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Encyclopedia > Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling

Rudyard Kipling
Born December 30, 1865(1865-12-30)
Bombay, India
Died January 18, 1936 (aged 70)
Middlesex Hospital, London, England [1]
Occupation Short story writer, novelist, poet, Journalist
Nationality British
Genres Short story, novel, children's literature, poetry, travel literature, Science Fiction
Notable work(s) The Jungle Books
Just So Stories
Kim
Notable award(s) Nobel Prize in Literature
1907

Joseph Rudyard Kipling (December 30, 1865January 18, 1936) was an English author and poet, born in Bombay, British India, and best known for his works The Jungle Book (1894), The Second Jungle Book (1895), Just So Stories (1902), and Puck of Pook's Hill (1906); his novel, Kim (1901); his poems, including Mandalay (1890), Gunga Din (1890), "If—" (1910) and "Ulster 1912" (1912); and his many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King" (1888) and the collections Life's Handicap (1891), The Day's Work (1898), and Plain Tales from the Hills (1888). He is regarded as a major "innovator in the art of the short story";[2] his children's books are enduring classics of children's literature; and his best work speaks to a versatile and luminous narrative gift.[3][4] Kipling was one of the most popular writers in English, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[2] The author Henry James famously said of him: "Kipling strikes me personally as the most complete man of genius (as distinct from fine intelligence) that I have ever known."[2] In 1907, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English language writer to receive the prize, and he remains its youngest-ever recipient.[5] Among other honours, he was sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and on several occasions for a knighthood, all of which he rejected.[6] Kipling can refer to the following people Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), the British author John Lockwood Kipling (1837-1911), father of Rudyard Kipling or the following places in Canada Kipling, Saskatchewan, a town in Saskatchewan, named for Rudyard Kipling Kipling Airport, an airport near Kipling, Saskatchewan Kipling Avenue, a street... Image File history File linksMetadata Kiplingcropped. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , Bombay redirects here. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... University College Hospital is a teaching hospital in London, part of the University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, and associated with University College London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... A poet (from the ancient Greek ποιητης, poïêtes (artisan) ; ποιέω, poieō) is a person who writes poetry. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... This article is in need of attention. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Childrens books redirects here. ... This article is about the art form. ... Travel literature is literature which records the people, events, sights and feelings of an author who is touring a foreign place for the pleasure of travel. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Embossed cover from the original MacMillan edition of The Jungle Book, 1894, based on art by John Lockwood Kipling (Rudyards father) For other uses, see The Jungle Book (disambiguation). ... See also Just-so story for anthropological sense Wikisource has original text related to this article: Just So Stories The Just So Stories for Little Children were written by British author Rudyard Kipling. ... This article is about the novel. ... René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Borges redirects here. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... Embossed cover from the original MacMillan edition of The Jungle Book, 1894, based on art by John Lockwood Kipling (Rudyards father) For other uses, see The Jungle Book (disambiguation). ... Embossed cover from the original MacMillan edition of The Second Jungle Book, 1895, based on art by John Lockwood Kipling (Rudyards father) The Second Jungle Book is a sequel to The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. ... See also Just-so story for anthropological sense Wikisource has original text related to this article: Just So Stories The Just So Stories for Little Children were written by British author Rudyard Kipling. ... Puck of Pooks Hill is a book published in 1906 by Rudyard Kipling[1], containing a series of short stories set in different periods of history. ... This article is about the novel. ... Samuel Bourne. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Gunga Din Gunga Din (1892) is one of Rudyard Kiplings most famous poems, perhaps best known for its often-quoted last line, Youre a better man than I am, Gunga Din![1] The poem is a rhyming narrative from the... Edition of If by Doubleday Page and Company, Garden City, New York, 1910. ... For other uses, see The Man Who Would Be King (disambiguation). ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Plain Tales from the Hills Wikisource has original works written by or about: Plain Tales from the Hills Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Plain Tales from the Hills Plain Tales from the Hills (published 1888) is the first collection of short... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ... René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A Poet Laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government and often expected to compose poems for State occasions and other government events. ... The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals personal bravery, achievement or service to the United Kingdom. ...


However, later in life Kipling also came to be seen (in George Orwell's words) as a "prophet of British imperialism."[7] Many saw prejudice and militarism in his works,[8][9] and the resulting controversy about him continued for much of the 20th century.[10][11] According to critic Douglas Kerr: "He is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled. But as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognized as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, and an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with."[12] George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ...

Contents

Kipling's childhood

Malabar Point, Bombay, 1860s. Oriental and India Office Collection. British Library.
Malabar Point, Bombay, 1860s. Oriental and India Office Collection. British Library.

Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, British India, to Alice Kipling (née MacDonald) and (John) Lockwood Kipling.[13] Alice Kipling (one of four remarkable Victorian sisters)[14] was a vivacious woman[15] about whom a future Viceroy of India would say, "Dullness and Mrs. Kipling cannot exist in the same room."[2] Lockwood Kipling, a sculptor and pottery designer, was the principal and professor of architectural sculpture at the newly founded Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy School of Art and Industry in Bombay.[15] The couple, who had moved to India earlier that year, had met in courtship two years before at Rudyard Lake in rural Staffordshire, England, and had been so taken by its beauty that they now named their firstborn after it. Kipling's aunt, Georgiana, was married to the painter Edward Burne-Jones and his aunt Agnes was married to the painter Edward Poynter. His most famous relative was his first cousin, Stanley Baldwin, who was Conservative Prime Minister three times in the 1920s and 1930s.[16] Kipling's birthplace home still stands on the campus of the Sir J.J. Institute of Applied Art in Mumbai and for many years was used as the Dean's residence. Mumbai historian Foy Nissen points out however that although the cottage bears a plaque stating that this is the site where Kipling was born the fact of the matter is that the original cottage was pulled down decades ago and a new one built in its place. The wooden bungalow has been empty and locked up for years.[17] Image File history File linksMetadata Malabarpoint_governmenthouse_bombay. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Malabarpoint_governmenthouse_bombay. ... Malabar Hill is a small hillock in southern Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India, and is the location of the Walkeshwar Temple, founded by the Silhara kings. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... The MacDonald sisters were four daughters of English Methodist minister George Browne MacDonald (1805-1868) known for their marriages to well-known people: Alice (1837-1910) married John Lockwood Kipling, and was the mother of Rudyard Kipling. ... John Lockwood Kipling (1837-1911) was an art teacher, an illustrator, museum curator, and father of Rudyard Kipling. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... Rudyard Lake boat house Rudyard miniature railway Lakeside homes Rudyard Lake is a reservoir in Staffordshire constructed in 1797/8 to feed the Caldon Canal by the Trent and Mersey Canal company. ... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. ... Love Among the Ruins, by Edward Burne-Jones. ... Cave of the Storm Nymphs (1903) Edward Poynter, private collection Sir Edward John Poynter, 1st Baronet, KB (March 20, 1836 – July 26, 1919) was a British painter, designer, draughtsman and art administrator. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Sir J. J. Institute of Applied Art is an Indian applied art institution based in Mumbai. ...

A steamer, Bombay docks, 1870s, with bigger ships farther out in the sea. Oriental and India Office Collection. British Library.
A steamer, Bombay docks, 1870s, with bigger ships farther out in the sea. Oriental and India Office Collection. British Library.

Of Bombay, Kipling was to write:[18] Image File history File linksMetadata World-end_steamer_bombaydocks1870. ... Image File history File linksMetadata World-end_steamer_bombaydocks1870. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ...

Mother of Cities to me,
For I was born in her gate,
Between the palms and the sea,
Where the world-end steamers wait.

According to Bernice M. Murphy:[19]


"Kipling’s parents considered themselves 'Anglo-Indians' (a term used in the 19th century for British citizens living in India) and so too would their son, though he in fact spent the bulk of his life elsewhere. Complex issues of identity and national allegiance would become prominent features in his fiction." Kipling himself was to write about these conflicts as a man of seventy:[20]

In the afternoon heats before we took our sleep, she (the Portuguese ayah, or nanny) or Meeta (the Hindu bearer, or male attendant) would tell us stories and Indian nursery songs all unforgotten, and we were sent into the dining-room after we had been dressed, with the caution ‘Speak English now to Papa and Mamma.’ So one spoke ‘English,’ haltingly translated out of the vernacular idiom that one thought and dreamed in. An amah (Chinese:阿嬤, Portuguese:ama, Medieval Latin:amma ; or ayah Hindi:āyā, Portuguese:aia, Latin:avia) is a woman employed by a family to clean, look after children, etc. ...

Kipling's India: map of British India with locations and years of Kipling's stays. Click to enlarge.
Kipling's India: map of British India with locations and years of Kipling's stays. Click to enlarge.

