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Encyclopedia > Rugby Union
A rugby union scrum.
A rugby union scrum.

Rugby union (short for rugby union football) is an outdoor sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of 15 players. It is one of the two main codes of rugby football, the other being rugby league. In both codes, there is also a seven-a-side variant, called rugby sevens, which is played under modified rules and is faster. Rugby union is often referred to as simply rugby, rugger or egg chasing.[1] It is sometimes known as football, or, in countries where rugby league is also played, as union. Rugby might refer to the sport called rugby: Rugby football Rugby league Rugby union Touch Rugby Tag Rugby Wheelchair Rugby Rugby is also the name of several places: Rugby, Warwickshire (England) within the Borough of Rugby Rugby, North Dakota Rugby, Tennessee Rugby, Brooklyn Rugby may also refer to: Rugby School... Image File history File links Scrum_rugby. ... Image File history File links Scrum_rugby. ... A scrum in an England versus Scotland international. ... A spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... Bold text // Rugby sevens being played at the 2006 Commonwealth Games, which was held at Melbournes Telstra Dome. ...

Contents

Overview

Main article: Playing rugby union

A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes, with a short interval (not more than 10 minutes)[2] after the first 40 minutes; at under-19 level and below, games are limited to a maximum of 70 minutes, with an interval after 35 minutes.[3] A typical passage of rugby union takes the following form. ...


A match is controlled by a referee, who is assisted by two touch judges or assistant referee's. For professional matches, a television match official (TMO), commonly called the video referee is often employed, usually to advise the referee on matters pertaining to the scoring of tries and dropped goals. A referee is a person who has authority to make decisions about play in many sports. ... The touch judge is an official who monitors the touch-line in a game of Rugby football and raise a flag if the ball goes into touch. ... A video referee, also known as the instant replay official, television match official or third umpire, is a sports official called upon to help adjudicate a sports match using television footage. ... This article refers to the use of the word Try in rugby football terminology. ... A field goal, in rugby union and rugby league, is a play that, if attempted successfully, will score a number of points. ...

The Try, 1930s boys' comic illustration of play in a school rugby match.

The object of the game is to score as many points as possible. The team that scores the greater number of points is the winner. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Points are awarded for scoring a try or kicking a goal. A try, which is worth 5 points, is scored when the ball is grounded within the opponent's in-goal area. A goal is scored by kicking the ball over the crossbar of the opponent's goal while remaining between the posts.


There are three ways to score a goal: (i) a dropped goal (scored in open play where the ball must hit the ground immediately before it is kicked); (ii) a penalty goal (awarded after the opposing side infringes against the laws of rugby and may be kicked from a stationary ground position or by drop kick); and (iii) a conversion (awarded after a try is scored) by either a drop kick or a place kick. A penalty or dropped goal is worth 3 points; a conversion is worth 2 points. A field goal, in rugby union and rugby league, is a play that, if attempted successfully, will score a number of points. ... In rugby football, the penalty is the main disciplinary sanction available to the referee to penalise players who commit deliberate infringements. ... This article refers to the use of the word Try in rugby football terminology. ...


The pitch must be no more than 100 meters in length, not including the in-goal area. The depth of the in-goal area can vary but must be at least 10 meters (where practicable) and no more than 22 meters. The width of the pitch may also vary but must be no more than 70 meters wide. The goal posts are situated on the centre of the goal line with the upright posts placed 5.6 meters apart and the crossbar is placed 3 meters above the ground in an 'H' shape. The overall height of the goal posts must be over 3.4 meters.


A typical passage of rugby takes the following form: the team in possession of the ball moves the ball up the field in an effort to ground the ball over the opponents' goal-line in order to score a try until such time as the ball carrier is tackled. They then form a ruck in order to win the ball back. This process repeats until one team makes a mistake that violates the Laws of the game, moves off the field of play or a try or goal is scored. A typical passage of rugby union takes the following form. ... A typical passage of rugby union takes the following form. ...


The team in possession may choose to advance by kicking the ball forward. The ball may be passed from one player to another as long as the ball is not thrown forwards. Rugby union is one of the few ball games where the ball cannot be passed forwards. Any team mate nearer the opposition goal than the ball-carrier is off-side and must not interfere with play, meaning that American football-style blocking is forbidden. United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ...


