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Encyclopedia > Rudolph I of Germany
The brass of the tomb of Rudolph I in Speyer
The brass of the tomb of Rudolph I in Speyer

Rudolph I (Rudolph of Habsburg) (May 1, 1218July 15, 1291) was a German king, who played a vital role in raising the Habsburg family to a leading position among the royal dynasties of Germany. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (215x606, 58 KB)Brass of the tomb of Rudolph I, Holy Roman Emperor in the cathedral of Speyer. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (215x606, 58 KB)Brass of the tomb of Rudolph I, Holy Roman Emperor in the cathedral of Speyer. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... // Events Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... The following list of German Kings and Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...


Rudolph was the son of Albert IV, count of Habsburg, and Hedwig, daughter of Ulrich count of Kyburg, and was born at Limburg an der Lahn. At his father's death in 1239, Rudolph inherited the family estates in Alsace, and in 1245 he married Gertrude, daughter of Burkhard III count of Hohenberg. He paid frequent visits to the court of his godfather the emperor Frederick II, and his loyalty to Frederick and to his son Conrad IV of Germany was richly rewarded by grants of land, but in 1254 he was excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV. The disorder in Germany after the fall of the Hohenstaufen afforded an opportunity for Rudolph to increase his possessions. His wife was an heiress; and on the death of his childless uncle, Hartmann VI, count of Kyburg, in 1264, he seized his valuable estates. Successful feuds with the bishops of Strassburg and Basel further augmented his wealth and his reputation; rights over various tracts of land were purchased from abbots and others; and he was also the possessor of large estates in the regions now known as Switzerland and Alsace. Albert IV (born September 19, 1377 in Vienna; died September 14, 1404 in Klosterneuburg (Lower Austria)) was a duke of Austria. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The river Lahn in Limburg Limburg an der Lahn (Limburg on the Lahn river) is a small German town, the capital of the district Limburg-Weilburg in the west of Hesse. ... // Events Births June 17 - King Edward I of England (died 1307) December 17 - Kujo Yoritsugu, Japanese shogun (died 1256) Peter III of Aragon (died 1285) John II, Duke of Brittany (died 1305) Ippen, Japanese monk (died 1289) Deaths March 3 - Vladimir III Rurikovich, Grand Prince of Kiev (born 1187) March... Capital Strasbourg Land area¹ 8,280 km² Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Population  - Jan. ... Events Rebellion against king Sancho II of Portugal in favor of his brother Alphonso. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) Frederick II (December 26, 1194 - (December 13, 1250), Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212, unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 until his death... Conrad IV, Conrad of Hohenstaufen (April 25, 1228 Andria, Italy – May 21, 1254, Lavello), was king of Jerusalem (as Conrad II) 1228–1254, of Germany 1237–1254, and of Sicily (as Conrad I) 1250–1254. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Innocent IV, né Sinibaldo de Fieschi (Genoa, ca. ... The Hohenstaufen were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... Events May 12 - The Battle of Lewes begins (ends May 14). ... The Bishop of Basel (German: Bischof von Basel) is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic diocese of Basel, Switzerland (Latin: Dioecesis Basileensis). ...


These various sources of wealth and influence had rendered Rudolph the most powerful prince in south-western Germany when, in the autumn of 1273, the princes met to elect a king. His election at Frankfurt on the 29th of September 1273 was largely due to the efforts of his brother-in-law, Frederick III of Hohenzollern, burgrave of Nuremberg. The support of Albert duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, and of Louis II, count palatine of the Rhine and duke of upper Bavaria, had been purchased by betrothing them to two of Rudolph's daughters; so that Otakar II king of Bohemia, a candidate for the throne, was almost alone in his opposition. Rudolph was crowned at Aachen on the 24th of October 1273, and the feast which followed has been described by Friedrich Schiller in Der Graf von Habsburg. To win the approbation of the pope Rudolph renounced all imperial rights in Rome, the papal territory and Sicily, and promised to lead a new crusade; and Pope Gregory X, in spite of Ottokar's protests, not only recognized Rudolph himself, but persuaded Alfonso X, king of Castile, who had been chosen German king in 1257, to do the same. In November 1274 it was decided by the diet at Nuremberg that all crown estates seized since the death of the emperor Frederick II must be restored, and that Otakar of Bohemia must answer to the diet for not recognizing the new king. Otakar refused to appear or to restore the provinces of Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Carniola which he had seized. He was placed under the ban; and in June 1276 war was declared against him. Having detached Henry I duke of lower Bavaria from his side, Rudolph compelled the Bohemian king to cede the four provinces in November 1276. Otakar was then invested with Bohemia by Rudolph, and his son Wenceslaus was betrothed to a daughter of the German king, who made a triumphal entry into Vienna. Otakar, however, raised questions about the execution of the treaty, made an alliance with some Polish chiefs and procured the support of several German princes, including his former ally, Henry of lower Bavaria. To meet this combination Rudolph entered into alliance with Ladislaus IV, king of Hungary, and gave additional privileges to the citizens of Vienna. On the 26th of August 1278 the rival armies met on the banks of the river March in the Battle of Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen, and Otakar was defeated and killed. Moravia was subdued and its government entrusted to Rudolph's representatives, while Wenceslaus was again betrothed to one of his daughters. For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... A monarch is a type of ruler or head of state, whose titles and ascent are often inherited, not earned, and who represents a larger monarchical system which has established rules and customs regarding succession, duties, and powers. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Aerial view of the castle, Hohenzollern, Germany. ... Hl. ... Duke Louis II of Bavaria (borned 13 April 1229 in Heidelberg; died 2 February 1294 in Heidelberg) (German: Ludwig II der Strenge , Herzog von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein), since 1253 Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine (see Palatinate). ... Otakar II (also spelled Ottokar or PÅ™emysl Otakar/Ottokar) (c. ... Bohemia This article is about the historical region in central Europe; for other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... Map of Germany showing Aachen Aachen (French Aix-la-Chapelle, Dutch Aken, Latin Aquisgranum, Ripuarian Oche) is a spa city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, on the border with Belgium and the Netherlands, 65 km to the west of Cologne, and the westernmost city in Germany, at 50°46′ N... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 – May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000... Sicilian disambiguates here; see also Sicilian language or Sicilian Defence. ... Gregory X, né Theobald Visconti (Piacenza, ca. ... Alfonso X and his court. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... Styria was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until it dissolved in 1918. ... Carinthia (German Kärnten) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until it dissolved in 1918. ... Carniola (Slovenian Kranjska, German Krain) is a region in Slovenia. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya; Serbian: Beč) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine states (Land Wien). ... Ladislaus IV the Cuman (Hungarian: IV László, Slovak: Ladislav IV) (1262 – July 10, 1290), also known as Laszlo IV, king of Hungary, was the son of Stephen V, whom he succeeded in 1272. ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... The Battle on the Marchfeld (Morava Field) at Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen took place on August 26, 1278 and was a decisive event for the history of Central Europe for the following centuries. ... Moravia in relation to the current kraje of the Czech Republic Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava, German: Mähren, Polish: Morawy, Hungarian: Morvaország) is an historical region in the east of the Czech Republic. ...


