They had seven children, though only five survived infancy. His daughters all married into either merchant or clerical families, and both his sons entered into religious life. The elder son, Mustafa, is rumored to have been murdered in 1977 while in exile with his father in Najaf, Iraq and Khomeini accused SAVAK of orchestrating it. Ahmad Khomeini, Khomeini's younger son, died in 1995 under mysterious circumstances. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Khomeini's notable grandchildren include:

  • Hasan Khomeini, Khomeini's elder grandson Sayid Hasan Khomeini, son of the Seyyed Ahmad Khomeini, is a cleric and the trustee of Khomeini's shrine.
  • Husain Khomeini, (Sayid Husain Khomeini) Khomeini's other grandson, son of Sayid Mustafa Khomeini, is a mid-level cleric who is strongly against the system of the Islamic Republic. In 2003 he was quoted as saying:
Iranians need freedom now, and if they can only achieve it with American interference I think they would welcome it. As an Iranian, I would welcome it. [169]

In that same year Husain Khomeini visited the United States, where he met figures such as Reza Pahlavi II, the son of the last Shah.[citation needed] Granddaughter of the late Supreme Ayatollah Khomeini, and wife of Mohammad Reza Khatami (since 1983), head of the Islamic Iran Participation Front, the main reformist party in the country. ... Mohammad Reza Khatami Seyyed Mohammad Reza Khatami (محمد رضا خاتمی), also known as Reza Khatami (born in 1959 in Ardakan), is a Persian politician. ... The Islamic Iran Participation Front (Jebheye Mosharekate Iran-e Eslaami, جبهه مشارکت ایران اسلامی in Persian) is a reformist political party in Iran. ... Sayyid (also rendered as Sayid, Said or, in Malaysia and The Subcontinent, as Syed) is an honorific title often given to descendants of The Prophet through his grandson, Husain and Hasan (Descendants of Hasan were known as Sharif in the Arab world. ... Ahmad Khomeini (born Qom, 1945 - died 1994) was son of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... Reza Pahlavi II Reza Pahlavi II (born October 31, 1960 in Tehran, Iran), is the eldest son of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, grandson of Reza Shah Pahlavi and pretender to the Persian throne. ...


Later that year, Husain returned to Iran after receiving an urgent message from his grandmother. According to Michael Ledeen, quoting "family sources", he was blackmailed into returning.[170] Michael Ledeen (born August 1, 1941) is a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. ...


In 2006, he called for an American invasion and overthrow of the Islamic Republic, telling Al-Arabiyah television station viewers, "If you were a prisoner, what would you do? I want someone to break the prison [doors open]."[171].


Hussein is currently under house arrest in the holy city of Qum.[citation needed] Categories: Iran geography stubs | Holy cities | Cities in Iran ...


Another of Khomeini's grandchildren, Ali Eshraghi was first disqulaifed from the 2008 parliamentary elections on grounds of being insufficently loyal to the principles of the Islamic revolution, but later reinstated.[172]


Works

For the doctrine, see Guardianship of the Islamic jurists For the book by Ayatollah Khomeini, see Waliyat al-faqih (book by Khomeini) For the book by Saleh Najaf-Abadi, see Waliyat al-faqih (book by Saleh Najaf-Abadi) For the Wilayat-e-Faqih of the Islamic Republic of Iran, see...