Kipling's days of "strong light and darkness"[20] in Bombay were to end when he was six years old. As was the custom in British India, he and his three-year-old sister, Alice ("Trix"), were taken to England—in their case to Southsea (Portsmouth), to be cared for by a couple that took in children of British nationals living in India. The two children would live with the couple, Captain and Mrs. Holloway, at their house, Lorne Lodge, for the next six years. In his autobiography, written some 65 years later, Kipling would recall this time with horror, and wonder ironically if the combination of cruelty and neglect he experienced there at the hands of Mrs. Holloway might not have hastened the onset of his literary life:[20] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (880x680, 123 KB) This is a low-resolution (40% of original) scanned image of the map, Politial Divisions of the Indian Empire from the Imperial Gazeteer of India (volume 26, Atlas), published by the Oxford University Press, 1909. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (880x680, 123 KB) This is a low-resolution (40% of original) scanned image of the map, Politial Divisions of the Indian Empire from the Imperial Gazeteer of India (volume 26, Atlas), published by the Oxford University Press, 1909. ... Southsea is a seaside resort located in Portsmouth at the southern tip of Portsea Island in the county of Hampshire in England. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ...

If you cross-examine a child of seven or eight on his day’s doings (specially when he wants to go to sleep) he will contradict himself very satisfactorily. If each contradiction be set down as a lie and retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount of bullying, but this was calculated torture—religious as well as scientific. Yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it necessary to tell: and this, I presume, is the foundation of literary effort.

James Jacques Tissot. The Gallery of HMS Calcutta (Portsmouth), 1876. Kipling, who had sailed with his family from Bombay to Portsmouth on a P&O paddlewheeler four years earlier, however, only remembered "time in a ship with an immense semi-circle blocking all vision on each side of her."
James Jacques Tissot. The Gallery of HMS Calcutta (Portsmouth), 1876. Kipling, who had sailed with his family from Bombay to Portsmouth on a P&O paddlewheeler four years earlier, however, only remembered "time in a ship with an immense semi-circle blocking all vision on each side of her."[20]

Kipling's sister Trix fared better at Lorne Lodge, Mrs. Holloway apparently hoping that Trix would eventually marry the Holloway son.[21] The two children, however, did have relatives in England they could visit. They spent a month each Christmas with their maternal aunt Georgiana ("Georgy"), and her husband, the artist Edward Burne-Jones, at their house, "The Grange" in Fulham, London, which Kipling was to call "a paradise which I verily believe saved me."[20] In the spring of 1877, Alice Kipling returned from India and removed the children from Lorne Lodge. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x750, 262 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rudyard Kipling 1870s in fashion James Tissot ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x750, 262 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rudyard Kipling 1870s in fashion James Tissot ... For other ships of the same name, see HMS Calcutta. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company or P&O is a shipping line which started in 1840 after the Peninsular Steam Navigation Company won the British Admiralty contract to carry the mail overseas in 1837. ... A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship driven by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine. ... Love Among the Ruins, by Edward Burne-Jones. ... Fulham is a suburban area of west London in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, located 3. ...

Often and often afterwards, the beloved Aunt would ask me why I had never told any one how I was being treated. Children tell little more than animals, for what comes to them they accept as eternally established. Also, badly-treated children have a clear notion of what they are likely to get if they betray the secrets of a prison-house before they are clear of it.[20]

Frederick Gilbert. 1873. 'The Westward Ho! Ladies Golf Club at Bideford, Devon'. Five years later (1878), Kipling was to arrive in Westward Ho! to attend United Services College.
Frederick Gilbert. 1873. 'The Westward Ho! Ladies Golf Club at Bideford, Devon'. Five years later (1878), Kipling was to arrive in Westward Ho! to attend United Services College.

In January 1878 Kipling was admitted to the United Services College, at Westward Ho!, Devon, a school founded a few years earlier to prepare boys for the armed forces. The school proved rough going for him at first, but later led to firm friendships, and provided the setting for his schoolboy stories Stalky & Co. published many years later.[21] During his time there, Kipling also met and fell in love with Florence Garrard, a fellow boarder with Trix at Southsea (to which Trix had returned). Florence was to become the model for Maisie in Kipling's first novel, The Light that Failed (1891).[21] Towards the end of his stay at the school, it was decided that he lacked the academic ability to get into Oxford University on a scholarship[21] and his parents lacked the wherewithal to finance him;[15] consequently, Lockwood Kipling obtained a job for his son in Lahore (now in Pakistan), where Lockwood was now Principal of the Mayo College of Art and Curator of the Lahore Museum. Kipling was to be assistant editor of a small local newspaper, the Civil & Military Gazette. He sailed for India on 20 September 1882 and arrived in Bombay on 18 October 1882. Image File history File linksMetadata Westwardho_ladiesgolfclub1873. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Westwardho_ladiesgolfclub1873. ... Royal North Devon Golf Club was founded in 1864, and hosts the oldest links golf course in England and Wales. ... , Bideford is a small port town on the estuary of the River Torridge in north Devon, south-west England. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... Westward Ho! is a seaside town in Torridge, Devon, England, near Bideford. ... United Services College was an English public school for the sons of military officers, located at Westward Ho, near Bideford in North Devon. ... United Services College was an English public school for the sons of military officers, located at Westward Ho, near Bideford in North Devon. ... Westward Ho! is a seaside town in Torridge, Devon, England, near Bideford. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Stalky & Co. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Lahore Museum, established in 1894, when Lahore (currently a part of Pakistan) was a part of Undivided India, is a major museum of the Indian subcontinent. ... Copy editing is the process by which an editor makes formatting changes and other improvements to text. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Kipling's England: map of England with locations and years of Kipling's stays. Click to enlarge.
Kipling's England: map of England with locations and years of Kipling's stays. Click to enlarge.

So, at sixteen years and nine months, but looking four or five years older, and adorned with real whiskers which the scandalised Mother abolished within one hour of beholding, I found myself at Bombay where I was born, moving among sights and smells that made me deliver in the vernacular sentences whose meaning I knew not. Other Indian-born boys have told me how the same thing happened to them.
There were yet three or four days’ rail to Lahore, where my people lived. After these, my English years fell away, nor ever, I think, came back in full strength.[20] Image File history File linksMetadata Kiplingsengland3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kiplingsengland3. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

Early travels

George Craddock. 1880s. Lahore Railway Station. Kipling arrived at the train station after a four day train journey from Bombay in late October 1882.
George Craddock. 1880s. Lahore Railway Station. Kipling arrived at the train station after a four day train journey from Bombay in late October 1882.

The Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore, which Kipling was to call "my first mistress and most true love,"[20] appeared six days a week throughout the year except for a one-day break each for Christmas and Easter. Kipling was worked hard by the editor, Stephen Wheeler, but his need to write was unstoppable. In 1886, he published his first collection of verse, Departmental Ditties. That year also brought a change of editors at the newspaper. Kay Robinson, the new editor, allowed more creative freedom and Kipling was asked to contribute short stories to the newspaper.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Lahore_railway_station1880s. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lahore_railway_station1880s. ... The Lahore Railway Station in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan was built by the British colonists. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian festival. ...


Meanwhile, in the summer of 1883, Kipling had for the first time visited Simla (now Shimla), well-known hill station and summer capital of British India. By then it was established practice for the Viceroy of India and the government to move to Simla for six months and the town became a "centre of power as well as pleasure."[3] Kipling's family became yearly visitors to Simla and Lockwood Kipling was asked to design a fresco in the Christ Church there. Kipling returned to Simla for his annual leave each year from 1885 to 1888, and the town figured prominently in many of the stories Kipling was writing for the Gazette.[3] , Shimla   (Hindi: शिमला), originally called Simla, is a city in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. ... Kalimpong town as viewed from a distant hill. ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ...

My month’s leave at Simla, or whatever Hill Station my people went to, was pure joy—every golden hour counted. It began in heat and discomfort, by rail and road. It ended in the cool evening, with a wood fire in one’s bedroom, and next morn—thirty more of them ahead!—the early cup of tea, the Mother who brought it in, and the long talks of us all together again. One had leisure to work, too, at whatever play-work was in one’s head, and that was usually full.[20]

Simla (now Shimla), India, in 1865. Simla was a well-known hill station which Kipling visited every summer from 1885 to 1888. Christ Church is on the right.
Simla (now Shimla), India, in 1865. Simla was a well-known hill station which Kipling visited every summer from 1885 to 1888. Christ Church is on the right.

Back in Lahore, some thirty-nine stories appeared in the Gazette between November 1886 and June 1887. Most of these stories were included in Plain Tales from the Hills, Kipling's first prose collection, which was published in Calcutta in January 1888, a month after his 22nd birthday. Kipling's time in Lahore, however, had come to an end. In November 1887, he had been transferred to the Gazette's much larger sister newspaper, The Pioneer, in Allahabad in the United Provinces. His writing, however, continued at a frenetic pace and during the next year, he published six collections of short stories: Soldiers Three, The Story of the Gadsbys, In Black and White, Under the Deodars, The Phantom Rickshaw, and Wee Willie Winkie, containing a total of 41 stories, some quite long. In addition, as The Pioneer's special correspondent in western region of Rajputana, he wrote many sketches that were later collected in Letters of Marque and published in From Sea to Sea and Other Sketches, Letters of Travel.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Simla_bourne_1865. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Simla_bourne_1865. ... , Shimla   (Hindi: शिमला), originally called Simla, is a city in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. ... Kalimpong town as viewed from a distant hill. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Plain Tales from the Hills Wikisource has original works written by or about: Plain Tales from the Hills Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Plain Tales from the Hills Plain Tales from the Hills (published 1888) is the first collection of short... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... United Provinces, 1903 The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, mainly referred to simply as the United Provinces, was a former province of British India, which existed from 1902 to 1947. ... Rajpootana region - as depicted in the Map of India by Anthony Finley in 1831. ... Rudyard Kiplings articles based on his 1889 travels from India to Burma, China, Japan, and the United States in route to England. ...

