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Encyclopedia > Rudolf Vrba
Dr. Rudolf Vrba in 1997.

Rudolf 'Rudi' Vrba, born Walter Rosenberg (September 11, 1924March 27, 2006), was a professor of pharmacology at the University of British Columbia. In April 1944, Vrba and his friend Alfréd Wetzler became the second and third of only five Jews[1] to escape from the Auschwitz concentration camp and pass information to the Allies about the mass murder that was taking place there.[2] The 32 pages of information that the men dictated to horrified Jewish officials in Slovakia in April 1944 became known as the Vrba-Wetzler report.[3][4] It is regarded as one of the most important documents of the 20th century, according to BC BookWorld,[5][6] because it was the first detailed information about the camp to reach the Allies that they accepted as credible.[7] Image File history File linksMetadata RudolfVrba1997. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public university with its main campus located at Point Grey in the unincorporated Electoral Area A, immediately west of Vancouver, British Columbia. ... Alfréd Wetzler (1918–1988), who later wrote under the alias Jozef Laník, was a Slovak Jew, and one of a very small number of Jews known to have escaped from the Auschwitz death camp during the Holocaust. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... One of the maps from the Vrba-Weztler report The Vrba-Wetzler report, also known as the Vrba-Wetzler statement, the Auschwitz Protocols, and the Auschwitz notebook, is a 32-page document about the German Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland during the Holocaust. ...


Although the report's release to the public was controversially delayed[8] until after the mass transport of 437,000 Jews from Hungary to Auschwitz had begun on May 15, 1944, it is nevertheless credited with having saved many lives.[9][10] Information from the report was published on June 15, 1944 by the BBC[11] and on June 20 by The New York Times.[12] World leaders subsequently appealed to Hungarian leader Admiral Miklós Horthy to halt the deportations, which stopped on July 9, 1944, thereby saving up to 200,000 Jews.[13] History of the Jews in Hungary concerns the Jews of Hungary and of Hungarian origins. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... “Horthy” redirects here. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


The timing of the report's distribution remains a source of significant controversy. It was made available to officials in Hungary and elsewhere before the deportations to Auschwitz had begun,[14] but was not further disseminated until weeks later. Vrba believed that more lives could have been saved if it had been publicized sooner, reasoning that, had Hungary's Jews known they were to be killed and not resettled, they might have chosen to run or fight rather than board the trains to Auschwitz.[15][16] He alleged that the report was deliberately withheld by the Jewish-Hungarian Aid and Rescue Committee in order not to jeopardize complex, but ultimately futile, negotiations between the committee and Adolf Eichmann, the SS officer in charge of the deportations, to exchange Jewish lives for money, trucks, and other goods — the so-called "blood for trucks" proposal.[15] For the Union of Orthodox Rabbis Vaad Hatzalah, see Vaad Hatzalah. ... Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ... The   (German for Protective Squadron), abbreviated (Runic) or SS (Latin), was a large security and military organization of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) in Germany. ... Joel Brand Joel Brand (1907 – 1964) was a Hungarian Jew who played a prominent role in trying to save the Hungarian Jewish community from deportation to the German death camp at Auschwitz during the Holocaust. ...


There is no consensus among historians as to the validity of Vrba's allegations, which have revealed a fissure in Holocaust historiography between "survivor discourse" and "expert discourse."[17] Yehuda Bauer, Professor of Holocaust Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, has called Vrba "one of the Heroes of the Holocaust,"[18] but also a "bitter Auschwitz survivor,"[19] writing that "[t]he trauma of the Holocaust had a severe effect on the internal intra-Jewish discourse, in the form of baseless accusations whose origin lay in the despair and anger over the loss of so many ... It is almost pointless to try to quarrel with this anger, since facts and logical arguments cannot assuage it."[16] Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ... Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ...

Contents

Early life and arrest

Rudolf Vrba in his Gymnasium photograph, 1935–36, fourth from the left on the bottom row. He was excluded from the school at the age of 15 because he was a Jew.

Vrba was born Walter Rosenberg in Topoľčany, Slovakia, to Elias and Helena (née Grunfeldova) Rosenberg, who owned a steam sawmill in Jaklovce, near Margecany. Because he was a Jew, he was excluded at the age of 15 from the Gymnasium (high school) of Bratislava under the Slovakian version of the Nazi's Nuremberg Laws,[20] which placed heavy restrictions on Jews' civil rights. He went instead to work as a labourer in Trnava, and continued his studies at home, learning English and Russian. According to The Daily Telegraph, his mother found his interest in English eccentric, but his interest in Russian so alarming that she took him to a doctor.[21] Image File history File linksMetadata 1935,1936_Rudi's(4th_child_from_left_on_bottom_row)_high_school_photo-1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 1935,1936_Rudi's(4th_child_from_left_on_bottom_row)_high_school_photo-1. ... Topoľčany (Slovak: Veľké Topoľčany before 1920, German: (Groß)topoltschan, Hungarian: Nagytapolcsány) is a town in the Nitra Region of Slovakia. ... A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Slovakia Region Bratislava Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907[1] Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský[2]  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... Trnava (Hungarian: Nagyszombat, German: Tyrnau) is a town in western Slovakia, 45 kilometers to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river, and at the main Bratislava-Žilina railway and Bratislava-Žilina limited-access highway. ...