See also

Hezbollah (Persian: حزب الله) is a political and spiritual philosophy and way of life that developed in Iran in the years leading up to the Iranian Revolution. ... Islamic scholars are Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who work in one or more fields of Islamic studies. ... The politics and government of Iran takes place in the framework of a republic with Islamist ideology. ... Ayatollah Mahmoud Taleghani was a senior Shia cleric of Iran. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... MKO redirects here. ... In the summer on 1988, immediately after Iran accepted the cease-fire in the Iran-Iraq war, the Iranian government carried out a systematic slaughter of the political prisoners across the country especially those the government called hypocrites (Monafeghs). ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Vilayat-e Faqih. ... Ayatollah Khomeini Further information: Ruhollah Khomeini The Political thought and legacy of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Mustafavi Khomeini refers to the religious and political ideas and legacy of that leader of the Iranian Revolution, one of the major revolutions of the 20th century. ... Ruhollah Khomeini Hokumat-e Islami : Velayat-e faqih (Arabic: ‎), (also known as Hokumat-e Islami or Islamic Government in English), is a book by the Iranian Shia Muslim cleric and revolutionary Ayatollah Khomeini, first published in 1970, and probably the most influential document written in modern times in support of... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c DeFronzo 2007, p. 286. "born September 24, 1902..."
  2. ^ a b c Karsh 2007, p. 220. "Born on September 24, 1902, into a devout small-town family, Khomeini..."
  3. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.138
  4. ^ a b Khomeini & Algar 2002, p. ix
  5. ^ a b Moin 2000, p. 2
  6. ^ Some sources place Khomeini's birth date on May 17, 1900, or another date in September 1902. See Encyclopedia Britannica.
  7. ^ Moin 2000, pp. 2-3
  8. ^ Moin 2000, p. 3. "Five years or so later, in 1839,... remain in his family for well over a century and a half."
  9. ^ Karsh 2007, p. 220. "...Khomeini lost his father when he was five months old."
  10. ^ Anderson, Raymond H.. "Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, 89, the Unwavering Iranian Spiritual Leader", The New York Times, 1989-06-04. Retrieved on 2007-12-26. 
  11. ^ Moin 2000, pp. 6-8
  12. ^ Daniel 2001, p. 176. "His father was murdered... (in a dispute with a rival family..."
  13. ^ a b c Moin 2000, p. 18
  14. ^ a b Reich 1990, p. 311
  15. ^ a b Milani 1994, p. 85
  16. ^ Moin 2000, p. 22
  17. ^ Brumberg 2001, p. 45. "By 1920, the year Khomeini moved to Arak..."
  18. ^ Moin 2000, p. 28. "Khomeini's madraseh in Qom was known as the Dar al-Shafa..."
  19. ^ Moin 2000, p. 42
  20. ^ a b Brumberg 2001, p. 46
  21. ^ Rāhnamā 1994, pp. 70-1
  22. ^ BBC - History - Ayatollah Khomeini (1900-1989)
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ Ruhollah Khomeini - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  25. ^ [2]
  26. ^ Kashf al-Asrar
  27. ^ Encyclopedia of World Biography on Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, Ayatullah
  28. ^ Philosophy as Viewed by Ruhollah Khomeini
  29. ^ Kashful-Asrar, p. 33 by Ruhollah Khomeini (
  30. ^ Philosophy as Viewed by Ruhollah Khomeini
  31. ^ Imam Khomeini's Poems
  32. ^ [3]
  33. ^ Encyclopedia of World Biography on Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, Ayatollah
  34. ^ [4]
  35. ^ [5], Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p. 104.
  36. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p. 112.
  37. ^ Khomeini's speech against capitalism, IRIB World Service.
  38. ^ Shirley, Know Thine Enemy (1997), p. 207.
  39. ^ The Unknown Ayatullah Khomeini - TIME
  40. ^ Molavi, Afshin, The Soul of Iran, Norton (2005), p. 250.
  41. ^ nyt.com The People's Shah
