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Encyclopedia > Rugby union positions
A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers.
A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers.

A rugby union team is made up of 15 players: eight forwards, numbered from 1 to 8; and seven backs, numbered from 9 to 15.[1] Depending upon the competition, there may be up to seven replacements. Image File history File links Rugby_formation. ... Image File history File links Rugby_formation. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ...


Each player has a fixed role with specialist positional skills and each team uses the same formation, with only minor variations; in this respect it is different from both football with its various formations (4-3-3, 3-5-2, etc.) and cricket, where players are commonly moved from one field position to another (e.g. from silly mid-on to deep cover point). Soccer redirects here. ... In Association football, the formation describes how the players in a team are positioned on the pitch. ... This article is about the sport. ...


Early rugby did no more than distinguish in tactics between the great bulk of the players who played as forwards and the relative few who played back defensively as "tends", as in goaltenders. After a while, the attacking or at least counter-attacking possibilities of playing close behind the scrimmage (which later came to be called "scrummage") came to be recognized, and some players stationed themselves between the forwards and tends as "half-tends". It being seen that the players outside scrimmage (the "pack", i.e. the forwards) were not limited to a defensive role, the tends and half-tends were renamed "back" and "half back" positions.


As the game became more sophisticated, backs positioned at different depths (i.e. distances behind the forwards) were further differentiated into half back, three quarters (the fraction 3/4) back, and full back, according to English and Scottish nomenclature, which was eventually adopted worldwide, with the word, 'back," often omitted for brevity from the half back ("half") and three quarters back ("three quarter") names, and "fullback" as a single word.

Contents

Overview

Individual players' positions are made clear by the number they wear, as this generally indicates their role on the pitch (unless they are a substitute or have switched position during the match). This means a player does not get a personal squad number for his entire career, as in most American sports or in football. The International Rugby Board (IRB) has laid down a numbering scheme for international matches, which is adopted at almost all levels of the sport. In team sports, the squad number, shirt number, jersey number, sweater number, or uniform number is the number worn on a players uniform. ... Soccer redirects here. ... The IRB logo. ...


The main role of the forwards is to gain and retain possession of the ball. They take part in set pieces of the scrum and the line-out. Generally, forwards are larger than the backs, and were traditionally stronger but slower and less agile. However, the modern game has seen a change in the athleticism of forwards - many are now just as fast and adept in open play as their counterparts in the backs. Forwards also have a role in ball carrying, but generally do so by driving into the opposing forwards. The Laws of the Game define the terms prop, hooker, locks, flankers and number eights and clearly state that a 3-2-3 or 3-4-1 formation must be used at scrums. A scrum in an England versus Scotland international. ... A rugby lineout. ...


The role of the backs is to take the ball won by the forwards and score points, either by running or kicking the ball. They are usually more agile and faster than forwards, but not as strong. The key attribute for most positions in the back line is pace - however, the various specialist positions also require different skills, for example, the kicking abilities needed by a good flyhalf or fullback. Again, the type of person who would traditionally play in the backs - small, agile, fast - is changing, with the advent of professionalism bringing increased size and strength into the backs.


The following diagram locates the various positions in the 15-man team. All members of the starting 15 wear shirts numbered from 1 to 15 and keyed to their positions (though alternatives exist); these numbers appear on the diagram below. The first eight players, known as forwards or the pack, play in the scrum. The remaining seven players play as the backs. A Rugby shirt is a shirt worn in the popular Rugby game. ... A rugby union team consists of 15 players plus up to seven replacements (depending on the competition). ... A scrum in an England versus Scotland international. ...

Rugby union positions

A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ...

Alternative names for positions

Prop Prop forward
Hooker Hook, rake
Lock Second row, lock forward
Flanker Wing Forwards, breakaway, flank, flank forward
Number 8 Eightman, eighthman, lock forward
Scrum half Inside half, half-back, scrum off, scrummie
Fly half Outside half, out half, stand-off, five-eighth, first five-eighth, first five, fly, pivot
Inside centre Second five-eighth, first centre, second five or centre
Outside centre Centre, centre three-quarter, second centre
Winger Wingman, wing threequarter
Fullback Custodian, Sweeper

Collective terms for positions

Front row The props and hooker
Second Row Both locks
Tight forwards or Tight 5 or Front five The combined front row and second row
Flankers or wing forwards The open and blind side flankers
Pack The forwards
Loose forwards (Loosies) or Back row The flankers and the number 8
Half backs Scrum half and flyhalf
Midfield Fly half and centres
Inside backs The inside centre, flyhalf and scrumhalf
Five-eighths The flyhalf and inside centre (1st and 2nd five eighths)
Three-quarters / Three-quarter line Wingers and centres
Back three The fullback and the wingers
Outside backs The outside centre, wings and full back

The fly-half is alternatively called the "stand-off half", since they are the half-back that stands off from the scrum rather than close to it. In the southern hemisphere, especially in New Zealand, this position is sometimes referred to as 'first five-eighth', or just 'five-eighth' - see below.