Rudolph's attention was next turned to his new possessions in Austria and the adjacent countries. He spent several years in establishing his authority there, but found some difficulty in making these provinces hereditary in his family. At length the hostility of the princes was overcome, and in December 1282 Rudolph invested his sons Albert and Rudolph with the duchies of Austria and Styria at Augsburg, and so laid the foundations of the greatness of the house of Habsburg. For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ...


Turning to the west he compelled Philip I count of upper Burgundy to cede some districts to him in 1281, forced the citizens of Bern to pay the tribute which they had previously refused, and in 1289 marched against Philip's successor, Otto IV, and compelled him to do homage. In 1281 his first wife died, and on the 5th of February 1284 he married Isabella, daughter of Hugh IV. duke of Burgundy. Rudolph was not very successful in restoring internal peace to Germany. Orders were indeed issued for the establishment of landpeaces in Bavaria, Franconia and Swabia, and afterwards for the whole of Germany; but the king lacked the power, or the determination, to enforce them, although in December 1289 he led an expedition into Thuringia where he destroyed a number of robber-castles. In 1291 he attempted to secure the election of his son Albert as German king; but the princes refused on the pretext of their inability to support two kings, but perhaps because they feared the increasing power of the Habsburgs. Rudolph died at Speyer on the July 15, 1291 and was buried in the cathedral of that city. He had a large family, but only one of his sons, Albert, afterwards the German king Albert I, survived him. Events February 22 - Martin IV becomes Pope August 15 - Kamikaze storm wipes out invading Mongol army in the coast of Japan The Ottoman Empire was founded as an autonomous state (Beylik) in present day Bilecik, Turkey, by Osman Bey. ... Location within Switzerland The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne (Bernese German Bärn , German Bern , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... The Franconian Rake is the symbol and unofficial coat of arms of Franconia, also appearing in emblems of many Franconian cities Franconia (German: Franken), a historic region in Germany, now forms three administrative districts of the state of Bavaria: Lower Franconia (Unterfranken), Middle Franconia (Mittelfranken), and Upper Franconia (Oberfranken). ... Swabia (German: Schwaben) is both a historic and linguistic region in Germany. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German Freistaat Thüringen) lies in central Germany and is among the smaller of the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 sq. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Albert I (July 1255 – May 1, 1308) was a German king, duke of Austria, and eldest son of King Rudolph I of Habsburg. ...


Rudolph was a tall man with pale face and prominent nose. He possessed many excellent qualities, bravery, piety and generosity; but his reign is memorable rather in the history of the house of Habsburg than in that of the kingdom of Germany.


In the Divine Comedy, Dante finds Rudolph sitting outside the gates of Purgatory with his contemporaries, and berates him as "he who neglected that which he ought to have done". Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, in Michelinos fresco. ... The term purgatory is best defined as the means by which the elect reach perfection before entering into the Kingdom of Heaven. Many different theories on how purgatory takes place have been discussed in the past. ...


References

Preceded by:
Richard of Cornwall
and
Alfonso of Castile
King of Germany Succeeded by:
Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg
Preceded by:
Otakar II of Bohemia
Duke of Austria
Duke of Styria
Succeeded by:
Albert I
Rudolph II (co-ruler until 1282)
Duke of Carinthia
Duke of Carniola
Succeeded by:
Meinhard II
(given as pawn in 1276, as a fief in 1286)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rudolph I of Germany - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1017 words)
Rudolph I (Rudolph of Habsburg) (May 1, 1218 July 15, 1291) was a German king, who played a vital role in raising the Habsburg family to a leading position among the royal dynasties of Germany.
Rudolph was the son of Albert IV, count of Habsburg, and Hedwig, daughter of Ulrich count of Kyburg, and was born at Limburg an der Lahn.
Rudolph died at Speyer on the July 15, 1291 and was buried in the cathedral of that city.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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