  42. ^ Mottahedeh, Roy, The Mantle of the Prophet : Religion and Politics in Iran, One World, Oxford, 1985, 2000, p.246
  43. ^ Islam and Revolution (1981), pp. 29-30.
  44. ^ Islam and Revolution (1981), p. 59.
  45. ^ Islam and Revolution, (1981), p.31, 56
  46. ^ Islam and Revolution (1981), p.54.
  47. ^ Khomeini on a cassette tape [source: Gozideh Payam-ha Imam Khomeini (Selections of Imam Khomeini’s Messages), Tehran, 1979, (Taheri, The Spirit of Allah, (1985), p.193)
  48. ^ Parviz Sabeti, head of SAVAK's `anti-subversion unit`, believed the number of cassettes "exceeded 100,000." (Taheri, The Spirit of Allah, (1985), p.193)
  49. ^ Mackay, Iranians (1996), p.277; source: Quoted in Fouad Ajami, The Vanished Imam: Musa al Sadr and the Shia of Lebanon (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986), p.25
  50. ^ Harney, The Priest (1998), p.?
  51. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.203
  52. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2001), p.199
  53. ^ Taheri, The Spirit of Allah, (1985), p.241
  54. ^ امروز در آینه تاریخ
  55. ^ Moin Khomeini, (2000), p.204
  56. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.205-6
  57. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.206
  58. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica.
  59. ^ World: Middle East Analysis: The forces for change
  60. ^ Khomeini's REVERSALS of Promises
  61. ^ Moin Khomeini, (2000), p.219
  62. ^ Bakhash, Shaul The Reign of the Ayatollahs p.68-9
  63. ^ Schirazi, Constitution of Iran Tauris, 1997 p.22-3
  64. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.228
  65. ^ Example of anti-theocratic support for the hostage crisis in Nafisi, Azar, Reading Lolita in Tehran: A Memoir in Books, Random House, 2003, p.105-6, 112
  66. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.228
  67. ^ (Resalat, 25.3.1988) (quoted on p.69, The Constitution of Iran by Asghar Schirazi, Tauris, 1997
  68. ^ 1980 April 8 - Broadcast call by Khomeini for the pious of Iraq to overthrow Saddam and his regime. Al-Dawa al-Islamiya party in Iraqi is the hoped for catalyst to start rebellion. From: Mackey, The Iranians, (1996), p.317
  69. ^ Wright, In the Name of God, (1989), p.126
  70. ^ Time Magazine [6]
  71. ^ The Iran-Iraq War: Strategy of Stalemate [7]
  72. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.252
  73. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.285
  74. ^ Bernard Lewis's comment on Rushdie fatwa in The Crisis of Islam (2003) by Bernard Lewis, p.141-2
  75. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.284
  76. ^ "Japanese Translator of Rushdie Book Found Slain", WEISMAN, Steven R. www.nytimes.com, July 13 1991.
  77. ^ Iran Bulletin
  78. ^ DFN: Entrance Exam and the Time of Resurrection
  79. ^ Holy Crime, crime of clergy, clergical crime, Ecclesiastical crime, spritual,purity, inocent, Iran, Iranian, Persia, Persian Culture, Art, History Land and People, Poetry, religion, Organizations and directories,Daneshjoo, Nothing but Iran
  80. ^ BBC NEWS
  81. ^ [8][dead link]
  82. ^ "Khomeini:We want to improve your economic and spiritual lives..."
  83. ^ (Khomeini July 1979) [quoted in The Government of God p.111. "see the FBIS for typical broadcasts, especially GBIS-MEA-79-L30, July 5, 1979 v.5 n.130, reporting broadacasts of the National Voice of Iran.]
  84. ^ Gobal Security, Intelligence: Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij - Mobilisation Resistance Force
  85. ^ Secretariat of the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution. Brief history of the SCCR
  86. ^ Democracy? I meant theocracy By Dr. Jalal Matini, The Iranian, August 5, 2003
  87. ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs (1984), p.61
  88. ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p.111
  89. ^ Massacre 1988 (Pdf)
  90. ^ Memories of a slaughter in Iran
  91. ^ Khomeini fatwa 'led to killing of 30,000 in Iran'
  92. ^ The Millimeter Revolution By ELIZABETH RUBIN .