In March 1942, at the age of 17, wanting to rebel against his country's anti-Semitism, Vrba decided to flee to England to join the Czechoslovak Army in Britain.[21] He tore off the yellow Star of David that he was forced to wear as a Jew, and took a taxi from Topoľčany to Hungary with the equivalent of £10, all his mother could afford to give him. Though he managed to reach Hungary, as a Slovak Jew with no legal status he found the country too hostile and concluded that it would be dangerous to continue on to Britain.[22] The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Compulsory Jewish badge under the Nazi occupation of Europe: the Star of David with the word Jew inside (this one in German) A yellow badge, also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a mandatory mark or a piece of cloth of specific geometric shape, worn on the outer garment... “GBP” redirects here. ...


He decided to return to Slovakia, but was caught by Hungarian border guards while crossing back over the Hungary-Slovakia border. They turned him over to the Slovakian authorities, who sent him to the Nováky transition camp in Slovakia.[22] He escaped from Nováky along with prisoner Josef Knapp, but was caught several days later by a Slovakian policeman on bicycle, who became suspicious when he noticed Vrba wearing two pairs of socks.[21] He was sent back to the camp, where he was savagely beaten by the guards in retribution for his escape.[22] Border Guard (Polish Straż Graniczna, SG) is a Polish military unit tasked with patrol of the Polish border. ... This is a list of Internment and Concentration camps, organized by country. ...


Auschwitz

Auschwitz I

On June 14, 1942, Vrba was deported to the Majdanek concentration camp in Poland,[13] where he briefly found one of his brothers. He volunteered for farm work,[21] and on June 30,[23][24] he was sent to Auschwitz I, the main camp of the Auschwitz complex and the administrative center for the satellite camps. June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Majdanek Memorial, containing ashes of human bodies Majdanek fence in the winter (2005) Majdanek (originally Konzentrationslager Lublin) is the site of a German Nazi concentration and extermination camp, roughly 2. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ...

Vrba worked in this storage area nicknamed "Canada," where the goods stolen from the deportees were kept before being sent to Germany. Photograph courtesy of Yad Vashem. [1]
Vrba worked in this storage area nicknamed "Canada," where the goods stolen from the deportees were kept before being sent to Germany. Photograph courtesy of Yad Vashem. [1]

Rather than the promised "farm work", Vrba's initial duties in Auschwitz involved digging up the bodies of over 100,000 Jews who had already been killed or died, so they could be incinerated. He eventually befriended a Viennese prisoner who was trusted by the SS, and who arranged for him to work in the Aufräumungskommando, also called the "Canada" kommando in camp slang.[21] This was a work detail of up to 2,000 male and female prisoners[25] who worked on the Judenrampe ("Jewish ramp")[26] situated between Auschwitz I and II that the new arrivals were unloaded onto from the freight trains, and who sorted out the possessions confiscated from them, and disposed of the dead bodies among them.[10] The Germans ensured that any valuables among the prisoners' possessions, including gold, were repackaged and sent to Germany, and the gold melted into ingots for the Reichsbank.[27] Image File history File links "Canada"Auschwitz. ... Image File history File links "Canada"Auschwitz. ... An exterior view of the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial museum in Jerusalem. ... Kommando is a generic German language word meaning unit or command. ... [[Image:[[Gold bars|Gold ingots. ...


The kommando and its storage facilities, which occupied several dozen barracks in the BIIg sector of Auschwitz II-Birkenau, were nicknamed "Canada I" and "Canada II" — officially, Effektenlager I and II — because the facilities contained clothing, shoes, medicines, blankets, and other provisions;[25] it was therefore regarded as paradise by the Polish prisoners, who chose the nickname because they saw Canada as the land of plenty.[28] Because he had access to the food, soap, and warm clothes stored in "Canada", Vrba was able to stay healthy and free of disease. He eventually became part of the pilfering hierarchy of the camp guards, though at one point he was beaten severely for smuggling goods to friends.[21] Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ...


On January 15, 1943, he was transferred again, along with the rest of the Aufräumungskommando, to Birkenau, the death camp, 2½ miles (4 km.) away from the main camp,[29] where he continued to work as part of the "Canada" kommando. January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Auschwitz II (Birkenau)

"Selection" on the Judenrampe, May/June 1944. To be sent to the right meant assignment to a work detail; to the left, the gas chambers. Vrba worked on this ramp as part of the Aufräumungskommando, who sorted through the new arrivals' belongings. This image shows the arrival of Hungarian Jews from Carpatho-Ruthenia, many of them from the Berehov ghetto; the image was taken by Ernst Hofmann or Bernhard Walter of the SS. Courtesy of Yad Vashem. [2]
"Selection" on the Judenrampe, May/June 1944. To be sent to the right meant assignment to a work detail; to the left, the gas chambers. Vrba worked on this ramp as part of the Aufräumungskommando, who sorted through the new arrivals' belongings. This image shows the arrival of Hungarian Jews from Carpatho-Ruthenia, many of them from the Berehov ghetto; the image was taken by Ernst Hofmann or Bernhard Walter of the SS. Courtesy of Yad Vashem. [2]

On arrival at Birkenau, Vrba was "selected" to go to the right rather than the left, which meant he had been chosen to work rather than be sent to the gas chambers.[24] He was tattooed as prisoner no. 44070.[27] Selection of Jews at the Birkenau Ramp, 1944 Image was downloaded from The Auschwitz Album. ... Selection of Jews at the Birkenau Ramp, 1944 Image was downloaded from The Auschwitz Album. ... A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced. ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov kraj... Berehove (in Ukrainian: Берегове (Berehove), in Ruthenian: Берегово (Berehovo), in Russian: Берегово (Beregovo), in Rumanian: Berg, in Hungarian: Beregszász, in German: Bergsaß, in Slovak and Czech: Berehovo) is a city in western Ukraine, Zakarpattia Oblast. ... An exterior view of the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial museum in Jerusalem. ... A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced. ...