Samuel Bourne. 1870. Railway Bridge across the Jumna at Allahabad. Kipling lived in Allahabad from 1887 to 1889 and likely crossed this bridge numerous times.
Samuel Bourne. 1870. Railway Bridge across the Jumna at Allahabad. Kipling lived in Allahabad from 1887 to 1889 and likely crossed this bridge numerous times.

In early 1889, The Pioneer relieved Kipling of his charge over a dispute. For his part, Kipling had been increasingly thinking about the future. He sold the rights to his six volumes of stories for £200 and a small royalty, and the Plain Tales for £50; in addition, from The Pioneer, he received six-months' salary in lieu of notice.[20] He decided to use this money to make his way to London, the center of the literary universe in the British Empire. Image File history File linksMetadata Allahabad_railwaybridge1870. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Allahabad_railwaybridge1870. ... The river Yamuna is a major river of northern India, with a total length of around 1370 km. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ...

G. A. Kale. c.1900. Kipling stayed at this palace in Bundi, Rajputana, as a correspondent for The Pioneer and got inspiration for his book 'Kim' during his stay.
G. A. Kale. c.1900. Kipling stayed at this palace in Bundi, Rajputana, as a correspondent for The Pioneer and got inspiration for his book 'Kim' during his stay.

On 9 March 1889, Kipling left India, traveling first to San Francisco via Rangoon, Singapore, Hong Kong and Japan. He then traveled through the United States writing articles for The Pioneer that too were collected in From Sea to Sea and Other Sketches, Letters of Travel. Starting his American travels in San Francisco, Kipling journeyed north to Portland, Oregon; on to Seattle, Washington; up into Canada, to Victoria and Vancouver, British Columbia; back into the U.S. to Yellowstone National Park; down to Salt Lake City; then east to Omaha, Nebraska and on to Chicago, Illinois; then to Beaver, Pennsylvania on the Ohio River to visit the Hill family; from there he went to Chautauqua with Professor Hill, and later to Niagara, Toronto, Washington, D.C., New York and Boston.[22] In the course of this journey he met with Mark Twain in Elmira, New York, and felt much awed in his presence. Kipling then crossed the Atlantic, and reached Liverpool in October 1889. Soon thereafter, he made his début in the London literary world to great acclaim.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Bundi_palace1990. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bundi_palace1990. ... Bundi is a city and a municipality of approximately 88,000 inhabitants (2001) in the Hadoti region of Rajasthan state in northwest India. ... Rajpootana region - as depicted in the Map of India by Anthony Finley in 1831. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... Rudyard Kiplings articles based on his 1889 travels from India to Burma, China, Japan, and the United States in route to England. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Seattle redirects here. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Victoria. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Yellowstone redirects here. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... Omaha redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Along Third Street in downtown Beaver Beaver is a borough in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, at the confluence of the Beaver and Ohio Rivers. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Chautauqua (pronounced ) is an adult education movement in the United States, highly popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The word Niagara (Iroquois Nation pronunciation Nee-ah-GAh-rah[1][2][3]) comes from the Neutral word onghiar, meaning thunder of waters. It was their name for a waterfall at the point where the other American Great Lakes empty into Ontario that was later adapted by European settlers as... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Location in Chemung County in the state of New York Coordinates: , Country State County Chemung County Government  - Mayor John S. Tonello (D) Area  - City  7. ... This article is about the state. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ...


Career as a writer

The building on Villiers Street off the Strand in London where Kipling rented rooms from 1889 to 1891. A century later, the building was completely renovated and renamed Kipling House.
The building on Villiers Street off the Strand in London where Kipling rented rooms from 1889 to 1891. A century later, the building was completely renovated and renamed Kipling House.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (522x640, 142 KB)This is a cropped and reduced (40% of original) image of Kipling House, Villiers Steet, London. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (522x640, 142 KB)This is a cropped and reduced (40% of original) image of Kipling House, Villiers Steet, London. ... Strand, May 2001 St. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

London

In London, Kipling had a number of stories accepted by various magazine editors. He also found a place to live for the next two years:

Meantime, I had found me quarters in Villiers Street, Strand, which forty-six years ago was primitive and passionate in its habits and population. My rooms were small, not over-clean or well-kept, but from my desk I could look out of my window through the fanlight of Gatti’s Music-Hall entrance, across the street, almost on to its stage. The Charing Cross trains rumbled through my dreams on one side, the boom of the Strand on the other, while, before my windows, Father Thames under the Shot Tower walked up and down with his traffic. The building on Villiers Street off the Strand in London where Kipling rented rooms from 1889 to 1891. ... Strand, May 2001 St. ... Transom (probably a corruption of Latin transtrum, a thwart, in a boat; equivalents are French traverse, croisillon, German Losholz) is the architectural term given to the horizontal lintel or beam which is framed across a window, dividing it into stages or heights. ... For the nearby theatre of the same name, see Charing Cross Theatre. ... The Victorian Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross The name Charing Cross, now given to a district of central London in the City of Westminster, comes from the original hamlet of Charing, where King Edward I placed a memorial to his wife, Eleanor of Castile. ... The Thames (pronounced []) is a river flowing through southern England, in its lower reaches flowing through London into the sea. ... Clifton Hill Shot Tower, Australia The Shot Tower in Bristol, England Coops Shot Tower, encased by the Melbourne Central cone The Dubuque, Iowa Shot Tower. ...

In the next two years, and in short order, he published a novel, The Light That Failed; had a nervous breakdown; and met an American writer and publishing agent, Wolcott Balestier, with whom he collaborated on a novel, The Naulahka (a title he uncharacteristically misspelt; see below).[15] In 1891, on the advice of his doctors, Kipling embarked on another sea voyage visiting South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and once again India. However, he cut short his plans for spending Christmas with his family in India when he heard of Wolcott Balestier's sudden death from typhoid fever, and immediately decided to return to London. Before his return, he had used the telegram to propose to (and be accepted by) Wolcott's sister Caroline (Carrie) Balestier, whom he had met a year earlier, and with whom he had apparently been having an intermittent romance.[15] Meanwhile, late in 1891, his collection of short stories of the British in India, Life's Handicap, was also published in London. A novel, first published in 1890, by the British writer Rudyard Kipling ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ...


Marriage and honeymoon

On 18 January 1892, Carrie Balestier (aged 29) and Rudyard Kipling (aged 26) were married in London, in the "thick of an influenza epidemic, when the undertakers had run out of black horses and the dead had to be content with brown ones."[20] The wedding was held at All Souls Church, Langham Place and Henry James gave the bride away. is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... All Souls Church All Souls Church All Souls Church Interior All Souls Church is an Anglican Evangelical church in central London, situated in Marylebone at the north end of Regent Street, next to BBC Broadcasting House. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ...

The house Naulakha, in Brattleboro, Vermont, United States as it appears today during the fall.
The house Naulakha, in Brattleboro, Vermont, United States as it appears today during the fall.

The newlyweds settled upon a honeymoon that would take them first to the United States (including a stop at the Balestier family estate near Brattleboro, Vermont) and then on to Japan.[15] However, when the couple arrived in Yokohama, Japan, they discovered that their bank, The New Oriental Banking Corporation, had failed. Image File history File links Naulakha_fall. ... Image File history File links Naulakha_fall. ... Brattleboro, Vermont Brattleboro is a town located in Windham County, Vermont. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the temperate season. ... Brattleboro, Vermont Brattleboro is a town located in Windham County, Vermont. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the town of Yokohama in Aomori Prefecture, see Yokohama, Aomori. ...


United States

Taking their loss in their stride, they returned to the U.S., back to Vermont—Carrie by this time was pregnant with their first child—and rented a small cottage on a farm near Brattleboro for ten dollars a month.

"We furnished it with a simplicity that fore-ran the hire-purchase system. We bought, second or third hand, a huge, hot-air stove which we installed in the cellar. We cut generous holes in our thin floors for its eight inch tin pipes (why we were not burned in our beds each week of the winter I never can understand) and we were extraordinarily and self-centredly content."[20] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hire purchase. ...