The use of the terms 'open' and 'blind' can also be confused. The two flankers are typically arranged so that one binds to the scrum on the open side of the field. This will usually be his position throughout the game, with the other flanker always taking the closed 'blind' side - also called the short side. Rarely these flankers interchange roles, simply taking the left or right side of the scrummage, irrespective of field position.


Centres will always line up as inside and outside centre - it is rare for them to always take left and right positions. For the winger, it is different - he/she will be either on the left or right side, so may be referred to as either the blindside or openside winger, depending on his position for a particular play in the game. Rugby union is a team sport played between two teams of fifteen players. ... Rugby union is a team sport played between two teams of fifteen players. ...


Northern Hemisphere

The IRB standard names tend to reflect Northern Hemisphere usage although flyhalf is still often known as 'outside half' in Britain and 'outhalf' in Ireland.


New Zealand Terms

In New Zealand the fly half is referred to as the first five eighth, implying a slightly deeper position than halfback (the term halfback can cause confusion since some countries use it to refer solely to the scrum half, while other countries apply it to both the scrum half and the fly half) the inside centre as the second five eighth implying a more forward position than a three quarter back and the outside centre as simply "Centre". Flankers may also, though this is more historic usage, be referred to as "wing-forwards" (also an archaic term for an obsolete position associated with the 2-3-2 scrum that was outlawed in the 1930s), or together with the No 8 as "loose-forwards", since they can quickly detach from scrums.


Australian Terms

In Australia, the second row of the scrum are often referred to as both "second row" and "locks". The forwards on either side of the locks are known as "flankers" with the No. 8 known as the "No. 8". Australians collectively refer to the flankers and No. 8 as the "back-row", with flankers and No. 8 also often individually called "back-rowers". Props and Hookers are known collectively as "front rowers".


In the backs, the terms often overlap with that of the other code of rugby, rugby league, with fly halves called "5/8s or five-eights" and scrumhalves "halfbacks".


Other languages

Many rugby union players in South Africa are native Afrikaans speakers, and use positional terms unique to that language, although in many cases the terms are a literal translation from the English. In South America, a combination of Spanish and English position names is used. Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

English Afrikaans French Italian Spanish Spanish (South America) Irish Welsh
Prop Stut Pilier Pilone Pilar Pilar Taca Y Rheng Flaen
Hooker Hakker Talonneur Tallonatore Talonador / Hooker Hooker Caiteoir Bachwr
Flanker Flank Troisièmes Lignes Terza Linea Fuori
Flanker
Tercera Línea Ala, Tercera Línea Tríú Líne Blaenasgellwr
Lock Slot Deuxièmes Lignes Seconda Linea Segunda Línea Segunda Línea Glas, Dara Líne Yr Ail Rheng
Number eight Agtsteman (lit. 'eighthman') Troisième Ligne Centre Terza linea media
Terza linea centro
Numero 8
Tercera Línea Centro u "Ocho" Octavo, Ocho, Tercera Línea Uimhir a hocht Y Rheng Ol
Scrum half Skrumskakel (lit. 'scrum-link') Demi de mêlée Mediano di mischia Medio melé, Medio Scrum Medio Scrum Leath-chlibirt Mewnwr
Fly-half Losskakel (lit. 'loose-link') Demi d'ouverture Apertura
Mediano d'apertura
Apertura Apertura, Medio Apertura Eitilteoir Maswr
Centre Senter Centre Centro
Tre quarti centro
Centro (Primero y Segundo) In-side (Primero y Segundo), Centro Lár na páirce Canolwr
Wing Vleuel Ailier Ala
Tre quarti ala
Ala (Izquierda y Derecha) Wing (Izquierdo y Derecho) Eiteoir Asgellwr
Full-back Heelagter Arrière Estremo Extremo o Zaguero / Fullback Fullback Lán-chosantóir Cefnwr

Backs

15. Fullback

The full back stands back to cover defensive options as a 'sweeper' behind the main line of defence removed from the other backs principally to field any opposition kicks. As the last line of defence, good tackling skills are desirable.