Vrba was later described by those who knew him as possessing a photographic memory,[10] and during his time at Auschwitz I and II, he attempted to commit to memory the numbers of Jews arriving and the place of origin of each transport. Because his job involved being present when most of the Jewish deportees arrived, and sorting out the belongings of the ones who were gassed, he was able to make rough calculations of how many had been sent to Auschwitz, and how many of them were killed. Eidetic memory, photographic memory, or total recall, is the ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with extreme accuracy and in seemingly abundant volume. ...


He later wrote that he was able to judge how much the prisoners knew about why they were being sent to Auschwitz, and he concluded that they were ignorant of their fate when they arrived. While sorting through luggage, he noticed that many of them had packed as though for the long term. He saw clothes for different seasons and utensils for a variety of uses, which convinced him that the Jews believed the Nazis' stories about resettlement in the East.[30] This strengthened his conviction that he had to escape. For two years he had thought about it, but now, he wrote, "It was no longer a question of reporting a crime, but of preventing one; of warning the Hungarians, of rousing them, of raising an army one million strong, an army that would fight rather than die."[31]


In the summer of 1943, he was given the job of registrar (Blockschreiber) in the quarantine section for men, Birkenau sector BIIa. From his barracks, he was able to watch the lorries driving towards the gas chambers, carrying the Jews who had been sent to the left.[24] This allowed him to estimate the number of Jews arriving daily, and the percentage that were gassed. His estimate was that only around 10 percent of each transport was selected to go to the right to be used as slave labor, and the rest were killed.[32] By April 1944, he calculated that 1,750,000 Jews had already been killed in the camps, a figure significantly higher than those now accepted by mainstream historians,[24] but which even decades later he insisted was more accurate.[33] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


"Hungarian salami"

At the beginning of 1944, Vrba noticed that preparations were underway for the building of a new railway line, which would allow inmates to be transported directly from their places of origin to the gas chambers, and wrote that this was confirmed to him on January 15, 1944 by a German kapo who was one of the builders.[32] Vrba also reported having overheard SS guards discuss how they would soon have "Hungarian salami ... by the ton,"[22] allegedly a reference to the refugees' habit of packing provisions for the long journey, and how the food invariably found its way into the SS officers' mess. Vrba wrote: "When a series of transports of Jews from the Netherlands arrived, cheeses enriched the war-time rations. It was sardines when series of transports of French Jews arrived, halva and olives when transports of Jews from Greece reached the camp, and now the SS were talking of 'Hungarian salami,' a well-known Hungarian provision suitable for taking along on a long journey."[32][34] A new area of the camp, called "Mexico," was allegedly being constructed to accommodate the new inmates.[24] January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Kapo was a term used for certain prisoners who worked inside the Nazi concentration camps during World War II in various lower administrative positions. ... The   (German for Protective Squadron), abbreviated (Runic) or SS (Latin), was a large security and military organization of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) in Germany. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sardines in the Pacific An open Sardines can Sardines on a plate grilled Sardines For the hide and seek-like game, see Hide and seek. ... The word halva (alternatively halwa, halvah, halava, helva, halawa etc. ...


Although Vrba is clear in his autobiography, and in subsequent versions of his story told to historians, that he did overhear the "Hungarian salami" conversation, there is no mention of the imminent mass arrival of Hungarian Jews in the Vrba-Wetzler report.[35] This has led Czech historian Miroslav Kárný to dispute that Vrba heard anyone discussing "Hungarian salami," and whether Vrba's accounts over the decades after his escape may have suffered from some exaggeration. (See What Vrba knew below) Miroslav Kárný (September 9, 1919 – May 9, 2001) was an historian and writer from Prague, Czechoslovakia. ... Dr. Rudolf Vrba in 1997. ...


Escape

When he arrived in Birkenau, Vrba discovered that Alfréd Wetzler, an older man he had known from his home town, was already there, registered as prisoner no. 29162. Wetzler worked in the Birkenau mortuary, where his job was to record the number of prisoners who died other than by gassing, and the amount of gold extracted from their teeth.[27] Alfréd Wetzler (1918–1988), who later wrote under the alias Jozef Laník, was a Slovak Jew, and one of a very small number of Jews known to have escaped from the Auschwitz death camp during the Holocaust. ...