It was in this cottage, Bliss Cottage, that their first child, Josephine, was born "in three foot of snow on the night of December 29, 1892. Her Mother’s birthday being the 31st and mine the 30th of the same month, we congratulated her on her sense of the fitness of things ..."[20] It was also in this cottage that the first dawnings of the Jungle Books came to Kipling: is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

My workroom in the Bliss Cottage was seven feet by eight, and from December to April the snow lay level with its window-sill. It chanced that I had written a tale about Indian Forestry work which included a boy who had been brought up by wolves. In the stillness, and suspense, of the winter of ’92 some memory of the Masonic Lions of my childhood’s magazine, and a phrase in Haggard’s Nada the Lily, combined with the echo of this tale. After blocking out the main idea in my head, the pen took charge, and I watched it begin to write stories about Mowgli and animals, which later grew into the Jungle Books.[20] Freemasons redirects here. ... Sir Henry Rider Haggard ( June 22, 1856 – May 14, 1925), born in Bradenham, Norfolk, England, was a Victorian writer of adventure novels set in locations considered exotic by readers in his native England. ... Mowgli by John Lockwood Kipling (father of Rudyard Kipling). ... The Jungle Book is the title of several related works: The Jungle Book, an 1894 collection of stories written by Rudyard Kipling and inspired by his frequent trips to India The Second Jungle Book, an 1895 collection of stories also by Kipling The Third Jungle Book, an 1992 pastiche story...

Cover of the 1894 first edition of The Jungle Book illustrated by Lockwood Kipling.
Cover of the 1894 first edition of The Jungle Book illustrated by Lockwood Kipling.

With Josephine's arrival, Bliss Cottage was felt to be congested, so eventually the couple bought land—ten acres on a rocky hillside overlooking the Connecticut River—from Carrie's brother Beatty Balestier, and built their own house. Kipling named the house "Naulakha" in honour of Wolcott and of their collaboration, and this time the name was spelled correctly.[15] From his early years in Lahore (1882-1887), Kipling had become enthused by the Mughal architecture[23] especially the Naulakha pavilion situated in Lahore Fort, which eventually became an inspiration for the title of his novel as well as the house.[24] The house still stands on Kipling Road, three miles (5 km) north of Brattleboro: a big, secluded, dark-green house, with shingled roof and sides, which Kipling called his "ship", and which brought him "sunshine and a mind at ease."[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Jungle_book_1894_138. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jungle_book_1894_138. ... Embossed cover from the original MacMillan edition of The Jungle Book, 1894, based on art by John Lockwood Kipling (Rudyards father) For other uses, see The Jungle Book (disambiguation). ... John Lockwood Kipling (1837-1911) was an art teacher, an illustrator, museum curator, and father of Rudyard Kipling. ... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Mughal architecture is the distinctive style of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, developed by the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century. ... Naulakha pavilion (click for 4 megapixel image) The Naulakha pavilion is a marble building located at the Sheesh Mahal courtyard, which is itself located at the Lahore Fort in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ...


His seclusion in Vermont, combined with his healthy "sane clean life", made Kipling both inventive and prolific. In the short span of four years, he produced, in addition to the Jungle Books, a collection of short stories (The Day's Work), a novel (Captains Courageous), and a profusion of poetry, including the volume The Seven Seas. The collection of Barrack-Room Ballads, first published individually for the most part in 1890, which contains his poems Mandalay and Gunga Din was issued in March 1892. He especially enjoyed writing the Jungle Books—both masterpieces of imaginative writing—and enjoyed too corresponding with the many children who wrote to him about them.[15] The Jungle Book is the title of several related works: The Jungle Book, an 1894 collection of stories written by Rudyard Kipling and inspired by his frequent trips to India The Second Jungle Book, an 1895 collection of stories also by Kipling The Third Jungle Book, an 1992 pastiche story... Captains Courageous is an 1897 novel, by Rudyard Kipling, that follows the adventures of fifteen year old Harvey Cheyne Jr. ... The Barrack-Room Ballads are a set of martial songs and poems by Rudyard Kipling originally published in two parts: the first set in 1892, the second in 1896. ... Samuel Bourne. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Gunga Din Gunga Din (1892) is one of Rudyard Kiplings most famous poems, perhaps best known for its often-quoted last line, Youre a better man than I am, Gunga Din![1] The poem is a rhyming narrative from the...

Rudyard Kipling's America 1892–1896, 1899. Click to enlarge..
Rudyard Kipling's America 1892–1896, 1899. Click to enlarge..

The writing life in Naulakha was occasionally interrupted by visitors, including his father, who visited soon after his retirement in 1893,[15] and British author Arthur Conan Doyle, who brought his golf-clubs, stayed for two days, and gave Kipling an extended golf lesson.[25][26] Kipling seemed to take to golf, occasionally practising with the local Congregational minister, and even playing with red painted balls when the ground was covered in snow.[26][13] However, the latter game was "not altogether a success because there were no limits to a drive; the ball might skid two miles (3 km) down the long slope to Connecticut river."[13] From all accounts, Kipling loved the outdoors,[15] not least of whose marvels in Vermont was the turning of the leaves each fall: Image File history File linksMetadata Kiplingseastcoast2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kiplingseastcoast2. ... John Lockwood Kipling (1837-1911) was an art teacher, an illustrator, museum curator, and father of Rudyard Kipling. ... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a Scottish author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... This article is about the game. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

"A little maple began it, flaming blood-red of a sudden where he stood against the dark green of a pine-belt. Next morning there was an answering signal from the swamp where the sumacs grow. Three days later, the hill-sides as fast as the eye could range were afire, and the roads paved, with crimson and gold. Then a wet wind blew, and ruined all the uniforms of that gorgeous army; and the oaks, who had held themselves in reserve, buckled on their dull and bronzed cuirasses and stood it out stiffly to the last blown leaf, till nothing remained but pencil-shadings of bare boughs, and one could see into the most private heart of the woods."[27] For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... Species About 250 species; see text Rhus is a genus approximately 250 species of woody shrubs and small trees in the family Anacardiaceae. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably... This article is devoted to the type of armour known as a cuirass. ...

Kipling in his study in Naulakha ca. 1895
Kipling in his study in Naulakha ca. 1895

In February 1896, the couple's second daughter, Elsie, was born. By this time, according to several biographers, their marital relationship was no longer light-hearted and spontaneous.[28] Although they would always remain loyal to each other, they seemed now to have fallen into set roles.[15] In a letter to a friend who had become engaged around this time, the 29 year old Kipling offered this somber counsel: marriage principally taught "the tougher virtues—such as humility, restraint, order, and forethought."[29] Image File history File linksMetadata Naulaka_kplng_study. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Naulaka_kplng_study. ...


The Kiplings might have lived out their lives in Vermont, were it not for two incidents—one of global politics, the other of family discord—that hastily ended their time there. By the early 1890s, Great Britain and Venezuela had long been locking horns over a border dispute involving British Guiana. Several times, the U.S. had offered to arbitrate, but in 1895 the new American secretary of state Richard Olney upped the ante by arguing for the American "right" to arbitrate on grounds of sovereignty on the continent (see the Olney interpretation as an extension of the Monroe Doctrine).[15] This raised hackles in Britain and before long the incident had snowballed into a major Anglo-American crisis, with talk of war on both sides. Although, eventually, the crisis would lead to greater U.S.-British cooperation, at the time, Kipling was bewildered by what he felt was persistent anti-British sentiment in the U.S., especially in the press.[15] He wrote in a letter that it felt like being "aimed at with a decanter across a friendly dinner table."[29] By January 1896, he had decided, according to his official biographer,[13] to end his family's "good wholesome life" in the U.S. and seek their fortunes elsewhere. British Guiana and its boundary lines, 1896 Flag of British Guiana British Guiana was the name of the British colony on the northern coast of South America, now the independent nation of Guyana. ... Richard Olney (September 15, 1835–April 8, 1917) was an American statesman. ... The Olney interpretation (also known as Olney Declaration) was United States Secretary of State Richard Olneys interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine when a border dispute occurred between British Guiana and Venezuela. ... U.S. President James Monroe The Monroe Doctrine is a U.S. doctrine which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers were to no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the newly independent nations of the Americas. ... Anglo-American relations are used to describe the relations of the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ...

Josephine in the loggia, Naulakha, ca. 1895
Josephine in the loggia, Naulakha, ca. 1895

But the final straw, it seems, was a family dispute. For some time, the relations between Carrie and her brother Beatty Balestier had been strained on account of his drinking and insolvency. In May 1896, an inebriated Beatty ran into Kipling on the street and threatened him with physical harm.[15] The incident led to Beatty's eventual arrest, but in the subsequent hearing, and the resulting publicity, Kipling's privacy was completely destroyed, and left him feeling both miserable and exhausted. In July 1896, a week before the hearing was to resume, the Kiplings hurriedly packed their belongings and left Naulakha, Vermont, and the U.S. for good.[13] Image File history File linksMetadata Naulakha_jsephne_loggia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Naulakha_jsephne_loggia. ...