They have to catch the high kicks referred to as "up and unders", "Garryowens" or "bombs". Having taken a catch, the full back may choose to return the kick, and so good tactical awareness and kicking skills are required. Increasingly often, full backs are used to start counter-attacking moves from depth. Thus, they need to have excellent attacking skills, pace and open field running prowess. In attack, the full back generally joins the three-quarter line between the outside centre and the openside wing, providing the attacking team with an extra outside back. The Bomb kick also known as a Bomb or Up and Under as it is more commonly called is the name given to a kick, much like the punt but which results in a small distance and a large height. ... Garryowen Football Club, usually referred to as Garryowen, is a rugby union club in Limerick, Republic of Ireland, founded in 1884. ... The Bomb kick also known as a Bomb or Up and Under as it is more commonly called is the name given to a kick, much like the punt but which results in a small distance and a large height. ...


Fullbacks in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include: Serge Blanco (France), Don Clarke (New Zealand), Gavin Hastings (Scotland and Lions), Andy Irvine (Scotland and Lions), Tom Kiernan (Ireland and Lions), George Nepia (New Zealand), and JPR Williams (Wales and Lions). Serge Blanco (born 31 August 1958 in Caracas, Venezuela) is a former rugby union footballer who played fullback for Biarritz Olympique and France, gaining 93 caps, 81 at fullback. ... Donald Barry Clarke (November 10, 1933–December 29, 2002) was a New Zealand rugby union player who played 89 times (31 of these were test matches) as an All Black from 1956 until 1964. ... Andrew Gavin Hastings, OBE (born January 3, 1962 in Edinburgh) of Watsonians, Cambridge University Rugby Football Club, the Scotland national rugby union team and the British and Irish Lions was one of the outstanding rugby players of his generation, winning 61 caps for Scotland, 20 of which as captain. ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4 - 1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  Scotland 100 - 8 Japan  (13 November 2004) Worst defeat  Scotland 10 - 68 South Africa  (6 December 1997) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Semi-finals, 1991 The Scotland national rugby union... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Andy Irvine was a Scottish rugby player, and is currently president of the Scottish Rugby Union (SRU). ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4 - 1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  Scotland 100 - 8 Japan  (13 November 2004) Worst defeat  Scotland 10 - 68 South Africa  (6 December 1997) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Semi-finals, 1991 The Scotland national rugby union... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Tom Kiernan is a former Ireland international rugby union player. ... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... George Nepia (1905/1908? - 1986) was a famous Maori rugby and rugby league player. ... John Peter Rhys Williams (born 2 March 1949 in Cardiff), known universally as JPR Williams, played rugby union for Wales between 1969 and 1981. ... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the...


See also: Fullback (rugby) A fullback is a defensive position in rugby. ...


Three-quarters

14. and 11. Wing

The wings act as "finishers" on movements by scoring tries. The idea is that space should be created by the forwards and backs inside the wingers so that once they receive the ball, they have a clear run for the try-line. Wings are almost always the quickest members of the team, but also need to be able to side step and otherwise avoid opponents in order to score tries. In modern games, wingers often "come off the wing" to provide extra men in the midfield, in the same vein as a full back, particularly if play has moved away from their wing. Traditionally, wingers are small and fast but since the game became professional (and largely due to Jonah Lomu), wingers are often as big as forwards. Wingers of this variety are often used as extra flankers to gain the "hard yards" by carrying the ball directly into contact with opponents, gaining ground slowly through phased play. Jonah Tali Lomu, MNZM (born May 12, 1975) is a New Zealand rugby union footballer who has played 73 times (63 caps) as an All Black after debuting in 1994. ...


Wingers often act as additional full backs on opposition kicks. In addition to this responsibility, they must get back from an opposition kick to give the full back options on either side. The modern game means that the back three tend to act as a unit in fielding kicks and counterattacking, rather than all responsibility lying with the full back. Wingers need to have all the skills of a full back, though the emphasis would be on attack rather than defence. As such, many players are as competent on the wing as at full back.


A common tactic is to have the winger receive the ball and then cut towards the centre of the pitch. This changes the direction of play, which may catch the opposition off guard, or may create space for the outside centre to receive a switch pass or "scissors pass".