The men came to trust each other implicitly and decided to try to escape together. With the help of the camp underground, at 2 p.m. on Friday, April 7, 1944 — the eve of Passover[13]— the two men climbed inside a hollowed-out hiding place in a wood pile that was being stored to build the "Mexico" section for the new arrivals. It was outside Birkenau's barbed-wire inner perimeter, but inside an external perimeter the Nazi guards kept erected during the day. The other prisoners placed boards around the hollowed-out area to hide the men, then sprinkled the surrounding area with pungent Russian tobacco soaked in gasoline to fool the guards' dogs, a trick they had learned from Russian POWs,[24][36] particularly Dmitry Volkov, who had escaped Auschwitz and then been recaptured. Volkov also advised them to travel lightly, with no money, and only at night, and trust no-one with their plans.[37] At 20:33 that evening, the commander of Auschwitz II, SS-Sturmbanführer Fritz Hartjenstein, was informed by teleprinter that two Jews had escaped.[23] April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Pasch redirects here. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Friedrich Fritz Hartjenstein (July 3, 1905 - October 20, 1954) was an SS-Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel). ... Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY for TeleTYpe/TeleTYpewriter) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ...


The men knew from previous escape attempts by other prisoners that, once their absence was noticed during the evening appell, or roll call, the guards would continue to search for them for three days. They therefore remained in hiding until the fourth night, almost getting caught at one point. On April 10,[23] wearing Dutch suits, overcoats, and boots they had taken from "Canada",[37] they made their way south, walking parallel to the Soła river, heading for the Polish border with Slovakia 80 miles (133 km.) away,[31] guiding themselves using a page from a child's atlas that Vrba remembered looking at while working in "Canada." Appell may refer to: Appell polynomials, a polynomial sequence named after Paul Appell, listed below This page or section lists people with the surname Appell. ... Published Monday to Thursday when the United States Congress is in session and Mondays only during recess, Roll Call provides its readers with up-to-the-minute news of the legislative and political maneuvers that happen every day on Capitol Hill. ... SoÅ‚a is a river in Western Beskides, Poland. ... Kraków Katowice WrocÅ‚aw Łódź PoznaÅ„ Bydgoszcz Lublin BiaÅ‚ystok GdaÅ„sk Szczecin Warsaw Baltic Sea Tatra Sudetes Russia Lithuania Belarus Ukraine Slovakia Czech Republic Ger. ... For other uses, see Atlas (disambiguation). ...


"At the moment of our escape, all connections with whatever friends and social contacts we had in Auschwitz were severed, and we had absolutely no connection waiting for us outside the death camp ... We were de facto written off by the world from the moment we were loaded into a deportation train in the spring of 1942 ... The only administrative evidence of our existence was an international warrant about us, issued telegraphically and distributed to all stations of the Gestapo."[38] The warrant was also telegraphed to the Kripo (criminal police), the Sicherheitsdienst (security police) and the Grenzpolizei (border guards). Kriminalpolizei is the usual designation of the criminal investigation services in the police forces of Germany, Austria and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. ... Sicherheitsdienst (SD) sleeve insignia. ...


Although Vrba has told the story of his escape as one of himself and Wetzler alone in the world, Ruth Linn writes that Polish historiography argues that the escape was only possible because of the Polish underground operating inside the camp, and because of help from local people outside.[38] Ruth Linn is an Israeli academic and currently dean of the Faculty of Education at Haifa University in Israel. ...


The Vrba-Wetzler report

Further information: Vrba-Wetzler report

Eleven days[13] after escaping, Vrba and Wetzler crossed the Polish-Slovakian border. They met a farmer who put them in touch with a Jewish doctor, Dr. Pollack, who had a contact, Adre Steiner, in the Slovak Judenrat (Jewish Council) in Žilina, which now called itself the Working Group, and regarded itself as an underground movement.[36][39][40] Vrba left Dr. Pollack's office with a bandage on his foot to counter any suspicion, leaving behind an emotionally wounded physician, who until then had hoped his family was still alive in the new "resettlement" area they had been sent to.[41] One of the maps from the Vrba-Weztler report The Vrba-Wetzler report, also known as the Vrba-Wetzler statement, the Auschwitz Protocols, and the Auschwitz notebook, is a 32-page document about the German Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland during the Holocaust. ... Judenrats, German for Jewish council, were administrative bodies that the Germans required Jews to form in each ghetto in General Government (the Nazi-occupied teritory of Poland) and later in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union. ... Žilina (German: Sillein, Hungarian: Zsolna, Polish: Å»ylina) is a city in northwestern Slovakia. ...


Vrba and Wetzler spent the night in Čadca in the home of Mrs Beck, a relative of the well-known rabbi Leo Baeck,[42] and met the Working Group the next day, April 24, 1944.[41] The head of the Working Group, Dr. Oskar Neumann, a German-speaking lawyer, placed the men in different rooms in a former Jewish old people's home (used by the Judenrat since the old people had been "resettled"), and interviewed them separately over three days. ÄŒadca (German: Tschadsa (rare), Hungarian: Csaca, Polish: Czaca) is town in northern Slovakia, near the border with Poland and the Czech Republic. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means a religious ‘teacher’, or more literally, ‘great one’. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word , rav, which in biblical Hebrew means ‘great’ or ‘distinguished (in knowledge)’. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word ribbÄ«; the modern Israeli pronunciation rabbÄ« is derived from a... Leo Baeck (1873-1956) Rabbi Dr. Leo Baeck (May 23, 1873, Leszno, Poland – November 2, 1956, London, England) was an outstanding 20th century German-Jewish scholar and a leader of Progressive Judaism. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