Devon

Back in England, in September 1896, the Kiplings found themselves in Torquay on the coast of Devon, in a hillside home overlooking the sea. Although Kipling didn't much care for his new house, whose feng shui, he claimed, left its occupants feeling dispirited and gloomy, he nevertheless managed to remain productive and socially active.[15] Kipling was now a famous man, and in the previous two or three years, had increasingly been making political pronouncements in his writings. He had also begun work on two poems, Recessional (1897) and The White Man's Burden (1899) which were to create controversy when published. Regarded by some as anthems for enlightened and duty-bound empire-building (that captured the mood of the Victorian age), the poems equally were regarded by others as propaganda for brazenfaced imperialism and its attendant racial attitudes; still others saw irony in the poems and warnings of the perils of empire.[15] This article is about the English town. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... Fēng Shuǐ (風水 – literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... Recessional is a poem by Rudyard Kipling, which he composed on the occasion of Queen Victorias Diamond Jubilee in 1897. ... For the film, see White Mans Burden (film). ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Accession to the Throne, June 20, 1837) gave her name to the historic era. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ...

Take up the White Man's burden—
Send forth the best ye breed—
Go, bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need;
To wait, in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild—
Your new-caught sullen peoples,
Half devil and half child.[30]

The Torquay Inner Harbour, c. 1890. The Kiplings lived in Torquay from September 1896 to May 1897, in a house built on a hillside above the cliffs.

There was also foreboding in the poems, a sense that all could yet come to naught.[31] Image File history File links Torquay_1890_oval. ... Image File history File links Torquay_1890_oval. ...

Far-called, our navies melt away;
On dune and headland sinks the fire:
Lo, all our pomp of yesterday
Is one with Nineveh and Tyre!
Judge of the Nations, spare us yet.
Lest we forget - lest we forget![32] , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ...

A prolific writer—nothing about his work was easily labeled—during his time in Torquay, he also wrote Stalky & Co., a collection of school stories (born of his experience at the United Services College in Westward Ho!) whose juvenile protagonists displayed a know-it-all, cynical outlook on patriotism and authority. According to his family, Kipling enjoyed reading aloud stories from Stalky & Co. to them, and often went into spasms of laughter over his own jokes.[15] The school story is a genre of fiction, basic to much of the childrens literature of the twentieth century. ... United Services College was an English public school for the sons of military officers, located at Westward Ho, near Bideford in North Devon. ... Westward Ho! is a seaside town in Torridge, Devon, England, near Bideford. ...

Phillip Burne-Jones. 1891. The Village Church, Rottingdean. Kipling and his family lived in Rottingdean, Sussex from 1897 to 1901.
Phillip Burne-Jones. 1891. The Village Church, Rottingdean. Kipling and his family lived in Rottingdean, Sussex from 1897 to 1901.

Image File history File links Rottingdean_phil_burne-jones. ... Image File history File links Rottingdean_phil_burne-jones. ... Rottingdean is a coastal village next to the town of Brighton and technically within the city of Brighton and Hove, in East Sussex, on the south coast of England. ... This article refers to the historic county in England. ...

South Africa

Kipling on the right, in South Africa.
Kipling on the right, in South Africa.

In early 1898 Kipling and his family traveled to South Africa for their winter holiday, thus beginning an annual tradition which (excepting the following year) was to last until 1908. With his newly minted reputation as the poet of the Empire, Kipling was warmly received by some of the most powerful politicians of the Cape Colony, including Cecil Rhodes, Sir Alfred Milner, and Leander Starr Jameson. In turn, Kipling cultivated their friendship and came to greatly admire all three men and their politics. The period 1898–1910 was a crucial one in the history of South Africa and included the Second Boer War (1899–1902), the ensuing peace treaty, and the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910. Back in England, Kipling wrote poetry in support of the British cause in the Boer War and on his next visit to South Africa in early 1900, he helped start a newspaper, The Friend, for the British troops in Bloemfontein, the newly captured capital of the Orange Free State. Although his journalistic stint was to last only two weeks, it was the first time Kipling would work on a newspaper staff since he left The Pioneer in Allahabad more than ten years earlier.[15] He also wrote articles published more widely expressing his views on the conflict.[33] Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and a politician. ... Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner (23 March 1854 _ 13 May 1925), was British statesman and colonial administrator. ... Sir Leander Starr Jameson, 1st Baronet, KCMG (February 9, 1853 – November 26, 1917), also known as Doctor Jim or The Doctor, was a British colonial statesman who was best known for his involvement in the Jameson Raid. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... Bloemfontein (pronounced , Afrikaans and Dutch for spring of Bloem (bloom), flower spring or fountain of flowers is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Other writing

Kipling began collecting material for another of his children's classics, Just So Stories for Little Children. That work was published in 1902, and another of his enduring works, Kim, first saw the light of day the previous year. See also Just-so story for anthropological sense Wikisource has original text related to this article: Just So Stories The Just So Stories for Little Children were written by British author Rudyard Kipling. ... This article is about the novel. ...


On a visit to America in 1899, Kipling and his eldest daughter Josephine developed pneumonia, from which she eventually died. This article is about human pneumonia. ...

Bateman's garden with house in the background. Rudyard Kipling lived in Bateman's, Burwash, East Sussex from 1902 until his death in 1936

In the non-fiction realm he also became involved in the debate over the British response to the rise in German naval power, publishing a series of articles in 1898 which were collected as A Fleet in Being. Image File history File links Batemans-garden-gallery_picture. ... Image File history File links Batemans-garden-gallery_picture. ... For the Canadian churchman see Nathaniel Burwash, for the University of Toronto building see Burwash Hall. ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ... Naval redirects here. ...


Peak of his career

The first decade of the 20th century saw Kipling at the height of his popularity. In 1907 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. The prize citation said: "in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author." Nobel prizes had been established in 1901 and Kipling was the first English language recipient. At the award ceremony in Stockholm on December 10, 1907, the Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy, C.D. af Wirsén, paid rich tributes to both Kipling and three centuries of English literature:[3] The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about Svenska Akademien. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S...

First day cover issued by the Government of Sweden in 1967 honouring the Nobel laureates of 1907 including Kipling. Kipling is shown on the right in the blue stamp and middle row right in the sketches.

The Swedish Academy, in awarding the Nobel Prize in Literature this year to Rudyard Kipling, desires to pay a tribute of homage to the literature of England, so rich in manifold glories, and to the greatest genius in the realm of narrative that that country has produced in our times. Image File history File links Kipling_nobel_fdc1967. ... Image File history File links Kipling_nobel_fdc1967. ... First Day Cover for the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer, issued 22nd July 1981. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ...

"Book-ending" this achievement was the publication of two connected poetry and story collections: 1906's Puck of Pook's Hill and 1910's Rewards and Fairies. The latter contained the poem "If—". In a 1995 BBC opinion poll, it was voted Britain's favourite poem. This exhortation to self-control and stoicism is arguably Kipling's most famous poem. Puck of Pooks Hill is a book published in 1906 by Rudyard Kipling[1], containing a series of short stories set in different periods of history. ... The correct title of this article is If— . It appears incorrectly here due to technical restrictions. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


Kipling sympathised with the anti-Home Rule stance of Irish Unionists. He was friends with Edward Carson, the Dublin-born leader of Ulster Unionism, who raised the Ulster Volunteers to oppose "Rome Rule" in Ireland. Kipling wrote the poem "Ulster" in 1912 (?) reflecting this. The poem reflects on Ulster Day (28 September 1912) when half a million people signed the Ulster Covenant. Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the 1801 Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created... Edward Carson HMSO image The Right Honourable Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, PC (February 9, 1854 – October 22, 1935) was a leader of the Irish Unionists, a Barrister and a Judge. ... In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in... The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) is a Northern Ireland loyalist paramilitary group. ... The Ulster Covenant was signed by hundreds of thousands of men all over Ulster, Ireland, on and before September 28, 1912, in protest of a Home Rule bill introduced in that same year. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Ulster Covenant was signed by hundreds of thousands of men all over Ulster, Ireland, on and before September 28, 1912, in protest of a Home Rule bill introduced in that same year. ...