A modern use of the wing is as a link player. They retain all the traditional skills of a wing, but are able to combine these with skills more traditionally associated with half backs. As the play goes through multiple phases, the scrum-half or fly-half may be taken out of the play. If this occurs the blind side wing can step in to perform a creative role. Good examples of players filling this role include Austin Healey, Breyton Paulse, Shane Williams and more recently Sitiveni Sivivatu. Austin Sean Healey (born 26th October, 1973 in Wallasey) is a rugby union footballer, who plays as a utility back for Leicester Tigers, and has represented England and the British Lions. ... Breyton Paulse (born 25 April 1976 in Koue Bokkeveld) is a South African rugby player who has played at wing for the national team, the Springboks, since 1999. ... Shane Mark Williams (born 26 February 1977 in Swansea) is a Welsh rugby union player who plays as a wing for the Ospreys club and Wales but who can also play scrum-half or fly-half. ... Sitiveni Waica Sivivatu (born 19 April 1982 in Suva, Fiji) is a New Zealand rugby union footballer, more specifically a winger. ...


Wings in the International Rugby Hall of Fame are: André Boniface (France), David Campese (Australia), Gerald Davies (Wales and Lions), Ieuan Evans (Wales and Lions), John Kirwan (New Zealand), Jonah Lomu (New Zealand), and Tony O'Reilly (Ireland and Lions). André Boniface (born August 14, 1934 in Montfort-en-Chalosse, France) played international rugby union for France. ... David Ian Campese (born October 21, 1962 in Queanbeyan), also known as Campo, is an Australian former Rugby Union player. ... Gerald Davies CBE (February 7, 1945–) is one of the acknowledged giants of Welsh rugby, playing for the side between 1966 and 1978. ... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... A great winger for Wales in the 1990s, who marked his last days with a British Lions tour to South Africa in 1997. ... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... John James Patrick Kirwan[1] ONZM MBE (born 16 December 1964) is a New Zealand born rugby union footballer turned coach. ... Jonah Tali Lomu, MNZM (born May 12, 1975) is a New Zealand rugby union footballer who has played 73 times (63 caps) as an All Black after debuting in 1994. ... Sir Anthony Tony OReilly (born 7 May 1936) is a Dublin born billionaire who holds both British and Irish nationality. ... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the...


See also: Winger (sport) In sports, the term winger is the name of a position, including football, rugby union, rugby league and field hockey. ...


13. Outside centre & 12. Inside centre

Centres need to have a strong all-round game: they need to be able to break through opposition lines and pass the ball accurately. When attack turns into defence they need to be strong in the tackle. Usually the two centres are divided into outside centre and inside centre, though sometimes teams play with left and right centres.


The inside centre is typically bigger and more creative than the outside centre. In defence or attack, the inside centre is always in the thick of the action, drawing the opposition's defence, making the breaks to make the space for the outside centre and dishing out the tackles in defence along with the forwards. Some of the skills of the fly-half, such as distribution and kicking, can be advantageous to inside centres, as they may be expected to act as fly-halves if the normal fly-half is involved in a ruck or maul.


The outside centre tends to be the faster, nippier of the two centres. They are the "rapiers" that are given the ball, normally via the fly half, or inside centre to make breaks through the opposition backs before offloading to the wingers after drawing the last line of defence. Good size and tackle breaking skills are very important for outside centres to have. They may also need to be very aggressive in defence, especially when a team is using a rush up style defence.


Centres in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include: André Boniface (France), Danie Gerber (South Africa), Mike Gibson (Ireland and Lions), Tim Horan (Australia), Jo Maso (France), Gwyn Nicholls (Wales and Lions), Tony O'Reilly (Ireland and Lions), and Philippe Sella (France). André Boniface (born August 14, 1934 in Montfort-en-Chalosse, France) played international rugby union for France. ... Danie Gerber (born 14 April 1958 in Port Elizabeth, South Africa) is a former South African rugby union player, who played for South Africa between 1980 and 1992. ... Cameron Michael Henderson (Mike) Gibson (born 3 December 1942 in Belfast) is a former Irish rugby union footballer. ... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Tim Horan (born 18 May 1970) is a former Australian rugby union footballer. ... Jo Maso (born 27 December 1944 in Perpignan, France) is a former rugby union footballer who played centre for Narbonne, Toulonnais, Perpignan and France, gaining 25 caps. ... Erith Gwyn Nicholls (1874 - March 1939) was a Welsh rugby union player who gained 24 caps for Wales as a centre. ... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Sir Anthony Tony OReilly (born 7 May 1936) is a Dublin born billionaire who holds both British and Irish nationality. ... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Philippe Sella was born in 1962-02-14. ...