One of the maps from the Vrba-Wetzler Report

Vrba writes that he began by drawing the inner layout of Auschwitz I and II, and the position of the ramp in relation to the two camps. He described the internal organization of the camps; how Jews were being used as slave labor for Krupp, Siemens, I.G. Farben, and D.A.W.; and of the mass murder in gas chambers of those who had been chosen for Sonderbehandlung or "special treatment".[43] Image File history File linksMetadata AuschwitzProtocolsmap. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AuschwitzProtocolsmap. ... For the U.S. town, see Krupp, Washington. ... Siemens AG (ISIN: DE0007236101, FWB: SIE, NYSE: SI) is one of the worlds largest companies and Europes largest engineering firm. ... IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG) was a German conglomerate of companies formed in 1925 and even earlier during World War I. IG Farben held nearly a total monopoly on the chemical production, later during the time of Nazi Germany. ... A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced. ...


The report was written and re-written several times. Wetzler wrote the first part, Vrba the third, and the two wrote the second part together. They then worked on the report together, and ended up re-writing it six times.[44] As they were writing it, Dr. Neumann's aide, Oscar Krasniansky, an engineer and good stenographer, who later took the name Oskar Isaiah Karmiel,[45] translated it from Slovak into German with the help of Gisela Steiner,[44] producing a 32-page report in German, which was completed by Thursday, April 27, 1944.[46] Vrba wrote that the report was also hastily translated into Hungarian. April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


The original Slovak version of the report was not preserved, according to Czech historian Miroslav Kárný.[44] The German version contained a precise description of the geography of the camps, their construction, the organization of the management and security, how the prisoners were numbered and categorized, their diet, the selections, gassings, shootings, injections, and deaths from the living conditions themselves.[40][20] The report also contained sketches and information about the interior layouts and operations of (and surrounding) the gas chambers, based on information Vrba and Wetzler had received from the Sonderkommando who worked there, which led to some inaccuracies.[47] Miroslav Kárný (September 9, 1919 – May 9, 2001) was an historian and writer from Prague, Czechoslovakia. ... Sonderkommandos were work units of Nazi death camp prisoners forced to aid the killing process. ...


Jean-Claude Pressac, a French specialist on the mechanics of the mass murder, examined the report and concluded that, while "somewhat unreliable and even quite wrong on some points, [it] has the merit of describing exactly the gassing process in type II/III Krematorien as from mid-March 1943. It made the mistake of generalizing internal and external descriptions and the operating method to Krematorien IV and V. Far from invalidating it, the discrepancies confirm its authenticity, as the descriptions are clearly based on what the witnesses could actually have seen and heard."[48] Auschwitz scholar Robert Jan van Pelt concurs: "The description of the crematoria in the War Refugee Board report contains errors, but given the conditions under which information was obtained, the lack of architectural training of Vrba and Wetzlar, and the situation in which the report was compiled, one would become suspicious if it did not contain errors."[49] Kárný writes that the report is an invaluable historical document because it provides details that were known only to prisoners, most of whom died — including, for example, that discharge forms were filled out for prisoners who were gassed, indicating that death rates in the camp were actively falsified.[40] Jean-Claude Pressac (1944 - July 23, 2003) was a French chemist and pharmacist who became a published authority on the Holocaust of World War II. Pressac was originally a Holocaust denier, who was involved in disproving what he considered historically inaccurate depictions of the concentration camps Auschwitz and Birkenau as...


How the report was distributed

According to Miroslav Kárný, the report was written and translated by April 28, 1944 at the latest,[14] although Vrba says it was completed by April 27. Oscar Krasniansky had heard that Rudolf Kastner, a Jewish lawyer and journalist, and de facto head of the Zionist Aid and Rescue Committee (Va'adat Ezrah Vehatzalah) in Budapest, was about to visit Bratislava,[50] as he did regularly. According to one of Krasniansky's postwar statements, he personally handed a copy of the report to Kastner at the end of April.[50] According to British writer Laurence Rees, Kastner received a copy during his visit to Bratislava on April 28.[51][52] Miroslav Kárný (September 9, 1919 – May 9, 2001) was an historian and writer from Prague, Czechoslovakia. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Rudolf Kastner Rudolf (RezsÅ‘) Kastner (Kasztner), also known as Israel (Yisrael) Kastner, (1906, Cluj, Transylvania–March 3, 1957, Tel Aviv, Israel) was the de facto head of a small Jewish organization in Budapest, Hungary known as the Vaadat Ezrah Vehatzalah (Vaada), or Aid and Rescue Committee, during the Nazi... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... For the Union of Orthodox Rabbis Vaad Hatzalah, see Vaad Hatzalah. ... Laurence Rees (born 1957) is Creative Director of History Programs for the BBC, a documentary filmmaker, and the author of five books on war and historical atrocities. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The dates on which the report was handed over to Kastner and others are important, because Vrba and other Holocaust survivors and writers have alleged that the report was not distributed quickly enough. Kastner chose not to publicize its contents, and although the reasons for that decision are complex and unclear, Vrba believed until the end of his life that Kastner withheld it in order not to jeopardize ongoing negotiations between the Aid and Rescue Committee and Adolf Eichmann,[51] the SS officer in charge of the transport of Jews out of Hungary, to secure the release of a number of Jews in exchange for money, 10,000 trucks, and other goods. (See the controversy section below, Joel Brand, and Kastner train.) Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ... Dr. Rudolf Vrba in 1997. ... Joel Brand Joel Brand (1907 – 1964) was a Hungarian Jew who played a prominent role in trying to save the Hungarian Jewish community from deportation to the German death camp at Auschwitz during the Holocaust. ... Rudolf Kastner The Kastner train, or Kastner transport, refers to a trainload of 1,684 Jews who escaped from Nazi-controlled Hungary in 1944. ...