Effects of World War I

Memorial Plaque with the words, "Their Name Liveth for Evermore," selected by Kipling as member of the Imperial War Graves Commission. Brockville Museum, Brockville, ON, Canada
Memorial Plaque with the words, "Their Name Liveth for Evermore," selected by Kipling as member of the Imperial War Graves Commission. Brockville Museum, Brockville, ON, Canada

Kipling was so closely associated with the expansive, confident attitude of late 19th century European civilization that it was inevitable that his reputation would suffer in the years of and after World War I. Kipling also knew personal tragedy at the time as his only son, John Kipling, died in 1915 at the Battle of Loos, after which he wrote "If any question why we died/ Tell them, because our fathers lied" (Kipling's son's death inspired a poem, a play, and television drama called My Boy Jack). It is speculated that these words may reveal Kipling's feelings of guilt at his role in getting John a commission in the Irish Guards, despite his initially having been rejected by the army because of his poor eyesight.[34] Partly in response to this tragedy, Kipling joined Sir Fabian Ware's Imperial War Graves Commission (now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission), the group responsible for the garden-like British war graves that can be found to this day dotted along the former Western Front and all the other locations around the world where Commonwealth troops lie buried. His most significant contribution to the project was his selection of the biblical phrase "Their Name Liveth For Evermore" found on the Stones of Remembrance in larger war graves and his suggestion of the phrase "Known unto God" for the gravestones of unidentified servicemen. He also wrote a two-volume history of the Irish Guards, his son's regiment, that was published in 1923 and is considered to be one of the finest examples of regimental history.[35] Kipling's moving short story, "The Gardener", depicts visits to the war cemeteries. Image File history File links Plaque_theirnamelivethforevermore. ... Image File history File links Plaque_theirnamelivethforevermore. ... Brockville (2001 population 21,375, metropolitan population 44,741) is located in the Thousand Islands region on the St. ... Central New York City. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... My Boy Jack is a 1915 poem by Rudyard Kipling. ... The Battle of Loos was one of the major British offensives mounted on the Western Front in 1915 during World War I. The battle was the British component of the combined Anglo-French offensive known as the Second Battle of Artois. ... This article deals with the current British Army regiment, for historical regiments, see Historical Irish Guards regiments. ... Major General Sir Fabian Arthur Goulstone Ware CMG, CB, KBE, KCVO (17 June 1869 - 29 April 1949) was the founder of the Imperial War Graves Commission, now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission Born at Clifton, Bristol, he attended the Universities of London and Paris, obtaining a Bachelier-es-Sciences at... The Azmak Cemetery, near Suvla Bay, Turkey, contains the graves of some of the soldiers who died during the Gallipoli Campaign. ... Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World Wars to describe the contested armed frontier between lands controlled by Germany to the East and the Allies to the West. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... This article deals with the current British Army regiment, for historical regiments, see Historical Irish Guards regiments. ...


With the increasing popularity of the automobile, Kipling became a motoring correspondent for the British press, and wrote enthusiastically of his trips around England and abroad, even though he was usually driven by a chauffeur.

Kipling, aged 60, on the cover of Time magazine, 27 September 1926
Kipling, aged 60, on the cover of Time magazine, 27 September 1926

In 1922, Kipling, who had made reference to the work of engineers in some of his poems and writings, was asked by a University of Toronto civil engineering professor for his assistance in developing a dignified obligation and ceremony for graduating engineering students. Kipling was very enthusiastic in his response and shortly produced both, formally entitled "The Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer". Today, engineering graduates all across Canada are presented with an iron ring at the ceremony as a reminder of their obligation to society.[36] The same year Kipling became Lord Rector of St Andrews University in Scotland, a position which ended in 1925. Image File history File links Kipling_timecover1101260927_400. ... Image File history File links Kipling_timecover1101260927_400. ... TIME redirects here. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... For other uses, see Student (disambiguation). ... Canada Post stamp commemorating the 75th anniversary of the Ritual. ... Iron Ring, stainless steel version, circa 2004. ... The Lord Rector of the University of St Andrews is chosen every three years by the students of the University of St Andrews. ... This article is about the country. ...


Death and legacy

Kipling kept writing until the early 1930s, but at a slower pace and with much less success than before. He died of a hemorrhage from a perforated duodenal ulcer on 18 January 1936, two days before George V, at the age of 70. (His death had in fact previously been incorrectly announced in a magazine, to which he wrote, "I've just read that I am dead. Don't forget to delete me from your list of subscribers.") is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Various notable people have had their death announced in error. ...


Rudyard Kipling's ashes were buried in Poets' Corner, part of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey, where many distinguished literary people are buried or commemorated. Poets corner Poets Corner is the name traditionally given to a section of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey due to the number of poets, playwrights and writers now buried and commemorated there. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


Following his death, Kipling's work continued to fall into critical eclipse.[citation needed] Fashions in poetry moved away from his exact metres and rhymes. Also, as the European colonial empires collapsed in the mid-20th century, Kipling's works fell far out of step with the times. Many who condemn him feel that Kipling's writing was inseparable from his social and political views, they point to his portrayals of Indian characters, which often supported the colonialist view that the Indians and other colonised peoples were incapable of surviving without the help of Europeans, claiming that these portrayals are racist. An example supporting this argument can be seen in the mention of "lesser breeds without the Law" in "Recessional" and the reference to colonised people in general, as "half-devil and half-child" in the poem "The White Man's Burden". Recessional is a poem by Rudyard Kipling, which he composed on the occasion of Queen Victorias Diamond Jubilee in 1897. ... For the film, see White Mans Burden (film). ...

Photograph of General Sir Ian Hamilton, commander of the ill-fated Mediterranean Expeditionary Force in the Battle of Gallipoli in World War I, at Rudyard Kipling's funeral in 1936. Hamilton was a close personal friend of Kipling.
Photograph of General Sir Ian Hamilton, commander of the ill-fated Mediterranean Expeditionary Force in the Battle of Gallipoli in World War I, at Rudyard Kipling's funeral in 1936. Hamilton was a close personal friend of Kipling.

Kipling's links with the Scouting movements were strong. Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting, used many themes from The Jungle Book stories and Kim in setting up his junior movement, the Wolf Cubs. These connections still exist today. Not only is the movement named after Mowgli's adopted wolf family, the adult helpers of Wolf Cub Packs adopt names taken from The Jungle Book, especially the adult leader who is called Akela after the leader of the Seeonee wolf pack.[37] Image File history File linksMetadata Kipling_funeral1936. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kipling_funeral1936. ... Sir Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton (January 16, 1853 - October 12, 1947) was a general in the British Army and is most notably known for commanding the ill-fated Mediterranean Expeditionary Force during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... The Mediterranean Expeditionary Force (MEF) was a World War I British Army headquarters formed in March 1915 that commanded all Allied forces at Gallipoli and Salonika. ... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts/Girl Guides organizations. ... Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB (22 February 1857 – 8 January 1941), also known as B-P, was a lieutenant-general in the British Army, writer, and founder of the Scout Movement. ... Mowgli by John Lockwood Kipling (father of Rudyard Kipling). ... Akela (occasionally called The Lone Wolf or Big Fox) is a fictional character featured in Rudyard Kiplings Mowgli stories collected in The Jungle Book and The Second Jungle Book. ...


Those who defend Kipling from accusations of racism point out that much of the apparent racism in his writing is spoken by fictional characters, not by him, and thus accurately depicts the characters. An example is the soldier who (in "Gunga Din") calls the title character "a squidgy-nosed old idol". However, in the same poem, Gunga Din is seen as a heroic figure; "You're a better man than I am, Gunga Din". They see irony or alternative meanings in poems written in the author's own voice, including "The White Man's Burden" and "Recessional". Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Ironic redirects here. ...

Rudyard Kipling's grave, Poet's Corner, Westminster Abbey
Rudyard Kipling's grave, Poet's Corner, Westminster Abbey

Despite changes in racial attitudes and literary standards for poetry, Kipling's poetry continues to be popular with those who see it as "vigorous and adept" rather than "jingling". Even T. S. Eliot, a very different poet, edited A Choice of Kipling's Verse (1943), although in doing so he commented that "[Kipling] could write poetry on occasions—even if only by accident!" Kipling's stories for adults also remain in print and have garnered high praise from writers as different as Poul Anderson, Jorge Luis Borges, and George Orwell. Nonetheless, Kipling is most highly regarded for his children's books. His Just-So Stories have been illustrated and made into successful children's books, and his Jungle Books have been made into several movies; the first was made by producer Alexander Korda, and others by the Walt Disney Company. Image File history File linksMetadata Kipling_poetscorner. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kipling_poetscorner. ... Poets corner Poets Corner is the name traditionally given to a section of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey due to the number of poets, playwrights and writers now buried and commemorated there. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... Poul William Anderson (November 25, 1926–July 31, 2001) was an American science fiction author of the genres Golden Age. ... Borges redirects here. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... Sir Alexander Korda (September 16, 1893 - January 23, 1956) was a film director and producer, a leading figure in the British film industry and the founder of London Films. ... Alternate meanings: Disney (disambiguation) The Walt Disney Company (also known as Disney Enterprises, Inc. ...


After the death of Kipling's wife in 1939, his house, "Bateman's" in Burwash, East Sussex was bequeathed to the National Trust and is now a public museum dedicated to the author. Elsie, the only one of his three children to live past the age of eighteen, died childless in 1976, and bequeathed his copyrights to the National Trust. There is a thriving Kipling Society in the United Kingdom. The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... For the Canadian churchman see Nathaniel Burwash, for the University of Toronto building see Burwash Hall. ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ... The standard of the National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as The National Trust, is a British preservation organization. ...


In modern-day India, from where he drew much of material, his reputation remains largely negative especially amongst modern Hindu nationalists and "post-colonial" critics. However, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, 1st Prime Minister of India, always described Kipling's novel, Kim as his favourite book and, in November 2007, it was announced that his birthplace in the campus of the JJ School of Art in Mumbai will be turned into a museum celebrating the author and his works.[38] This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the novel. ...