  93. ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs (1984), p.146
  94. ^ Wright, Last Revolution (2000), p.207
  95. ^ IRAN: Life of Jews Living in Iran
  96. ^ R. Khomeini `The Report Card on Jews Differs from That on the Zionists,` Ettelaat, 11 May 1979]
  97. ^ Jews in Iran Describe a Life of Freedom Despite Anti-Israel Actions by Tehran
  98. ^ "4% belong to the Sunni branch", http://www.iranonline.com/iran/iran-info/people/index.html
  99. ^ Wright, The Last Great Revolution, (2000), p.210
  100. ^ Wright, The Last Great Revolution, (2000), p.216
  101. ^ Wright, The Last Great Revolution, (2000), p.207
  102. ^ Turban for the Crown : The Islamic Revolution in Iran, by Said Amir Arjomand, Oxford University Press, 1988, p.169
  103. ^ Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (2007). A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Baha'is of Iran. Iran Human Rights Documentation Center. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
  104. ^ from Poll Tax, 8. Tributary conditions, (13), Tahrir al-Vasileh, volume 2, pp. 497-507, Quoted in A Clarification of Questions : An Unabridged Translation of Resaleh Towzih al-Masael by Ayatollah Sayyed Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini, Westview Press/ Boulder and London, c1984, p.432
  105. ^ Cockroft, James (1979-02-23). "{{{title}}}". Seven Days. 
  106. ^ "U.S. Jews Hold Talks With Khomeini Aide on Outlook for Rights", The New York Times, 1979-02-13. 
  107. ^ source: Kayhan International, May 30, 1983; see also Firuz Kazemzadeh, `The Terror Facing the Baha'is` New York Review of Books, 1982, 29 (8): 43-44.]
  108. ^ Afshari, Reza (2001). Human Rights in Iran: The Abuse of Cultural Relativism. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 132. ISBN 978-0-8122-3605-7. 
  109. ^ Iran's Economic Morass: Mismanagement and Decline under the Islamic Republic ISBN 0-944029-67-1
  110. ^ Huge cost of Iranian brain drain By Frances Harrison
  111. ^ Based on the government's own Planning and Budget Organization statistics, from: Jahangir Amuzegar, `The Iranian Economy before and after the Revolution,` Middle East Journal 46, n.3 (summer 1992): 421)
  112. ^ Khomeini's REVERSALS of Promises
  113. ^ {{Spencer, William. The Middle East. Global Studies Series. Eleventh Edition]June 2007}}
  114. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.312
  115. ^ In the Name of God : The Khomeini Decade by Robin Wright, (1989), p.204
  116. ^ The Islamic Republic Will Be Run By the Most Learned Jurist
  117. ^ Ahmad Khomeini’s letter, in Resalat, cited in The Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic Revolution, rev. ed. by Shaul Bakhash, p.282
  118. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000) p.293
  119. ^ Mackey, SandraThe Iranians (1996), p.353
  120. ^ Roy, Olivier, The Failure of Political Islam, translated by Carol Volk Harvard University Press, 1994, p.173-4
  121. ^ «آیت الله خامنه ای با ولایت فرد مخالف بود» - radiofarda.com
  122. ^ [http://khabarnameh.gooya.com/politics/archives/006610.php
  123. ^ خبرگزاری آفتاب - توضیحات هاشمی درباره شورای رهبری
  124. ^ Profile: Iran's dissident ayatollah BBC NEWS
  125. ^ [9]
  126. ^ Redirect
  127. ^ 1942 book/pamphet Kashf al-Asrar quoted in Islam and Revolution
  128. ^ 1970 book Hukumat Islamiyyah or Islamic Government, quoted in Islam and Revolution
  129. ^ Hamid Algar, `Development of the Concept of velayat-i faqih since the Islamic Revolution in Iran,` paper presented at London Conference on wilayat al-faqih, in June, 1988] [p.135-8] Also Ressalat, Tehran, 7 January 1988, Khomeini on how Laws in Iran will strictly adhere to God's perfect and unchanging divine law
  130. ^ The Failure of Political Islam by Olivier Roy, translated by Carol Volk, Harvard University Press, 1994, p.173-4
  131. ^ Ganji, Sorush and Mesbah Yazdi(Persian)
  132. ^ The principles of Islamic republic from viewpoint of Imam Khomeini in the speeches of the leader(Persian)