Although Kastner did not make the report public, he did pass it on. Israeli historian Yehuda Bauer writes that Kastner gave a copy to Geza Soos, a Hungarian Foreign Ministry official who ran a resistance group, almost as soon as he received it on or around April 28.[53] Soos gave it to Joszef Elias, head of the Good Shepherd Mission, a Protestant missionary organization, and his secretary, Maria Szekely, translated it into Hungarian and prepared six copies (though Vrba said it had already been tranlsated into Hungarian by Krasniansky). These copies made their way to various Hungarian officials. On June 20, Vrba met Vatican legate Monsignor Mario Martilotti at the Svaty Jur monastery, and either gave him a copy of the report or told him about its contents,[14] and a few days later, was taken to meet Rabbi Chaim Michael Dov Weissmandl, who was regarded as the leader of the Orthodox community in Slovakia, at his Yeshiva in Bratislava. Vrba wrote that it was clear during the meeting that Weissmandl was already familiar with the contents of the report.[54] Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rabbi Chaim Michael Dov Weissmandl (1903-1957) became famous for his tireless efforts to the save the Jews of Slovakia from extermination at Nazi hands during the European Holocaust. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Jewish educational system. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Slovakia Region Bratislava Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907[1] Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský[2]  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ...


Deportations to Auschwitz continue

Bratislava, June-July 1944. Vrba on the right, and on the left, Arnost Rosin, who escaped from Auschwitz on May 24, 1944. The man in the middle is Josef Weiss, who worked for the Bratislava Ministry of Health. He secretly made copies of the Vrba-Wetzler report, which the escapees kept hidden behind a picture of the Virgin Mary in an apartment they were renting.[55]

On June 6, 1944, the day of the Normandy landing or D-Day, Arnost Rosin (prisoner no. 29858) and Czesław Mordowicz (prisoner no. 84216) arrived in Slovakia, having escaped from Auschwitz on May 27. Hearing about the Battle of Normandy, and believing the war was over, they got drunk to celebrate, using dollars they'd smuggled out of Auschwitz. They were promptly arrested for violating the currency laws, and spent eight days in prison, before the Jewish Council paid their fines. Image File history File linksMetadata RudolfVrbawithArnostRosin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata RudolfVrbawithArnostRosin. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Slovakia Region Bratislava Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907[1] Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský[2]  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... One of the maps from the Vrba-Weztler report The Vrba-Wetzler report, also known as the Vrba-Wetzler statement, the Auschwitz Protocols, and the Auschwitz notebook, is a 32-page document about the German Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland during the Holocaust. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (U.S. 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Judenrats, German for Jewish council, were administrative bodies that the Germans required Jews to form in each ghetto in General Government (the Nazi-occupied teritory of Poland) and later in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union. ...


Rosin and Mordowicz already knew Vrba and Wetzler. Vrba wrote in his memoir that any inmate who managed to survive more than a year in Auschwitz was regarded as a senior member of what he called the "old hands Mafia," and all were known to each other.[56] On June 15, the men were interviewed by Oscar Krasniansky, the engineer who had translated the Vrba-Wetzler report into German.[57] They told Krasniansky that, between May 15 and May 27, 100,000 Hungarian Jews had arrived at Birkenau, and that most of them were killed on arrival, apparently with no knowledge of what was about to happen to them.[24] The men reported that Jews were being killed at an unprecedented rate, with human fat being used to accelerate the burning.[13] is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


John Conway, professor emeritus of history at the University of British Columbia, and a friend of Vrba, has written that, because Rosin and Mordowicz were saying Hungarian Jews arriving at Auschwitz still had no idea what awaited them, Vrba and Wetzler concluded that their information had been suppressed. According to Conway, Vrba remained convinced until the end of his life that "if the intended victims had been warned, they would have resisted or hid or fled."[10] In his memoir, Vrba wrote: "I only learned after the war that more than 400,000 Hungarian Jews were brought to Auschwitz after our escape and died a terrible death there up to mid-July, 1944 without ever having been warned by the Hungarian Jewish Council about the true nature of 'resettlement'."[58] Professor John Conway John S. Conway is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of British Columbia. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public university with its main campus located at Point Grey in the unincorporated Electoral Area A, immediately west of Vancouver, British Columbia. ...


Broadcast of the report and the end of deportations

Hungarian regent Miklós Horthy stopped the deportations on July 9, 1944.
Hungarian regent Miklós Horthy stopped the deportations on July 9, 1944.