Places named after Kipling

Canada

During the first decade of the twentieth century, at a time when Kipling was at the peak of his popularity, a town in southeast Saskatchewan was named after him. (Initially, the community was known as "Rudyard", but the name was later changed to "Kipling" because another district already had the name Rudyard.) The welcome sign located at the entrance to the town depicts a scroll and feather with the name "Kipling" on it to symbolize his writing career. The town, home to about 1000 residents, now has a senior citizen's residential complex which bears the name "Rudyard Manor". The town of Kipling has become noted because of the now famous one red paperclip trade where a man managed to turn a paper clip into a house by means of trading. The house he finally ended up with is located in the town of Kipling, Saskatchewan. For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ... Kipling is a town in southeast Saskatchewan, Canada. ... The paperclip that Kyle McDonald traded for a house. ...


Kipling Avenue, a major street in Toronto, (and consequently also the Kipling subway station and the nearby Kipling regional commuter rail station) is also named after him.[citation needed] There is a township near Kapuskasing, Ontario, named Kipling township which may possibly have been named after Kipling, though no confirmatory records exist. Kipling Avenue is a Toronto street, named for Rudyard Kipling, who may or may not have been travelling through on the road to Woodbridge, Ontario. ... Kipling is the western terminus station on the Bloor-Danforth line of the subway system in Toronto, Canada. ... Kapuskasing (2001 population of 9,238) is a town on the Kapuskasing River in the Cochrane District of northern Ontario, Canada. ...


United Kingdom

One of the boarding houses in the English boarding school Haileybury was renamed Kipling House, in his memory. (In 1942, Haileybury, or more formally, Haileybury and Imperial Service College, had absorbed the Imperial Service College, which had already absorbed Kipling's school, the United Services College.) A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... This article is about the school in England. ... This article is about the school in England. ... The Imperial Service College was an English public school based in Windsor, which merged in 1942 into Haileybury and Imperial Service College. ... United Services College was an English public school for the sons of military officers, located at Westward Ho, near Bideford in North Devon. ...


In Brighton, the Rudyard Kipling Primary School and nearby streets Rudyard Road, Rudyard Close and Kipling Avenue, in Woodingdean, are not far from where Kipling lived in Rottingdean. This article is about the English city; for other places called Brighton, see Brighton (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rottingdean is a coastal village next to the town of Brighton and technically within the city of Brighton and Hove, in East Sussex, on the south coast of England. ...


In Sheffield there is a Rudyard Road and a Kipling Road just off Hillsborough Corner. For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ...


In Portsmouth, Hants, there is a Kipling Road


In Stanmore, Middlesex, there is a Kipling Place just off the Uxbridge Road. For other uses, see Stanmore (disambiguation). ... The Middlesex Guildhall at Westminster Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and was the second smallest (after Rutland). ...


In the English Lake District (Gimmer Crag) there is a classic rock climb called "Kipling Groove" - so named by a North Country climber because it was "ruddy 'ard" (i.e. very difficult). The panorama across Eskdale from Ill Crag. ...


United States

When a railroad was being built along the north shore of Lake Michigan, the managing director, a fan of the writer, asked that two towns be named in Kipling's honour: hence Rudyard, Michigan and Kipling, Michigan. There is also a Rudyard, Montana, and a Kipling community in Kemper County, Mississippi (founded in the 1880s and then the size of a small town). There is also Kipling, North Carolina located in Harnett County, North Carolina, which changed its name in the late 19th century. There is a boys' summer camp in the town of Hebron, New Hampshire, named after Kipling's hero of The Jungle Book, Mowglis. The camp, founded in 1903, draws much from the Jungle Books characters, themes, and morality lessons. http://mowglis.org Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. ... Rudyard Township is a civil township of Chippewa County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Rudyard is a census-designated place located in Hill County, Montana. ... Kemper County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi. ... Harnett County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ...


Kipling and the re-invention of science fiction

Kipling has remained influential in popular culture even during those periods in which his critical reputation was in deepest eclipse. An important specific case of his influence is on the development of science fiction during and after its Campbellian reinvention in the late 1930s. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ...


Kipling exerted this influence through John W. Campbell and Robert A. Heinlein. Campbell described Kipling as "the first modern science fiction writer", and Heinlein appears to have learned from Kipling the technique of indirect exposition—showing the imagined world through the eyes and the language of the characters, rather than through expository lumps—which was to become the most important structural device of Campbellian science fiction. The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ...


This technique is fully on display in With the Night Mail (1905) and As Easy As A. B. C (1912), both set in the 21st century in Kipling's Aerial Board of Control universe. These read like modern hard science fiction (there are reasons to believe this story was a formative influence on Heinlein, who was five when it was written and probably first read it as a boy). Kipling seems to have developed indirect exposition as a solution to some technical problems of writing about the unfamiliar milieu of India for British and American audiences. The technique reaches full development in Kim (1901), which influenced Heinlein's Citizen of the Galaxy. Aerial Board of Control is fictional supranational organization responsible to manage air traffic for the whole world. ... Hard science fiction is a category of science fiction characterized by an emphasis on scientific or technical detail, or on scientific accuracy, or on both. ... Cover: 1987 Del Rey paperback Citizen of the Galaxy is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1957. ...


Tributes and references to Kipling are common in science fiction, especially in Golden Age writers such as Heinlein and Poul Anderson, but continuing into the present day. The science fiction field continues to reflect many of Kipling's values and preoccupations, including nurturing a tradition of high-quality children's fiction in a moral-didactic vein, a fondness for military adventure with elements of bildungsroman set in exotic environments, and a combination of technophilic optimism with classical-liberal individualism and suspicion of government. The Golden Age of Science Fiction, often recognized as a period from the late 1930s or early 1940s through the 1950s, was an era during which the science fiction genre gained wide public attention and many classic science fiction stories were published. ... Poul William Anderson (November 25, 1926–July 31, 2001) was an American science fiction author of the genres Golden Age. ... A Bildungsroman (IPA: /, German: novel of self-cultivation) is a novelistic form that concentrates on the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the protagonist usually from childhood to maturity. ... Technophilia is, in its simplest definition, a strong enthusiasm for technology, especially newer technologies such as computers, the Internet, cell phones and home theater. ...


Swastika in old editions

Covers of two of Kipling's books from 1919 (l) and 1930 (r)
Covers of two of Kipling's books from 1919 (l) and 1930 (r)

Many older editions of Rudyard Kipling's books have a swastika printed on their covers associated with a picture of the Hindu deity Ganesha. Since the 1930s this has raised the possibility of Kipling being mistaken for a Nazi-sympathiser, though the Nazi party did not adopt the swastika until 1920. Kipling's use of the swastika, however, was based on the sign's Indian meaning of good luck and well-being. He used the swastika symbol in both right and left facing orientations, and it was generally very popular at the time as well. Even before the Nazis came to power, Kipling ordered the engraver to remove it from the printing block so that he should not be thought of as supporting them. Less than one year before his death Kipling gave a speech (titled "An Undefended Island") to The Royal Society of St George on 6 May 1935 warning of the danger Nazi Germany posed to Britain.[39] Scanned image of the swastika logo from a Rudyard Kipling book - a 1911 edition of Puck of Pooks Hill. ... Image File history File links Kipling_cover_art. ... Image File history File links Kipling_cover_art. ... This article is about the symbol. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Ganesha (disambiguation). ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Postcard sent in June 1910 The swastika (gammadion, fylfot) symbol became a popular symbol of luck in the Western world in the early 20th century, prior to its adoption by Nazi Germany in the 1920s. ... There is a forgotten, nay almost forbidden word, which means more to me than any other. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Works of Rudyard Kipling

See List of the works of Rudyard Kipling for a complete list.
See also Rudyard Kipling: Collected Works for lists of the collected volumes by type.

Rudyard Kiplings Works (all collections of short stories except as noted) Departmental Ditties (1886, poetry) Plain Tales from the Hills (1888) Soldiers Three (1888) The Story of the Gadsbys (1888, novel) In Black and White (1888) Under the Deodars (1888) The Phantom Rickshaw and other Eerie Tales (1888) This... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Plain Tales from the Hills Wikisource has original works written by or about: Plain Tales from the Hills Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Plain Tales from the Hills Plain Tales from the Hills (published 1888) is the first collection of short... A novel, first published in 1890, by the British writer Rudyard Kipling ... Samuel Bourne. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Gunga Din Gunga Din (1892) is one of Rudyard Kiplings most famous poems, perhaps best known for its often-quoted last line, Youre a better man than I am, Gunga Din![1] The poem is a rhyming narrative from the... Embossed cover from the original MacMillan edition of The Jungle Book, 1894, based on art by John Lockwood Kipling (Rudyards father) For other uses, see The Jungle Book (disambiguation). ... Embossed cover from the original MacMillan edition of The Second Jungle Book, 1895, based on art by John Lockwood Kipling (Rudyards father) The Second Jungle Book is a sequel to The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. ... Edition of If by Doubleday Page and Company, Garden City, New York, 1910. ... Captains Courageous is an 1897 novel, by Rudyard Kipling, that follows the adventures of fifteen year old Harvey Cheyne Jr. ... Stalky & Co. ... This article is about the novel. ... See also Just-so story for anthropological sense Wikisource has original text related to this article: Just So Stories The Just So Stories for Little Children were written by British author Rudyard Kipling. ... Puck of Pooks Hill is a book published in 1906 by Rudyard Kipling[1], containing a series of short stories set in different periods of history. ...