Half-backs

10. Fly-half

The fly-half position is a portmanteau of flying half back. This position is one of the most influential on the pitch. The fly-half makes key tactical decisions during a game — whether to kick for space or tactical advantage, move the ball to his outside backs, return the ball to his forwards to drive on to or run with the ball himself. An ideal fly-half should be a fast and deceptive runner, be able to make decisions quickly, direct the backline on defence and attack, have excellent kicking and handling skills and the ability to cope under pressure. Strong leadership skills are crucial for this position, as well as strong defensive skills. A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ...


Games are rarely won on tries alone, and a fly-half who is also the goal kicker (which is often the case) can be the most important player in the side.


Fly-halves in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include: Phil Bennett (Wales and Lions), Naas Botha (South Africa), Mark Ella (Australia), Grant Fox (New Zealand), Barry John (Wales and Lions), Jack Kyle (Ireland and Lions), Michael Lynagh (Australia), Cliff Morgan (Wales and Lions), Bennie Osler (South Africa), and Hugo Porta (Argentina). There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Phil Bennett (born October 24, 1948) was a Welsh Rugby Union fly half from 1969 to 1978. ... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Hendrik Egnatius Botha, commonly known as Naas Botha (born 27 February 1958) is a Northern Transvaal and Springboks former Rugby Union player. ... Mark Ella In Action Mark Ella was born on Friday, June 5th, 1959. ... Grant James Fox (born 6 June 1962 in New Plymouth) is a New Zealand rugby union player for the All Blacks. ... Barry John (born 6 January 1945 in Cefneithin, Wales) is a Welsh rugby union footballer, considered by many to be the greatest fly-half in the sports history. ... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... John Wilson Kyle (born 10 February 1926 in Belfast) is a former Irish rugby union footballer. ... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Michael Lynagh (born October 25, 1963) is an Australian rugby union footballer. ... Cliff Morgan (born 7 April 1930 at Trebanog, Rhondda) is a former Welsh rugby union player who played for Cardiff RFC and earned 29 caps for Wales between 1951 and 1958. ... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Benjamin Louwrens Osler (born 23 November 1901, Aliwal North, South Africa and died 28 April 1962) was a rugby union footballer who played internationally for South Africa. ... Hugo Porta (born 11 September 1951) is a former Argentine rugby union footballer who played fly-half. ...


9. Scrum-half

Scrum halves form the all-important link between the forwards and the backs, and are invariably at the centre of the action. A scrum half is normally relatively small but with a high degree of vision, the ability to react to situations very quickly, and good handling skills, as well as the ability to spin the ball with great ease off both hands.


They are often the first tackler in defence and are behind every scrum, maul or ruck to get the ball out and maintain movement. They put the ball into the scrum and collect it afterwards; they also are allowed to stand further forward than other backs at a line-out to try to catch knock downs from the jumper. A scrum in an England versus Scotland international. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... A rugby lineout. ...


It is also not unusual to have talkative scrum-halves in competitive situations. Though technically illegal, most scrum-halves will subtly alert the referee to fouls and infringements committed by the opposing team.


Scrum-halves in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include: Ken Catchpole (Australia), Danie Craven (South Africa), Gareth Edwards (Wales and Lions), Nick Farr-Jones (Australia) and Joost van der Westhuizen (South Africa). Craven and Edwards are also members of the IRB Hall of Fame. Ken Catchpole (in Paddington in 1939) is a former Australian rugby union footballer. ... Danie Craven (Daniël Hartman Craven) (11 October 1910 - 4 January 1994) is a former Western Province, Eastern Province, Northern Transvaal and Springbok Rugby Union player as well as arguably South Africas best and most well-known rugby administrator ever. ... Gareth Edwards, born 12 July 1947 in Pontardawe, Wales, is a former Welsh rugby union footballer who plays scrum-half, considered by many to be the greatest player in the history of the game. ... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Nick Farr-Jones is a former rugby union player from Australia. ... Joost van der Westhuizen (born 20 February 1971) is a former South African rugby union player who was the Springboks first choice scrum half in the late 1990s. ... The IRB Hall of Fame is a hall of fame operated by the International Rugby Board (IRB) that recognises special achievement and contribution to the sport of rugby union. ...