The Vrba-Wetzler Report is known to have reached the British and U.S. governments by mid-June 1944. Elizabeth Wiskemann of the British Legation in Bern sent it to Allen Dulles, the head of U.S. intelligence, who sent it to the U.S. Department of State in Washington, D.C. on June 16.[3] Details from it were broadcast by the BBC on June 15, and on June 20, The New York Times published the first of three stories about the existence of "gas chambers in the notorious German concentration camps at Birkenau and Oświęcim [Auschwitz]."[51] Download high resolution version (553x893, 116 KB)A 1921 photograph of Admiral Miklós Horthy. ... Download high resolution version (553x893, 116 KB)A 1921 photograph of Admiral Miklós Horthy. ... “Horthy” redirects here. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Allen W. Dulles Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was the first civilian and the longest serving (1953-1961) Director of Central Intelligence (de-facto head of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency) and a member of the Warren Commission. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... Arms of OÅ›wiÄ™cim View into part of the market square. ...


Several world leaders, including Pope Pius XII, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and the King of Sweden, appealed to Admiral Miklós Horthy to stop the deportations.[51] On June 26, Richard Lichtheim, a member of the Jewish Agency in Geneva, sent a telegram to England calling on the Allies to hold members of the Hungarian government personally responsible for the killings.[51] The cable was intercepted by Hungary and shown to Prime Minister Döme Sztójay, who passed it to Horthy. On July 7, he ordered that the deportations end, which they did two days later.[51] Historian T.L. Sakmyster has written that fear of being tried for war crimes was not the only reason Horthy halted the deportations; rather, before he read the Vrba-Wetzler report, Horthy had allegedly dismissed the rumors about Auschwitz as "Jewish exaggeration."[59] Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City State, from March 2, 1939 until his death. ... FDR redirects here. ... Gustaf V (Oscar Gustaf Adolf) (June 16, 1858 – October 29, 1950) was King of Sweden from 1907 until his death. ... “Horthy” redirects here. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Döme Sztójay (January 5, 1883–August 22, 1946) was a Hungarian soldier and diplomat who served as Prime Minister of Hungary during World War II. Born in Versec, now it is called as VrÅ¡ac, Sztójay joined the Austro-Hungarian Army as a young man and served... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Jews continued to be deported, although in smaller numbers, after the overthrow of Horthy's government and its replacement on October 15, 1944 by the pro-German fascist Arrow Cross Party. In November, Eichmann arranged for tens of thousands of Budapest Jews to walk the 120 miles (200 km.) from Budapest to Vienna, marching without food in the rain and snow. Eventually, protests from neutral countries, and reportedly from other SS officers, forced Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS, to instruct Eichmann to halt the marches.[60] is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party Senior members of the Arrow Cross Party. ... Dachau concentration-camp inmates on a death march through a German village in April 1945. ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900–23 May 1945) was the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany by being second in power to Adolf Hitler in the Nazi hierarchy. ...


After the report

Resistance activities

Vrba during the war
Vrba during the war

After handing his information over to the Slovakian Jewish Council, Vrba was assured by Krasniansky that the report was "in the right hands,"[61] and so Vrba felt his job was over. He and Wetzler spent the next six weeks in Liptovský Mikuláš, and continued to make and distribute copies of their report whenever they could. The Slovak Judenrat gave Vrba papers in the name of Rudolf Vrba, showing that he was a "pure Aryan" going back three generations,[61] and supported him financially to the tune of 200 Slovak crowns per week, equivalent to an average worker's salary, and as Vrba wrote, "sufficient to sustain me in an illegal life in Bratislava."[62] Image File history File links RudolfVrba2. ... Image File history File links RudolfVrba2. ... Liptovský Mikuláš (German: Sankt Nikolaus in der Liptau, Hungarian: Liptószentmiklós) is a town in northern Slovakia, on the river Váh. ... Judenrats, German for Jewish council, were administrative bodies that the Germans required Jews to form in each ghetto in General Government (the Nazi-occupied teritory of Poland) and later in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... ISO 4217 Code CSK User(s) Czech Republic Slovakia Inflation 57. ...


On August 29, 1944, the Slovak Army revolted against the Nazis, and the reestablishment of Czechoslovakia was announced.[62] Vrba joined the Czechoslovak partisan units in September 1944, taking Rudolf Vrba as his nom de guerre,[20] and April 7, the day of his escape, as his birthday.[13] He fought as a machine-gunner[63] in a unit commanded by Milan Uher, and received the Czechoslovak Medal for Bravery, the Order of Slovak National Insurrection, and the Order of Meritorious Fighter. He legalized his new name after the liberation of Czechoslovakia.[20] is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Czech resistance during the Second World War is a scarcely documented subject, by and large a result of little formal resistance and an effective German policy that deterred acts of resistance or annihilated organizations of resistance. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ...


After the war

Vrba moved to Prague in 1945, attending and working at the Prague Technical University, where he received his doctorate in chemistry and biochemistry (Dr. Tech. Sc.) in 1951 for a thesis entitled "On the metabolism of butyric acid."[64] This was followed by post-doctoral research at the Czechoslovak Academy of Science, where he received his C. Sc. in 1956.[20] According to friends, Vrba was initially a staunch supporter of the Communist Party, which had helped him and Wetzler escape from Auschwitz, and for whom he had fought with the Czech partisans. However, "anti-semitic purges in Stalinist Czechoslovakia, culminating in the 1952 trial of Rudolph Slansky, the Czechoslovak Communist party secretary" drove him to want to emigrate.[63] Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... Butyric acid, (from Greek βουτυρος = butter) IUPAC name n-Butanoic acid, or normal butyric acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. It is notably found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, and vomit, and has an unpleasant odor and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste (similar to ether). ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Rudolf Slánský (July 31, 1901, NezvÄ›stice near Kladno – December 2, 1952) was a Czech Communist politician and the partys General Secretary after the World War II. Later he fell into disfavour with the regime and was executed after a show trial. ...