See also

Rudyard Kiplings Works Books (all collections of short stories except as noted) Departmental Ditties (1886, poetry) Plain Tales from the Hills (1888) Soldiers Three (1888) The Story of the Gadsbys (1888, novel) In Black and White (1888) Under the Deodars (1888) The Phantom Rickshaw (1888) Wee Willie Winkie (1888... For the film, see White Mans Burden (film). ... Iron Ring, stainless steel version, circa 2004. ... Recessional is a poem by Rudyard Kipling, which he composed on the occasion of Queen Victorias Diamond Jubilee in 1897. ... Rudyard Kipling in his study My Boy Jack is a 1997 play by English actor David Haig. ...

References

  1. ^ The Times, 18 January 1936, p.12
  2. ^ a b c d e Rutherford, Andrew. 1987. General Preface to Oxford World's Classics Editions of Rudyard Kipling, in "Puck of Pook's Hill and Rewards and Fairies", by Rudyard Kipling. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-282575-5
  3. ^ a b c d e Rutherford, Andrew. 1987. Introduction to the Oxford World's Classics edition of "Plains Tales from the Hills", by Rudyard Kipling. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-281652-7
  4. ^ James Joyce considered Tolstoy, Kipling and D'Annunzio to be the "three writers of the nineteenth century who had the greatest natural talents", but that "he did not fulfill that promise". He also noted that the three writers all "had semi-fanatic ideas about religion, or about patriotism." Diary of David Fleischman, 21 July 1938, quoted in James Joyce by Richard Ellmann, p. 661, Oxford University Press (1983) ISBN 0-19-281465-6
  5. ^ Alfred Nobel Foundation (2006-09-30). Who is the youngest ever to receive a Nobel Prize, and who is the oldest?. nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 2006-09-30.
  6. ^ Birkenhead, Lord. 1978. Rudyard Kipling, Appendix B, “Honours and Awards”. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London; Random House Inc., New York.
  7. ^ Orwell, George (2006-09-30). Essay on Kipling. Retrieved on 2006-09-30.
  8. ^ Lewis, Lisa. 1995. Introduction to the Oxford World's Classics edition of "Just So Stories", by Rudyard Kipling. Oxford University Press. pp.xv-xlii. ISBN 0-19-282276-4
  9. ^ Quigley, Isabel. 1987. Introduction to the Oxford World's Classics edition of "The Complete Stalky & Co.", by Rudyard Kipling. Oxford University Press. pp.xiii-xxviii. ISBN 0-19-281660-8
  10. ^ Said, Edward. 1993. Culture and Imperialism. London: Chatto & Windus. Page 196. ISBN 0-679-75054-1.
  11. ^ Sandison, Alan. 1987. Introduction to the Oxford World's Classics edition of Kim, by Rudyard Kipling. Oxford University Press. pp. xiii–xxx. ISBN 0-19-281674-8.
  12. ^ Douglas Kerr, University of Hong Kong. "Rudyard Kipling." The Literary Encyclopedia. 30 May. 2002. The Literary Dictionary Company. 26 September 2006. [1]
  13. ^ a b c d e Carrington, Charles. 1955. Rudyard Kipling: His Life and Work. Macmillan and Company, London and New York.
  14. ^ Flanders, Judith. 2005. A Circle of Sisters: Alice Kipling, Georgiana Burne-Jones, Agnes Poynter, and Louisa Baldwin. W.W. Norton and Company, New York. ISBN 0-393-05210-9
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Gilmour, David. 2002. The Long Recessional: The Imperial Life of Rudyard Kipling, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York.
  16. ^ thepotteries.org (2002-01-13). did you know ..... The potteries.org. Retrieved on 2006-10-02.
  17. ^ Sir J.J. College of Architecture (2006-09-30). [2] Campus]. Sir J. J. College of Architecture, Mumbai. Retrieved on 2006-10-02.
  18. ^ "To the City of Bombay", dedication to Seven Seas, by Rudyard Kipling, Macmillan and Company, 1894.
  19. ^ Murphy, Bernice M. (1999-06-21). Rudyard Kipling - A Brief Biography. School of English, The Queen's University of Belfast. Retrieved on 2006-10-06.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Kipling, Rudyard (1935). Something of myself. University of Newcastle (public domain). Retrieved on 2006-10-03.also: 1935/1990. Something of myself and other autobiographical writings. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-40584-X.
  21. ^ a b c d Carpenter, Henry and Mari Prichard. 1984. Oxford Companion to Children's Literature. pp. 296–297.
  22. ^ Pinney, Thomas (editor). Letters of Rudyard Kipling, volume 1. Macmillan and Company, London and New York.
  23. ^ Robert D. Kaplan (1989) Lahore as Kipling Knew It. The New York Times. Retrieved on 9 March, 2008
  24. ^ Kipling, Rudyard (1996) Writings on Writing. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521445272. see p.36 and p.173
  25. ^ Mallet, Phillip. 2003. Rudyard Kipling: A Literary Life. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. ISBN 0-333-55721-2
  26. ^ a b Ricketts, Harry. 1999. Rudyard Kipling: A life. Carroll and Graf Publishers Inc., New York. ISBN 0-7867-0711-9.
  27. ^ Kipling, Rudyard. 1920. Letters of Travel (1892–1920). Macmillan and Company.
  28. ^ Nicholson, Adam. 2001. Carrie Kipling 1862-1939 : The Hated Wife. Faber & Faber, London. ISBN 0-571-20835-5
  29. ^ a b Pinney, Thomas (editor). Letters of Rudyard Kipling, volume 2. Macmillan and Company, London and New York.
  30. ^ Kipling, Rudyard. 1899. The White Man's Burden. Published simultaneously in The Times, London, and McClure's Magazine (U.S.) 12 February 1899.
  31. ^ Snodgrass, Chris. 2002. A Companion to Victorian Poetry. Blackwell, Oxford.
  32. ^ Kipling, Rudyard. 1897. Recessional. Published in The Times, London, July 1897.
  33. ^ Kipling, Rudyard (Wednesday, March 18, 1900), "Kipling at Cape Town: Severe Arraignment of Treacherous Afrikanders and Demand for Condign Punishment By and By", The New York Times: p. 21, <http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9401EFDC1339E733A2575BC1A9659C946197D6CF> 
  34. ^ Webb, George. Foreword to: Kipling, Rudyard. The Irish Guards in the Great War. 2 vols. (Spellmount, 1997), p. 9.
  35. ^ Kipling, Rudyard. The Irish Guards in the Great War. 2 vols. (London, 1923)
  36. ^ The Iron Ring
  37. ^ ScoutBase UK: The Library - Scouting history - Me Too! - The history of Cubbing in the United Kingdom 1916-present
  38. ^ BBC News: "Kipling's India home to become museum".
  39. ^ Rudyard Kipling, War Stories and Poems (Oxford Paperbacks, 1999), pp. xxiv-xxv.

is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coat of arms of the Tolstoy family Tolstoy, or Tolstoi (Russian: ) is a prominent family of Russian nobility, descending from one Andrey Kharitonovich Tolstoy (i. ... Rudyard Kipling, British author Joseph Rudyard Kipling (December 30, 1865 – January 18, 1936) was a British author and poet, born in India. ... Gabriele DAnnunzio (12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938) was an Italian poet, dramatist, daredevil and war hero, who went on to have a controversial role in politics as a precursor of the fascist movement. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... James Joyce by Richard Ellmann was published in 1959. ... Richard Ellmann (March 15, 1918 – May 13, 1987) was a prominent American/British literary critic and biographer of Irish writers such as James Joyce, Oscar Wilde, and William Butler Yeats. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

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Academic offices
Preceded by
Sir J. M. Barrie
Rector of the University of St Andrews
1922–1925
Succeeded by
Fridtjof Nansen
Persondata
NAME Kipling, Rudyard
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Kipling, Joseph Rudyard
SHORT DESCRIPTION British novelist and poet
DATE OF BIRTH 30 December 1865
PLACE OF BIRTH Bombay
DATE OF DEATH 18 January 1936
PLACE OF DEATH Middlesex Hospital, London

A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... A poet (from the ancient Greek ποιητης, poïêtes (artisan) ; ποιέω, poieō) is a person who writes poetry. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , Bombay redirects here. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rudyard Kipling - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2785 words)
Kipling was born in Bombay (today Mumbai, India; the house in which he was born still stands on the campus of the Sir J.J. Institute of Applied Art in Bombay.
Kipling was a cousin of the three-time Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin.
Kipling's defenders point out that much of the most blatant racism in his writing is spoken by fictional characters, not by him, and thus accurately depicts the characters.
Rudyard Kipling - Wikipedia (383 words)
Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 december 1865, Bombay, India – 18 januari 1936, Londen) was een Britse schrijver en dichter.
Rudyard Kipling ontving in 1907 de Nobelprijs voor de Literatuur.
Kipling was een uitgesproken pleiter voor het imperialisme.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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