Forwards

Front row

1. Loosehead prop & 3. Tighthead prop

The role of both the loose- and tighthead props is to support the hooker in the scrum and to provide effective, dynamic support for the jumpers in the line-out. Along with the second row, the props provide the main power in the push forward in the scrum. For this reason they are usually the strongest and heaviest players in the team. Under modern rules non-specialists are not allowed to play as props (or hooker) as specialist skills are required to ensure the scrum does not collapse, a situation which can be very dangerous sometimes resulting in crushing or breaking of the neck and spine. If there are not enough props or hookers on either team (and no replacements are available), uncontested scrums will be set. A rugby union scrum. ... A rugby lineout. ... A rugby union scrum. ...


A tighthead prop is so called because they pack down on the right-hand side of the scrum and so (because the players engage to the left of their opponents) their head fits between the opposing loosehead prop and hooker. In contrast, the loosehead prop packs down on the left-hand side where their head is outside that of the opposing tighthead prop. Although it may look to the neutral observer that the two positions are quite similar (and some players have the ability to play on both sides of the scrum), the technical challenges of each are quite different. Jason Leonard (England and Lions) and Gethin Jenkins (Wales and Lions) are rare in being able to prop on either side at the top level. Jason Leonard, MBE is a former England player who held the world record for international appearances for a national team until 2005, when it was surpassed only by Australias George Gregan. ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4–1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) Worst defeat  Australia 76–0 England  (6 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 2003 The England national rugby union team represents... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Gethin Jenkins is a Welsh rugby player. ... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the...


The laws of the game require the tighthead prop to bind with his right arm outside the left upper arm of his opposing loosehead prop and similarly they restrict what the loosehead prop can do with his left arm. Although the scrum half may put the ball in on either side of the scrum, he is unlikely to choose the tighthead side because otherwise the opposing hooker would be between him or her and his or her own hooker. Hence, the laws implicitly require the loosehead prop to be on the left side of the scrum.


Props are also in the position of being able to direct the movement of the scrum in moving side to side to prevent the other team's scrum from "wheeling" the set scrum and forcing another "put in" from the opposing side.


Outside of the scrum and line-outs Props use their great strength and weight to win rucks and mauls for their teams and to make large drives forwards with the ball.


Props in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include: Jason Leonard (England and Lions), Syd Millar (Ireland and Lions) and Wilson Whineray (New Zealand). Whineray is also a member of the IRB Hall of Fame. Jason Leonard, MBE is a former England player who held the world record for international appearances for a national team until 2005, when it was surpassed only by Australias George Gregan. ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4–1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) Worst defeat  Australia 76–0 England  (6 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 2003 The England national rugby union team represents... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Dr. Syd Millar, CBE (born 23 May 1934 in Ballymena) is the chairman of the International Rugby Board. ... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Sir Wilson James Whineray (born 10 July 1935) is a former captain of the All Blacks, New Zealands national rugby team. ...


2. Hooker

Hookers are a key position in attacking and defensive play. The name is derived from the fact that hookers use their feet to 'hook' the ball in the scrum; because of the pressure put on the body by the scrum it is considered to be one of the most dangerous positions to play. They also normally throw the ball in at line-outs. Hookers have more in common with back row forwards than props or locks only during line-outs as they have a roving role at line-outs. Hookers typically are a key player in the scrum as they are the main force pushing and resisting, although some teams give the responsibility to the props. In addition, hookers may act as an extra prop in the scrum, instead of contesting the feed, to wreak havoc on opposition feeds. A rugby union scrum. ... A rugby union scrum. ... A rugby lineout. ... A rugby lineout. ...


The hooker is assisted by the props in scrums and often leads a ruck. In defensive play, the hooker will regularly be the main attacker in most open-ended plays. In more complicated moves, the Hooker may remain a defence for the backs. Hookers are usually the leaders in most attacking moves and tend to control the forwards.


Hookers in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include: Sean Fitzpatrick (New Zealand) and Keith Wood (Ireland and Lions). This article needs to be wikified. ... Keith Wood (born 27 January 1972 in Killaloe) is a former international rugby union footballer who played hooker for Ireland, the Lions, Harlequins and Munster. ... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the...


4. & 5. Lock

Locks are almost always the tallest players on the team and so are the primary targets at line-outs. At line-outs, locks must jump aggressively, usually being lifted by team-mates, to catch the ball and get it to the scrum half or at least get the first touch so that the ball comes down on their own side. A rugby lineout. ... A rugby lineout. ...