  133. ^ About Islamic republic(Persian)
  134. ^ Ayatollah Khomeini and the Contemporary Debate on Freedom
  135. ^ "Democracy? I meant theocracy", by Dr. Jalal Matini, Translation & Introduction by Farhad Mafie, August 5, 2003, The Iranian, http://www.iranian.com/Opinion/2003/August/Khomeini/
  136. ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs (1984), p.73
  137. ^ Khomeini, Islam and Revolution, (1982), p.56
  138. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival Norton, (2006), p.137
  139. ^ Bayan, No.4 (1990), p.8)
  140. ^ Iran president bans Western music
  141. ^ Nasr, Vali The Shia Revival, Norton, 2006, p.138
  142. ^ wright, Sacred Rage, (2001), p.28, 33,
  143. ^ for example the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing see:Hizb'allah in Lebanon : The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis Magnus Ranstorp, Department of International Relations University of St. Andrews St. Martins Press, New York, 1997, p.54, 117
  144. ^ in Qom, Iran, October 22, 1979, quoted in, The Shah and the Ayatollah : Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution by Fereydoun Hoveyda, Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2003, p.88
  145. ^ p.47, Wright. source: Speech at Feyziyeh Theological School, August 24, 1979; reproduced in Rubin, Barry and Judith Colp Rubin, Anti-American Terrorism and the Middle East: A Documentary Reader, Oxford University Press, 2002, p.34
  146. ^ Roy, The Failure of Political Islam. 1994, p.175
  147. ^ source: Meeting in Qom "Broadcast by radio Iran from Qom on 20 August 1979." quoted in Taheri, The Spirit of Allah, (1985) p.259
  148. ^ Taheri, The Spirit of Allah (1985), p. 49
  149. ^ According to a daughter quoted in In the Name of God by Robin Wright c1989, p.45
  150. ^ Brumberg, Reinventing Khomeini, (2001), p.53
  151. ^ Mackay, Iranians (198?) p.224
  152. ^ from a meeting in Qom "Broadcast by radio Iran from Qom on 20 August 1979.")(Taheri, The Spirit of Allah (1985), p.259
  153. ^ Personal communications from Dr. Mansur Farhang, a biographer and supporter of Khomeini who was the former Iranian representative at the United Nations, with Ervand Abrahamian. Quoted in Abrahamian, Ervand, Khomeinism : Essays on the Islamic Republic University of California Press, (1993)
  154. ^ fatwa #83 from A Clarification of Questions : An Unabridged Translation of Resaleh Towzih al-Masael'
    by Ayatollah Sayyed Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini, Translated by J. Borujerdi, with a Foreword by Michael M. J. Fischer and Mehdi Abedi, Westview Press/ Boulder and London c1984, p.48
  155. ^ Mottahedeh, Roy, The Mantle of the Prophet : Religion and Politics in Iran, One World, Oxford, 1985, 2000, p.383
  156. ^ (Mackay Iranians, p.277. Source: Quoted in Fouad Ajami, The Vanished Imam: Musa al Sadr and the Shia of Lebanon (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986), p.25
  157. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.201
  158. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.131
  159. ^ source: Navid n.28][Taheri, The Spirit of Allah, p.238
  160. ^ Harney, The Priest and the King (1998) p.173-4
  161. ^ Benard/Khalilzad "The Government of God", 1984, p.121
  162. ^ Moin Khomeini, (2000), p.297
  163. ^ Wright, In the Name of God, (1989) (p.21-22)
  164. ^ Molavi, The Soul of Iran, (2005), p.256
  165. ^ In the Name of God : The Khomeini Decade by Robin Wright c1989, p.21-22
  166. ^ Taheri, The Spirit of Allah (1985), p. 90-1
  167. ^ Taheri, The Spirit of Allah (1985), p. 90-1
  168. ^ Taheri, The Spirit of Allah (1985), p. 90-1
  169. ^ "Make Iran Next, Says Ayatollah's Grandson", Jamie Wilson, August 10, 2003, The Observer
  170. ^ Veiled Threats Lure Ayatollah's Grandson Home By Michael A. Ledeen, January 6, 2004
  171. ^ Ayatollah's grandson calls for US overthrow of Iran, By PHILIP SHERWELL 19/06/2006
  172. ^ Khomeini grandson returns to poll, 13 February 2008,