The team not in possession attempts to stop the ball carrier by tackling them, which consists of grabbing hold of them and bringing them to ground. A tackled player must pass or release the ball, allowing the opposition to contest possession of the loose ball. Play does not stop unless there is an infringement of the laws, or the ball / ball-carrier leaves the field of play.


If the ball goes into touch (out of the field of play), the game restarts with a line-out. If the game stops because of an infringement, play restarts with either a scrum, free kick or penalty kick (depending on the severity of the infringement) awarded to the non-infringing team. A rugby lineout. ... A scrum in an England versus Scotland international. ...


The attacking team may score by kicking the ball between the posts and over the cross-bar. When attempting to kick for goal the ball may only be kicked from the ground, either from a place kick or drop-kick following the award of a penalty or from a drop kick in open play. A successful kick at goal is worth three points. In rugby football, the penalty is the main disciplinary sanction available to the referee to penalise players who commit deliberate infringements. ... A field goal, in rugby union and rugby league, is a play that, if attempted successfully, will score a number of points. ...


The attacking team may also score by grounding the ball in the in-goal area. This is called a "try" and is worth five points. A team that scores a try is given the opportunity to attempt to kick a goal, known as a conversion kick; the conversion kick is worth two points if successful. The conversion kick must be taken from in line with where the try was scored; it can be taken from anywhere beyond fifteen meters from the goal-line. This article refers to the use of the word Try in rugby football terminology. ... This article refers to the use of the word Try in rugby football terminology. ...


Tries are the main form of scoring, and the primary aim of most teams is to score tries. Drop goals and penalty kicks are usually augmenters, a safer option against a steadfast defense or to punish ill-disciplined opposition. On some (usually rare) occasions, a team may be awarded a penalty try, if their opponents commit a foul which is deemed by the referee to have prevented a try, or if they have persistently stopped play close to the try line through foul play.


Players

Main article: Rugby union positions
South Africa playing Samoa in a Rugby World Cup warm up fixture, Johannesburg in 2007.
South Africa playing Samoa in a Rugby World Cup warm up fixture, Johannesburg in 2007.

A rugby union team consists of 15 players: eight forwards, numbered 1 to 8, and seven backs, numbered 9 to 15.[4] Depending upon the competition, there may be up to seven replacements (substitutes or reserves). Professional rugby contains seven reserves, with a player being allowed to be substituted only once, unless they are a front-row specialist player and are replacing an injured front-row player. Another exception to this rule is the "blood bin", where a player with a visible and bleeding injury must leave the field and then return to continue play after receiving treatment providing this is within 15 minutes of the player leaving the field (actual time, not game clock). A player sent to the blood bin may be replaced by another player during treatment. If the bloodied player returns to play within 15 minutes, it is not counted as a substitution. A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For the rugby league competition, see Rugby League World Cup. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ...


The main role of the forwards is to gain and retain possession of the ball. They take part in set pieces of the scrum and the line-out. Generally, forwards are larger, stronger, and somewhat slower than the backs. Forwards also have a role in taking the ball forwards, but generally do so by driving into the opposing forwards. Increasingly, back row forwards such as flankers and the number 8 are becoming athletic and fast, staying out of the breakdown to participate in running moves with the backs. A scrum in an England versus Scotland international. ... A rugby lineout. ...


The role of the backs is to move the game forward by running or kicking the ball. The scrum-half will gain possession of the ball from the forwards and usually feed it to the fly-half also known as the outside half (no.10) who then controls how the attacking team will proceed. The backline will tend to score its tries by focusing on the tactical placement of players, creating holes in the opposition defense line. A successful backline will cause the opposition defense to commit too many players at strategic points creating space to open up for the faster, outside backs (wingers and fullback).


The following diagram locates the various positions in the 15-man team. All members of the starting 15 wear jerseys, numbered from 1 to 15, and keyed to their positions (though alternatives exist; see rugby union positions and rugby union numbering schemes for more information). The first eight players, known as forwards or the pack, play in the scrum. The remaining seven players are the backs.the front A rugby union team consists of 15 players plus up to seven replacements (depending on the competition). ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A rugby union team consists of 15 players plus up to seven replacements (depending on the competition). ... A scrum in an England versus Scotland international. ...