The two locks stick their heads between the two props and the hooker in the scrums. They are also responsible for keeping the scrum square and the front row together and providing power to shift it forward. (This position is referred to as the "engine room".) A rugby union scrum. ...


Locks are very tall, athletic and have an excellent standing jump along with good strength. They also make good ball carriers, bashing holes in the defence around the ruck and maul. They also have to push the rucks and mauls and are the main figures of rucks and mauls.


Locks in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include: Bill Beaumont (England and Lions), Gordon Brown (Scotland and Lions), Frik du Preez (South Africa), John Eales (Australia), Martin Johnson (England and Lions), Brian Lochore (New Zealand), Willie John McBride (Ireland and Lions), and Colin Meads (New Zealand). Eales is also a member of the IRB Hall of Fame. Bill Beaumont, born 9 March 1952, was captain of the England rugby union team at a time when they struggled to win games. ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4–1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) Worst defeat  Australia 76–0 England  (6 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 2003 The England national rugby union team represents... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Gordon Brown (1 November 1947 - 19 March 2001) was a hugely popular and much-loved Scottish international rugby union footballer with a fine sense of humour who played lock forward for West of Scotland, the Scotland national rugby union team and the British Lions. ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4 - 1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  Scotland 100 - 8 Japan  (13 November 2004) Worst defeat  Scotland 10 - 68 South Africa  (6 December 1997) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Semi-finals, 1991 The Scotland national rugby union... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Frik du Preez (born Frederick Christoffel Hendrik du Preez on 28 November 1935) is a former Northern Transvaal and Springboks Rugby Union player. ... John Eales AM (born 27 June 1970) is a former Australian rugby union footballer and arguably the most successful captain in the history of Australian Rugby. ... For other people named Martin Johnson, see Martin Johnson (disambiguation) Martin Osborne Johnson CBE (born 9 March 1970) is a former rugby union footballer who represented and captained England and Leicester. ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4–1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) Worst defeat  Australia 76–0 England  (6 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 2003 The England national rugby union team represents... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... hi ... Willie John McBride, MBE is an Irish rugby player. ... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Colin Earl Meads (born June 3, 1936 in Cambridge, New Zealand) nicknamed Pinetree, is a former New Zealand rugby union footballer who played 133 times (55 of these were test matches) as an All Black from 1957 until 1971. ...


Back row

6. Blindside flanker & 7. Openside flanker

Main article: Flanker (rugby union)

Flanker is a fairly dynamic position with the fewest set responsibilities during the game. It is their responsibility to clear up messy balls to start a new phase of play, meaning they play a major role in maintaining/gaining possession after handling errors. A rugby union team is made up of 15 players: eight forwards, numbered from 1 to 8; and seven backs, numbered from 9 to 15[1]. Depending upon the competition, there may be up to seven replacements. ...


In the scrum, flankers do less pushing than the tight five, but they have to break away quickly and attempt to tackle the opposing backs if the opposition wins the scrum; and to cover their own half backs if they win the scrum. Due to their role in the scrum, flankers should be fairly heavy whilst still having speed and power.


Considering how dynamic this position is, flankers can adapt slightly to their own style of play; for example, they can become big figures in tackling and mauls, or use their speed to run with the backs for tactical manoeuvres.


Flankers in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include: Dave Gallaher (New Zealand), Michael Jones (New Zealand), Ian Kirkpatrick (New Zealand), Graham Mourie (New Zealand), Francois Pienaar (South Africa), Jean Prat (France), Jean-Pierre Rives (France), Fergus Slattery (Ireland and Lions), and Wavell Wakefield (England). David Gallaher (30 October 1873–4 October 1917) was a New Zealand rugby union footballer, best known as the captain of The Originals, the first New Zealand national team to be known as the All Blacks. ... For other persons named Michael Jones, see Michael Jones (disambiguation). ... Ian Andrew Kirkpatrick (born 24 May 1946 in Gisborne) is a New Zealand rugby union player, who was captain of the All Blacks. ... Graham Neil Kenneth Mourie (born 8 September 1952) is a former New Zealand All Black flanker. ... Jacobus Francois Pienaar (born 2 January 1967 in Vereeniging, South Africa) captained and played flanker for the South African national rugby union team, the Springboks from 26 June 1993 until 10 August 1996. ... Jean Prat (born 1 August 1923 in Lourdes) is a former French rugby union footballer. ... Jean-Pierre Rives (born 31 December 1952 in Toulouse) is a former French rugby union player who won 59 caps for France as a flanker. ... Fergus Slattery was born in Dublin on 12th February, 1949. ... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Sir William Wavell Wakefield, 1st Baron Wakefield of Kendal (10 March 1898, Beckenham-12 August 1983) was a rugby union player for Harlequins and England, President of the Rugby Football Union and a British politician. ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4–1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) Worst defeat  Australia 76–0 England  (6 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 2003 The England national rugby union team represents...


