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Encyclopedia > Rugby football

Rugby football, often just "rugby", may refer to a number of sports descended from a common form of football developed at Rugby School in England, United Kingdom. Rugby league, rugby union, American football and Canadian football are modern sports that originated from rugby football. Rugby league and rugby union are the only two sports referred to as "rugby" today. Rugby might refer to the sport called rugby: Rugby football Rugby league Rugby union Touch Rugby Tag Rugby Wheelchair Rugby Rugby is also the name of several places: Rugby, Warwickshire (England) within the Borough of Rugby Rugby, North Dakota Rugby, Tennessee Rugby, Brooklyn Rugby may also refer to: Rugby School... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A view of Rugby School from The Close, the playing field where according to legend Rugby was invented Rugby School, located in the town of Rugby, Warwickshire, is one of the oldest public schools in England and is one of the major co-educational boarding schools in the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Diagram of a Canadian football field. ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Further information: History of rugby union
Further information: History of rugby league

Rugby descends from an 18th century Cornish or Welsh sport known as "hurling" in which a ball was thrown up and the players acting either as individuals or as teams attempted to carry it to a goal.[1] The goal could be set as far as several miles away thereby creating the opportunity for large-scale brawls in intervening villages. In Welsh the sport is called cnapan or "criapan," and has medieval roots. The old Irish predecessor of rugby may be caid, not to be confused with Gaelic "hurling" or "hockey" which has the difference that the ball was hit with a stick rather than carried. Rugby Football is commonly known as "rugby" and as "rugger". The history of rugby union follows from various football games played long before the 19th century, but it was not until the middle of that century that rules were formulated and codified. ... The history of rugby league began with the early schism of 1895 in the sport of Rugby football. ... Cnapan (sometimes spelt Knapan or Knappan) is an archaic sport which vaguely resembles some modern versions of football. ... Caid was the name used for a collection of various ancient and traditional Irish football games. ...


The status of the rugby codes in various countries

Rugby union, is both a professional and amateur game, is dominated by eleven "major" unions: France, Australia, England, Ireland, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, Wales, Argentina, Italy, and Scotland. Rugby Union is administered by the International Rugby Board (IRB). Rugby union is the national sport in New Zealand, South Africa and Wales. "Minor" unions include Fiji, Georgia, Japan, Namibia, Portugal, Romania, Samoa, Spain, Tonga, Chile, The United States and Uruguay. In Malaysia, rugby union is played by campus students. Rugby union also ranks as the national sport of Pacific countries such as Tonga and Fiji. For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... A National sport is a sport which has been declared to be the sport of a nation by its government such as Lacrosse and ice hockey in Canada. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...


Rugby League is also both a professional and amateur game, administered on a global level by the Rugby League International Federation. In addition to the countless amateur and semi-professional competitions in countries such as the United States, Russia, Lebanon and across Europe, there are two major professional competitions worldwide - the Australasian National Rugby League and the European Super League. In the 'National Rugby League' there are teams from all Australian states and territories except South Australia, Western Australia, Northern Territory and Tasmania, and there is also one in Auckland, New Zealand. In Super League there are just two teams from outside the north of England, London-based Harlequins and Perpignan-based Catalans. The Rugby League International Federation (RLIF) is the world governing body for the sport of rugby league. ... The National Rugby League (NRL) is the top league of professional rugby league football clubs in Australasia. ... Super League (Europe) began in March 1996 and is the only full-time professional rugby league competition operating in the northern hemisphere. ...


Rules

Distinctive features common to both rugby codes (league and union) include the prolate spheroid ball and the ban on passing the ball forward, so that players can gain ground only by running with the ball or by kicking it. As the sport of rugby league moved further away from its union counterpart, rule changes were implemented with the aim of making a faster-paced, more try-oriented game, in the hope of increasing attendances at games. A comparison of rugby league and rugby union is possible due to the games similarities and shared origins. ... A spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ...


Today, the main differences between the two games, besides league having teams of 13 players and union of 15, involve the tackle and its aftermath: For other uses, see Tackle. ...

  • Union players contest possession following the tackle: depending on the situation, either a ruck or a maul occurs. League players may not contest possession after making a tackle: play is continued with a play-the-ball (AKA: "Scratch")
  • In league, if the team in possession fails to score before a "set of six" tackles, it surrenders possession. Union has no six-tackle rule; a team can keep the ball for an unlimited number of tackles before scoring as long as it maintains possession and does not commit an offense.