Rugby union positions

A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A normal Rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ...

History

Main article: History of rugby union
See also: Women's rugby union
Webb-Ellis at Rugby, 1823.

The origin of rugby football is often credited to a young man named William Webb Ellis who "took the ball in his arms (i.e. caught the ball) and ran" while playing a form of football at Rugby School in 1823. However historians have questioned the authenticity of this story, beginning with an official investigation by the Old Rugbeian Society in 1895. Nonetheless, the trophy for the Rugby World Cup bears the name of "Webb Ellis" in his honour, and a plaque at the school commemorates the "achievement". Playing football has a long tradition in England, and football games had probably taken place at Rugby School for 200 years before three boys published the first set of written rules in 1845. However, the game they presented resembled "Hurling to Goal", described by Richard Carew in his 1602 work, 'Survey of Cornwall'. Cornish hurlers traveled to London to play 'demonstration matches' of the sport several times in the 17th century. The history of rugby union follows from various football games played long before the 19th century, but it was not until the middle of that century that rules were formulated and codified. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This only known portrait of William Webb Elllis, circa 1857, from the Illustrated London News. ... A view of Rugby School from The Close, the playing field where according to legend Rugby was invented Rugby School, located in the town of Rugby, Warwickshire, is one of the oldest public schools in England and is one of the major co-educational boarding schools in the country. ... The Webb Ellis Cup. ... For the rugby league competition, see Rugby League World Cup. ... Pub Sign at St. ... Richard Carew (1555 - 1620) was a Cornish translator and antiquary. ...


Until the formation of the Football Association (FA) in October 1863 opposing football teams agreed on a set of rules before each match. Teams that competed against each other regularly tended to agree to play a similar style of football. The Football Association (The FA) is the governing body of football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. ...


Rugby football has a claim to the world's first "football clubs"; the Barnes Club (as it was known), formed in London in 1839, and Guy's Hospital Football Club (1843). However the continuity of these two clubs has not been established by documentation. Dublin University Football Club is the world's oldest documented football club in any code, having been formed in 1854; it currently plays rugby union in the All Ireland League Division Two. Likewise Edinburgh Academical Football Club was formed in Scotland in 1857-58. Blackheath Rugby Club was founded in 1858 and is the oldest documented rugby club in England. It was a founding member of The Football Association. When it became clear that the FA would not allow running with the ball in hand and to "charge, hold, trip or hack [an opponent], or to wrest the ball from him" ('hack' meaning to kick opposing players' legs, a feature of the rugby game at the time), Blackheath withdrew from the FA, just over a month after the initial meeting. Other rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA. The title of the worlds oldest football club, or the oldest club in a particular country, is often disputed, or is claimed by several different clubs, across several different codes of football. ... Barnes Rugby Football Club, a rugby union club from Barnes, is one of the oldest in the country. ... The Guys Hospital Football Club, founded in 1843 at Guys Hospital, in Southwark, London, claims to be the worlds first football club, although this is contested. ... Dublin University Football Club is Trinity College, Dublins Rugby Union club. ... The Edinburgh Academicals Rugby Football Club are a rugby union team currently playing in BT Premiership Division Two. ... Blackheath Rugby Club (BRC) is a rugby football club originally based in Blackheath in south-east London, but now playing at the Rectory Field in neighbouring Charlton. ... The Football Association (The FA) is the governing body of football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. ...


For the next few years rugby clubs continued to agree on rules before the start of each game as they had always done, but on January 26, 1871, the Rugby Football Union (RFU) formed, leading to the standardisation of the rules for all clubs in England that played a variety of the Rugby School laws.[5] Soon most countries with a sizeable rugby community had formed their own national unions. In 1886, the International Rugby Board (IRB) become the world governing and law-making body for rugby. The RFU recognised it as such in 1890. The Rugby Football Union (RFU) is the rugby union governing body in England. ... The IRB logo. ...