is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident on October 23, 1983, during the Lebanese Civil War. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bilbliography

  • Brumberg, Daniel (2001), Reinventing Khomeini: The Struggle for Reform in Iran, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226077586 
  • Daniel, Elton L. (2001), The History of Iran, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0313307318 
  • DeFronzo, James (2007), Revolutions And Revolutionary Movements, Westview Press, ISBN 0813343542 
  • Karsh, Efraim (2007), Islamic Imperialism: A History, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300122632 
  • Khomeini, Ruhollah & Algar, Hamid (2002), Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist, Alhoda UK, ISBN 9643354997 
  • Keddie, Nikkie R. (2003), Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300098561 
  • Milani, Mohsen M. (1994), The Making of Iran's Islamic Revolution: From Monarchy to Islamic Republic, Westview Press, ISBN 0813384761 
  • Moin, Baqer (2000), Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0312264909 
  • Rāhnamā, 'Ali (1994), Pioneers of Islamic Revival, Macmillan, ISBN 1856492540 
  • Reich, Bernard (1990), Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa: A Biographical Dictionary, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0313262136 
  • Willett, Edward C. ;Ayatollah Khomeini, 2004, Publisher:The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 0823944654
  • Bakhash, Shaul (1984). The Reign of the Ayatollahs : Iran and the Islamic Revolution. New York: Basic Books. 
  • Harney, Desmond (1998). The priest and the king : an eyewitness account of the Iranian revolution. I.B. Tauris. 
  • Khomeini, Ruhollah (1981). in Algar, Hamid (translator and editor): Islam and Revolution : Writing and Declarations of Imam Khomeini. Berkeley: Mizan Press. 
  • Khomeini, Ruhollah (1980). Sayings of the Ayatollah Khomeini : political, philosophical, social, and religious. Bantam. 
  • Mackey, Sandra (1996). The Iranians : Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation. Dutton. ISBN 0525940057. 
  • Molavi, Afshin (2005). The Soul of Iran: a Nation's Journey to Freedom. New York: Norton paperbacks. 
  • Schirazi, Asghar (1997). The Constitution of Iran. New York: Tauris. 
  • Taheri, Amir (1985). The Spirit of Allah. Adler & Adler. 
  • Wright, Robin (1989). In the Name of God : The Khomeini Decade. New York: Simon & Schuster. 
  • Wright, Robin (2000). The Last Revolution. New York: Knopf. 
  • Lee, James; The Final Word!: An American Refutes the Sayings of Ayatollah Khomeini, 1984, Publisher:Philosophical Library, ISBN 0802224652
  • Dabashi, Hamid; Theology of Discontent: The Ideological Foundation of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, 2006, Publisher:Transaction Publishers, ISBN 1412805163
  • Hoveyda,Fereydoun ; The Shah and the Ayatollah: Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution, 2003, Publisher:Praeger/Greenwood, ISBN 0275978583

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Preceded by
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
as Shah of Iran
Supreme Leader of Iran
1979–1989
Succeeded by
Ali Khamenei


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Ruhollah Khomeini (3528 words)
Khomeini himself became instituted as the Supreme Leader for life, and officially decreed as the "Leader of the Revolution." On February 4, 1980, Abolhassan Banisadr was elected as the first president of Iran.
In 1929, Khomeini married Batol Saqafi Khomeini, the daughter of a cleric in Tehran.
Khomeini's granddaughter, Zahra Eshraghi, is married to Mohammad Reza Khatami, head of the Islamic Iran Participation Front, the main reformist party in the country, and is considered a pro-reform character herself.
Encyclopedia4U - Ruhollah Khomeini - Encyclopedia Article (1402 words)
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (May 17, 1900 - June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shiite fundamentalist cleric and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran.
Khomeini stated on February 23, 1980 that Iran's parliament would decide the fate of the American embassy hostages.
Khomeini is considered by some as one of the most influential men (for good or bad) of the 20th century, and was name Time Magazine's Man of the Year in 1980.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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