8. Number eight

Number eight is the only position that does not have a specific name in English and is simply referred to as 'number eight'. The modern number eight has the physical strength of a tight forward along with the mobility and pace of other loose forwards (he is often the fastest loose forward in the pack). The number eight packs down at the rear of the scrum, controlling the movement of the ball to the scrum-half with his feet. The number 8 is the position where the ball enters the backline from the scrum and, hence, both fly half and inside centre take their lead from the number 8 who, as the hindmost player in the scrum, can elect to pick and run with the ball like a back. As a result, the number 8 has similar opportunities to a back to run from set plays.


They are normally tall and athletic and used as an option to win the ball from the back of the lineout. Like flankers they do less of the pushing than locks or props, but need to be quick to cover opposition half-backs. A number eight should be a key ball-winner in broken play, and occasionally a 'battering ram' at the front of rucks; he should also be able to break the opposition's line like his blindside flanker counterpart and the centres.


Some back-row players are versatile enough to play either of the flanker positions or at number 8


Even more versatile players in this vein are Sébastien Chabal (France), Michael Owen (Wales and Lions) and Martin Corry (England and Lions), who normally play number 8, but also frequently play at both flanker positions, and have even successfully played at lock. David Wallace (Ireland and Lions) is one of the few players who has experience playing at number 8, both flankers, centre and even on the wing at club level for Munster. Sébastien Chabal (born 8 December 1977) is a French rugby union player who plays at number 8 for Sale Sharks and France, and has also played as a lock for France. ... Michael Owen (born 7 January 1980) is a Welsh rugby player. ... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Martin Edward Corry (born 12 October 1973) is an English rugby union footballer who plays number eight, blindside flanker or lock for Leicester Tigers, England, and has represented the British and Irish Lions. ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4–1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) Worst defeat  Australia 76–0 England  (6 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 2003 The England national rugby union team represents... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... David Wallace (born 8 July 1976 in Limerick) is a powerful rugby union back row forward, a key member of the Irish international team and Munster Rugby province. ... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Official website www. ...


Number eights in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include: Mervyn Davies (Wales and Lions), Morne du Plessis (South Africa), Brian Lochore (New Zealand) and Hennie Muller (South Africa). Thomas Mervyn Davies (born 1946 in Swansea), is a former Welsh rugby union player who won 38 rugby union caps for Wales as a No. ... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... Morne du Plessis is a former South African rugby union player. ... hi ... The All Blacks are the national rugby union representative team of New Zealand. ... Hendrik Scholtz Vosloo Muller (born 26 March 1922 in Witbank), usually known as Hennie Muller is a former South African rugby union footballer. ...


See also

A rugby union team consists of 15 players plus up to seven replacements (depending on the competition). ... This is a list of some notable Rugby Union players. ... This is a list of notable rugby union footballers sorted by country. ... Not to be confused with IRB Hall of Fame. ... A typical rugby league team consists of thirteen players on the field plus four substitutes on the bench. ...

References

  1. ^ Rugby positions guide. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/rugby_union/rules_and_equipment/6332057.stm
  • Country by country list of the names of player positions
  • http://www.sarfu.org.za/default.asp?cId=7534&print=yes

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rugby union positions: Information from Answers.com (3351 words)
Rugby union is different from other sports such as soccer with its endless number of 'formations' (4-3-3, 3-5-2 etc.) or cricket, where a player may be moved to a completely different position on the field (e.g.
In Australia, the second row of the scrum are often referred to as "second row", the position behind them as "lock", the forwards on either side of the lock as "breakaways" (some apply the term to the number eight as well as the flankers), and the fly-half as "five-eighth".
The number 8 is the position where the ball enters the backline from the scrum and hence both fly half and inside centre take their role from the number 8 who as the hindmost player in the scrum can elect to pick and run with the ball like a back.
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