Rugby was introduced into New Zealand by Charles John Monro, son of Sir David Monro, then speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives. The younger Monro had been sent to Christ's College, East Finchley, in north London, England. That school had adopted rugby rules and Monro became an enthusiastic convert. He brought the game back to his native Nelson, and arranged the first rugby match, between Nelson College and Nelson Football Club, on May 14, 1870. However a form of rugby was being played at Christ's College, Canterbury in 1853.[6] In North America, rugby developed into American football and into Canadian football. Charles John Monro (sometimes, erroneously, Munro) is credited with bringing Rugby Union to New Zealand. ... Sir David Monro (27 March 1813 - 15 February 1877) was a New Zealand politician. ... The New Zealand House of Representatives is the legislature of New Zealand. ... for Christs College, East Finchley see Christs College Finchley ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The City of Nelson is situated very close to the centre of New Zealand. ... Wikinews has news related to: New Zealand boarding school closed due to gastro-enteritis outbreak Nelson College is a boys-only state secondary school in Nelson, New Zealand. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Christs College Christs College, Dining Hall, as seen from Rolleston Avenue Christs College, Canterbury is an independent, boys-only, Anglican secondary school in Christchurch, New Zealand. ... North American redirects here. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Diagram of a Canadian football field. ...


The 1890s saw a clash of cultures within the game, between working men's rugby clubs of northern England and predominantly middle-class southern clubs, a dispute revolving around the nature of professionalism within the game. Several clubs had made payments to their players to compensate for loss of working time, when either playing or training. These "broken time" payments were seen as an affront to the Corinthian ideal by the gentlemen who administered the game. On August 29, 1895, 22 Lancashire and Yorkshire clubs split from the RFU and met at the George Hotel in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union (NRFU), commonly called the Northern Union (NU). NRFU rules gradually diverged from those of rugby union, although the name rugby league did not become official until the Northern Rugby League formed in 1901. The name Rugby Football League (RFL) dates from 1922. A similar schism opened up in Australia and other rugby-playing nations. Initially, rugby league in Australia operated under the same rules as rugby union. But after a tour by a professional New Zealand team in 1907 of Australia and Great Britain, and an Australian Rugby League tour of Great Britain the next year, rugby league teams in the southern hemisphere adopted rugby league rules. For clarity and convenience it became necessary to differentiate the two codes of rugby. The code played by those teams who remained in national organisations which were members of the IRB became known as "rugby union". The code played by those teams which played "open" rugby and allowed professionals as well as amateurs became known as "rugby league". Professional sports began at North Panola High School in the early 1600s. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England. ... , Huddersfield is a large town within the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, in West Yorkshire, England, near the confluence of the River Colne and the River Holme. ... The Rugby Football League (RFL) is the governing body for Rugby League in the United Kingdom. ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... The Rugby Football League (RFL) is the governing body for rugby league in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about people called professionals. ...


On 26 August 1995 the IRB declared rugby union an "open" game and removed all restrictions on payments or benefits to those connected with the game. It did this because of a committee conclusion that to do so was the only way to end the hypocrisy of shamateurism and to keep control of rugby union (there were rumours that Rupert Murdoch was planning to finance a southern hemisphere professional league). The move from amateurism to professionalism has arguably increased the quality of rugby being played. However, professionalism has meant a huge increase in the gap between the top nations and the second tier. Alongside the success stories there have been some famous rugby clubs which have not coped well with the new era. Increasing popularity in recent years has led to diversification; women's rugby is increasingly popular in the US and Canada. is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Keith Rupert Murdoch AC, KCSG (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian born United States citizen who is a global media executive and is the controlling shareholder, chairman and managing director of News Corporation, based in New York. ...


The professionalisation of rugby union has created a larger and more international supporter base than before and very large crowds in international competitions. Sponsorship and club attendance is also increasing in rugby union, with many English premiership clubs seeking to expand their existing ground capacity. Attendances for major international rugby union matches are generally sell-outs. As rugby union has grown, the increased funds generated have allowed the opportunity for big money deals bringing top-level rugby league players over to rugby union.