Set pieces of the union code include the scrum, where packs of opposing players push against each other for possession, and the lineout, where parallel lines of players from each team, arranged perpendicular to the touch-line (the side line) attempt to catch the ball thrown from touch (the area behind the touch-line). A typical passage of rugby union takes the following form. ... A typical passage of rugby union takes the following form. ... Playing rugby league requires the player to be fit. ... The term set piece or set play is used in football to refer to a situation when the ball is returned to open play following a stoppage, particularly in a forward area of the pitch. ... A scrum in an England versus Scotland international. ... A rugby lineout. ... The touch-line is the line on either side of the playing area of a game of Rugby Football and of the game of Association Football (soccer). ... Touch is the area outside two touch-lines which define the sides of the playing area in a game of Rugby football. ...


In the league code, the scrum still exists, but with greatly reduced importance. Set pieces are generally started from the play-the-ball situation. Many of the rugby league positions have similar names and requirements to rugby union positions but there are no flankers in rugby league. The result of these variations have led to rugby union being considered a traditional form of rugby. A typical rugby league team consists of thirteen players on the field plus four substitutes on the bench. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ...


Culture

In the U.K, an old saying goes "football is a gentleman's game played by ruffians and rugby is a ruffian's game played by gentlemen". In most rugby-playing countries, rugby union is widely regarded as an "establishment" sport, historically amateur, played mostly by members of the upper and middle classes. For example, many students at private schools and grammar schools play rugby union. By contrast, rugby league has traditionally been seen as a working and middle class, professional pursuit. A contrast to this ideology is evident in the neighbouring unions of England and Wales. In England the sport is very much associated with the public schools system (i.e. independent/private schools). In Ireland, rugby union is also associated with private education and the "D4" stereotype, and this image of the spoilt, ignorant, wealthy rugby-playing jock inspired the best-selling Ross O'Carroll Kelly novels. In Wales, rugby is associated with small village teams which consisted of coal miners and other industrial workers playing on their days off. Soccer redirects here. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... For the film of this title, see Private School (film). ... A grammar school is a school that may, depending on regional usage as exemplified below, provide either secondary education or, a much less common usage, primary education (also known as elementary). Grammar schools trace their origins back to medieval Europe, as schools in which university preparatory subjects, such as Latin... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... A public school, in current English, Welsh and Northern Ireland usage, is a (usually) prestigious independent school, for children usually between the ages of 11 or 13 and 18, which charges fees and is not financed by the state. ... Dublin 4 is a postal district of Dublin, Ireland including the suburbs of Sandymount, Ballsbridge, Donnybrook, Ringsend and Irishtown on the South side of Dublin. ... Ross OCarroll-Kelly is a fictional character created by Irish journalist Paul Howard. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ...


Exceptions to the above include New Zealand, Wales, France except Paris, Cornwall, the Borders region of Scotland, County Limerick in Ireland, and the Pacific Islands, where rugby union is popular in working class communities. Nevertheless, rugby league is perceived as the game of the working class people in the English counties of Yorkshire, Lancashire and Cumbria, and in the Australian states of New South Wales and Queensland. In the United Kingdom, rugby union fans sometimes use the term "rugger" as an alternative name for the sport, (see Oxford '-er'). Also the kick off is known to be called "Rug Off" in some regions. In the US, people who play rugby are sometimes called "ruggers", a term little used elsewhere except facetiously. Those considered to be heavily involved with the rugby union lifestyle — including heavy drinking and striped jumpers — sometimes identify as "rugger buggers". Retired rugby union players who still turn up to watch, drink and serve on committees rank as "alickadoos" or, less kindly, as "old farts". An alternative name for the game adopted primarily in local rugby comps is known as "Ra-Ra" referring to the pomp and circumstance associated with the sport. This article is about the country. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Scottish Borders (often referred to locally as The Borders or The Borderland) is one of 35 local government unitary council areas of Scotland. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Limerick Code: LK Area: 2,686 km² Population (2006) 183,863 (including Limerick City); 131,303 (without Limerick City) Website: www. ... Tuamotu, French Polynesia The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands (the exact number has yet to be precisely determined). ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... The traditional counties as usually portrayed. ... For other uses, see Yorkshire (disambiguation). ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... Australia, having a federal system of government, is divided into states and territories. ... NSW redirects here. ... For other uses, see Queensland (disambiguation). ... The Oxford -er is a colloquial, sometimes facetious, abbreviation once prevalent at Oxford University (from about 1875), which gave rise to such slang as rugger for Rugby football, soccer for Association football and the now archaic footer for either code (but more usually soccer). ... Booze redirects here. ... A jumper from Marks & Spencer A sweater (also called sweatshirt, pullover, jumper, and jersey) is a relatively heavy garment intended to cover the torso and arms of the human body (though, in some cases, sweaters are made for dogs and occasionally other animals) and typically to be worn over a...