Governing Bodies

See also: International Rugby Board

The recognised international governing body of rugby union (and associated games, such as sevens) is the International Rugby Board (IRB). The IRB headquarters are located in Dublin. The IRB logo. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ...


Six regional associations are members of the IRB; these are:

  • Africa: Confederation of African Rugby (CAR)
  • Asia: Asian Rugby Football Union (ARFU)
  • North America & West Indies: North America and West Indies Rugby Association (NAWIRA)
  • Europe: FIRA - Association Européenne de Rugby (FIRA-AER)
  • Oceania: Federation of Oceania Rugby Union (FORU)
  • South America: Confederación Sudamericano de Rugby (CONSUR)

National unions oversee rugby union within individual countries. These are affiliated both with the IRB and with their respective regional association. The CAR logo. ...


Worldwide

A giant rugby ball suspended below the Eiffel Tower as a promotion for the Rugby World Cup.
A giant rugby ball suspended below the Eiffel Tower as a promotion for the Rugby World Cup.

Rugby union has established itself as a popular sport, particularly in Australia, Argentina, Canada, England, Fiji, France, Georgia, Ireland, Italy,Japan [[1]] New Zealand, ,Romania, Samoa, Scotland, South Africa, Tonga and Wales. Other countries with a long tradition of rugby, although as a minority sport, include USA, Japan, Sri Lanka, India, Singapore, Malaysia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile, Netherlands, Belgium, Russia, Moldova, Portugal, Spain and numerous African countries. For example, the USA are the reigning Olympic champions, from the Paris Olympics in 1924 (the last year rugby was played as an Olympic sport), when they beat France in the final. Rugby union is gaining popularity in Italy following its acceptance into the Six Nations. Japan unsuccessfully bid to host the 2011 World Cup losing to New Zealand. Rugby union also has a following in North America, with both Canada and the USA regularly qualifying for the World Cup. One of the attractions of rugby union is the great diversity in playing styles that have been adopted by the various countries that play the game. This diversity of styles of play is partially due to the varying interpretations of the laws of the game.[7] Perhaps the greatest influence on styles of play is the playing environment such as the mud of a wet English field, or on a hard, sparsely grassed paddock in Australia, or at altitude on the South African Highveld, in the humidity of Hong Kong or the snow of a Scottish hillside. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 354 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1062 × 1800 pixel, file size: 360 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 354 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1062 × 1800 pixel, file size: 360 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... For the rugby league competition, see Rugby League World Cup. ... The rose that appears on the English national jersey. ... Rugby union is a popular team sport in Scotland. ... Rugby union is the national sport of Wales and is considered a large part of national culture. ... Rugby union was played at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris. ... The RBS 6 Nations Championship, (referred to as RBS 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) known before 2000 as the Five Nations Championship, is an annual international rugby union competition held between six European sides: France, England, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales. ... The 2011 Rugby World Cup will be the seventh staging of the tournament. ... The Highveld is a high plateau area of South Africa which includes the largest metropolitan area in the country, Johannesburg. ...


The International Rugby Board (IRB), founded in 1886, governs the sport worldwide and also publishes the game's laws and rankings. There are currently 95 full members and eight associate member countries. According to IRB figures, rugby union is played in over 100 countries spanning six continents by men and women of all ages. The IRB controls the Rugby World Cup, the Women's Rugby World Cup, Rugby World Cup Sevens, IRB Sevens World Series, Junior World Championship, Junior World Trophy and the Super Cup. It holds votes to decide where all of these events shall be held, except in the case of the Sevens World Series. For that competition, the IRB contracts with several national unions to hold individual events. The IRB logo. ... The IRB World Rankings is a ranking system for mens national teams in rugby union. ... For the rugby league competition, see Rugby League World Cup. ... The Womens Rugby World Cup is the premier international competition in Rugby union for women. ... The Rugby World Cup Sevens is the worlds premier international contest in the Sevens version of rugby union, first held in Scotland in 1993 and held every four years. ... The IRB Sevens World Series, known officially as the IRB Sevens before the 2006-07 season and also sometimes called the World Sevens Series, is a series of international rugby union sevens tournaments organised for the first time in the 1999-2000 season. ... A Super Cup is a competition, usually but not exclusively in football, which often forms the curtain-raiser to a season. ...


Records of women's rugby go back over 100 years - the first mentions of the game being in New Zealand in 1891 and France ten years later. In the past 30 years, however, the game has expanded massively and (according to the RFU) it is now played in over 80 countries worldwide.


'Touch rugby', a version of the game in which 'tackles' are made simply by touching an opponent, is gaining popularity. The name touch rugby, refers to derivatives of rugby football in which players do not tackle in the traditional, highly physical way, but instead touch their opponents using their hands on any part of the body, clothing, or the ball. ...


Major international competitions

For more details on this topic, see List of rugby union competitions.

The most important tournament in rugby union is the Rugby World Cup, a men's tournament that takes place every four years between the elite national rugby union teams. South Africa are the current world champions, winning the 2007 tournament held in France. They beat England, who were attempting to become the first country to retain the title, having won it in 2003. The fact that four different countries have won the World Cup confirms the level of competition in the tournament, creating intense interest from supporters, the media and major sponsors. Major international competitions in the northern and southern hemisphere are the Six Nations Championship and the Tri Nations Series, respectively. The following is a list of notable rugby union competitions. ... The 2007 Rugby World Cup is the sixth Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international rugby union world championship inaugurated in 1987. ... For the rugby league competition, see Rugby League World Cup. ... The 2007 Rugby World Cup is the sixth Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international rugby union world championship inaugurated in 1987. ... The RBS 6 Nations Championship, (referred to as RBS 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) known before 2000 as the Five Nations Championship, is an annual international rugby union competition held between six European sides: France, England, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales. ... The Tri Nations Trophy The Tri Nations is an annual international rugby union series held between Australias Wallabies, New Zealands All Blacks and South Africas Springboks. ...


The Six Nations is an annual competition involving northern hemisphere teams England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales. Each country plays the other five once, the modern tournament traces its roots to the first ever international game, when England lost by one goal to Scotland at Inverleith Park, adjacent to Raeburn Place, Edinburgh in 1871. In the 1880s, Wales and Ireland joined to create the Home International Championships. France joined the tournament in the 1900s and in 1910 the term Five Nations first appeared. However, the Home Nations (England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales) excluded France in 1931 amid a run of poor results, allegations of professionalism (rugby union was officially amateur until 1995) and concerns over on-field violence. France then rejoined in 1939-1940, though World War II halted proceedings for a further eight years. France has played in all the tournaments since WWII, the first one of which was played in 1947. In 2000, Italy became the sixth nation in the contest. The RBS 6 Nations Championship, (referred to as RBS 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) known before 2000 as the Five Nations Championship, is an annual international rugby union competition held between six European sides: France, England, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales. ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4–1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) Worst defeat  Australia 76–0 England  (6 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 2003 The England national rugby union team represents... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4 - 1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  Scotland 100 - 8 Japan  (13 November 2004) Worst defeat  Scotland 10 - 68 South Africa  (6 December 1997) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Semi-finals, 1991 The Scotland national rugby union... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... Home Nations (often written as the common noun home nations) is a term used to refer to the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — collectively but as separate entities, distinct from the United Kingdom as a state. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The Tri Nations is an annual international rugby union series held between the southern hemisphere teams of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. The series was initially played on a home and away basis with the three nations playing each other twice. In 2006 a new system was introduced where each nation plays the others three times rather than two. In 2007 the teams will play each other only twice, as it is a World Cup year. The IRB had been brokering a deal which could have seen Argentina admitted to the competition in 2008,[8] but it was later confirmed that the Tri Nations would not be expanded until at least 2010.[9] Amidst all the rugby union competitions are also the autumn and summer Tests, which take place between September to December and June to August. These are played by the major rugby union nations on a home or away basis.


Women's International Rugby began in 1982. Over six hundred women's internationals have now been played by over forty different nations. As well as the women's World Cup event (which takes place every four years), there are also other regular tournaments, including a Six Nations run in parallel to the men's competition. Sue Day (England) On 13th June 1982 the French national womens rugby union team travelled to Utrecht to take on their Netherlands Womens team. ... The Womens Rugby World Cup is the premier international competition in Rugby union for women. ... The Womens Six Nations Championship is an international rugby union competition contested between the womens national teams of England, France, Ireland, Scotland, Spain and Wales. ...