Because of the nature of the games (almost unlimited body contact with little or no padding), the rugby world frowns on unsporting behaviour, since even a slight infringement of the rules may lead to serious injury or even death. Because of this, governing bodies enforce the rules strictly. This article is about padding in fashion. ... It is sporting to shake the hand of ones opponent after the end of a game. ...


In Australia support for both codes is concentrated in New South Wales, Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory. The same perceived class barrier as exists between the two games in England also occurs in these two states, fostered by rugby union's prominence and support at private schools. Australian followers of rugby league usually refer to rugby league as "league", "footy" or "football" and rugby union as "rugby" or "union". NSW redirects here. ... For other uses, see Queensland (disambiguation). ... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


New Zealanders generally refer to rugby union simply as either "football", "rugby" or "rugby union" and to rugby league as "rugby league", "football" or "league". In New Zealand, playing rugby football has a reputation as the epitome of manliness for both Māori and Pākehā (non-Māori), as symbolised by a haka (war dance) at the start of important games. Kiwis see rugby as the accepted substitute for military heroism and an excellent training ground for soldiering. If Britain won the Battle of Waterloo on the playing-fields of Eton College, New Zealand long saw its role in the British Empire as intimately connected with the football field. Popular Kiwi mythology sees the encouragement of New Zealand rugby in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as the Imperial reaction to declining physical fitness in Britain's industrial slums. This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Pākehā is a Māori term generally used to describe New Zealanders of British or European ancestry, but it can also be used to refer to any non-Māori person. ... The All Blacks, the international rugby union team of New Zealand, perform a haka (Māori traditional dance) immediately prior to international matches. ... For other uses, see Kiwi (disambiguation). ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, near Windsor in England, north of Windsor Castle, and... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Physical fitness is an attribute required for service in virtually all military forces. ...


Notes

  1. ^ DeFoe, Daniel (1761). Tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain.. 

See also

Rugby football Portal
Rugby League Portal
Rugby union Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A comparison of rugby league and rugby union is possible due to the games similarities and shared origins. ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... The history of rugby league began with the early schism of 1895 in the sport of Rugby football. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... The history of rugby union follows from various football games played long before the 19th century, but it was not until the middle of that century that rules were formulated and codified. ... Bold text // Rugby sevens being played at the 2006 Commonwealth Games, which was held at Melbournes Telstra Dome. ... The name touch rugby, refers to derivatives of rugby football in which players do not tackle in the traditional, highly physical way, but instead touch their opponents using their hands on any part of the body, clothing, or the ball. ... Tag Rugby is a game played by teams of seven players. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The name medieval football is a modern term sometimes used for a wide variety of localised games which were invented and played during the Middle Ages in Europe. ...

External links

  • Richard Lindon inventor of the Rugby Ball
  • Comprehensive Rugby Union History
  • Open-site.org Rugby
  • Basingstoke RFC International Diamond 7s


  Results from FactBites:
 
Internet Real Fitness Buzz (438 words)
Unlike other ball sports like football which is a non-contact sport, rugby is a full contact sport in which players tackle one another to the ground in order to take possession of the ball for their team.
For a game that began life in Britain at a private English school for boys rugby has spread all over the world where it is cherished and loved by people in hundreds of different countries and this means that international rugby union has established itself as one of the most popular games on the planet.
Rugby Union retains rules and a style of play that is closest to the original game invented at Rugby School in England in the 1700s and this accounts for much of its attraction today.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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