In the military

The earliest record of rugby being played in the Army was during the Crimean War (1854-56). In its early days rugby was very much the preserve of the officers, it was not until the early 1870s that the game became inclusive of all ranks. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought...


The Royal Navy and in particular the British Army did much to spread enthusiasm for rugby worldwide as it did for the other great British national games; cricket and football. Army regiments stationed throughout the British Empire had regimental teams who played locally. Whilst serving in India the 3rd (East Kent) Regiment (The Buffs) and the 62nd (Wiltshire) Regiment (Duke of Edinburgh's) both had a hand in the conception of the Calcutta Cup, the oldest trophy in the history of international rugby. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... This article is about the sport. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Calcutta Cup The Calcutta Cup is a rugby union trophy awarded to the winner of the annual Six Nations Championship match between England and Scotland. ...


The Army Navy Match, which is currently played at Twickenham each year was first played in 1878, but did not become annual event until 1909. Image:Armynavy14s. ... Twickenham Stadium (usually known as just Twickenham or Twickers[1]) is a stadium located in Twickenham, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. ...


Currently in the United Kingdom, the Army and Navy compete for the gum trophy which army academics believe was originally contested by the REME army unit and a Royal Nay ship building team in the late 19th Century. With the losing captain having to strip and walk from the field naked. The trophy was therefore coloquially referred to as "the naked gum", and is the prize that many players strive for. Having a naked gum on the CV is a major achievement, which was compared by D Ling, the 1943 winning captain as being the pinacle in his career.



In 1905 the Royal Navy Rugby Union (RNRU) was formed and the Army Rugby Union the following year (1906), both service unions were affiliated to the Rugby Football Union (RFU) on their formation. The Army Rugby Union (ARU) was formed on 31st December 1906 and marked the fulfilment of Lieutenant JEC ‘Birdie’ Partridge’s (Welch Regiment) idea to have a body to administer the playing of rugby in the British Army. ...


Women's rugby was introduced into the Armed Services in the early 1990s.


See also

Rugby union Portal
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Bibliography

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References

  1. ^ Rugger:
    • OED:Rugger "Slang or colloquial alteration of RUGBY (in the sense of 'Rugby football'). Freq. attrib. rugger-tackle".
    • Tony Collins, Football, rugby, rugger?, BBC sound recording with written transcript, and a comment in prose by Jonnie Robinson, Curator, English accents and dialects, British Library Sound Archive.)
  2. ^ Laws of the Game: Law 5.2
  3. ^ Under 19 Variations, International Rugby Board
  4. ^ Rugby positions guide. news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  5. ^ Black and White and Grey. www.theroar.com.au.
  6. ^ 1853 (English). Christchurch: a chronology. Christchurch City Libraries. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.
  7. ^ Garth Hamilton (June 18, 2007). Black and white and grey. theroar.com.au. Retrieved on 2007-09-18.
  8. ^ Cain, Nick (2007-02-25). Ambitious Argentina poised to secure TriNations place. The Sunday Times. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  9. ^ Pumas will stay crouched until 2010. RugbyRugby.com (2007-08-13). Retrieved on 2007-10-11.

OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Rugby Union Kit - www.kukrisports.com (395 words)
Whether you are a professional rugby team a semi professional team or a group of friends who play over the weekends on a friendly basis we have a cost effective solution to your kit needs.
Your union kit comes in a choice of materials the kit can be made from cotton or from a hohilo fabric which is a polyester fabric the kohilo is a lightweight fabric.
The rugby union kits have some of the best socks available to the sport the tops are very comfortable and use a double cuff to stay up.
Rugby union Information (5144 words)
Rugby union is normally played by teams with 15 players, although there is also rugby sevens, a quicker game with 7 players a side.
Rugby union was invented in Rugby, England in 1823.
Rugby union is also related to rugby sevens, which the game's governing body the IRB also runs, as well as American football and Canadian football, which are directly descended from rugby football.
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