Vrba in 1960.

In the summer of 1944 he had re-acquainted himself with a childhood friend Gerta, another Slovak Jew, who survived the war by moving from Slovakia to Hungary and back under assumed names, eventually escaping the Gestapo, and living as a refugee in Russian controlled Budapest. After the war she too moved to Prague and became a medical doctor; they married (she took the surname Vrbová, the female version of Vrba), and they had two daughters, one in 1952, and one in 1954.[65] Soon after that the marriage failed; Vrbová escaped with her daughters to Copenhagen via Poland in 1958, reaching England in 1959.[66] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 426 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (450 × 633 pixel, file size: 179 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 426 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (450 × 633 pixel, file size: 179 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


In 1958, Vrba received an invitation to present at an international conference in Israel, and while there, he also defected,[21] working for the next two years at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot.[67] He found he could not continue to live in Israel, because the same men who had, in his view, betrayed the Jewish community in Hungary were now in positions of power there,[21] so he decided to move to England in 1960, becoming a British citizen in 1966.[64] In England, he worked for two years in the Neuropsychiatric Research Unit in Carshalton, Surrey, and seven years for the British Medical Research Council.[68] The Koffler accelerator, one of the best-known buildings on campus. ... Rehovot (Hebrew רְחוֹבוֹת ) is a city in the Center District of Israel, about 20 km south of Tel Aviv. ... Carshalton is a suburb of London, part of the London Borough of Sutton, located 10 miles (16. ... Should not be confused with Surry. ... Current MRC logo The Medical Research Council (MRC) is a UK organisation dedicated to promot[ing] the balanced development of medical and related biological research in the UK. // The MRC is one of seven Research Councils and is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Office of Science and Innovation...


On May 11, 1960, Adolf Eichmann was captured by the Mossad in Buenos Aires and taken to Jerusalem to stand trial. Vrba wrote in his memoir that the British newspapers were suddenly full of stories about Auschwitz. He contacted Alan Bestic, a journalist with the British newspaper, the Daily Herald, to ask whether the newspaper would be interested in his story. They were, and it was published in five installments of 1,000 words each over one week in March 1961, on the eve of Eichmann's trial. Vrba also submitted a statement in evidence against Eichmann. With Bestic's help, he wrote up the rest of his story in August 1963 for his memoir, Escape from Auschwitz: I cannot forgive, which was published in English (1963), German (1964), French (1988), Dutch (1996), Czech (1998), and Hebrew (1998).[20] is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ...   (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations), often referred to as The Mossad (meaning The Institute), is Israels intelligence agency and is responsible for intelligence collection, counter-terrorism, covert operations such as paramilitary activities, and the facilitation of aliyah where it is banned. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Daily Herald was a London newspaper. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


He appeared as a witness at one of the Frankfurt Auschwitz trials in 1964, and later testified at the seven-week trial for Holocaust denial of Ernst Zündel in Canada in 1985.[10][20] The Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials, known in German as der Auschwitz-Prozess or der zweite Auschwitz-Prozess, (the second Auschwitz trial) was a series of trials running from December 20, 1963 to August 10, 1965, charging twenty-two defendants under German penal law for their roles in the Holocaust as mid... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Ernst Christof Friedrich Zündel (born April 24, 1939 in Bad Wildbad) is a German Holocaust denier and pamphleteer who was jailed several times in Canada for publishing literature which is likely to incite hatred against an identifiable group and for being a threat to national security, in the United...

Rudolf and Robin Vrba at their wedding in 1975.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (718x892, 99 KB) Source: Robin Vrba, the copyright holder, forwarded by e-mail attachment. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (718x892, 99 KB) Source: Robin Vrba, the copyright holder, forwarded by e-mail attachment. ...

His move to Canada

Vrba moved to Canada in 1967, serving on the Medical Research Council of Canada from 1967 to 1973,[69] and becoming a Canadian citizen in 1972.[64] He spent 1973 to 1975 on sabbatical as a research fellow at Harvard Medical School; there he met his second wife Robin.[65] They returned to Vancouver, British Columbia, where she became a successful real estate dealer,[65] and he became an associate professor of pharmacology at the University of British Columbia from 1976 until the early 1990s,[70] specializing in neurology.[5] He became known internationally for more than 50 research papers on the chemistry of the brain, and for his work on diabetes and cancer.[20] According to colleague Professor Michael Walker "As a scientist he started out very well, and was well respected for his work in proteins and chemistry."[65] Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) is the major federal agency responsible for funding health research in Canada. ... Harvard Medical School (HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Motto: By Sea, Land, and Air We Prosper Location of Vancouver within the Greater Vancouver Regional District in British Columbia, Canada Coordinates: , Country  Canada Province  British Columbia Region Lower Mainland Regional District Greater Vancouver Incorporated 1886 Government  - Mayor Sam Sullivan (NPA)  - City Council List of Councilors Suzanne Anton (NPA) Peter... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakos (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public university with its main campus located at Point Grey in the unincorporated Electoral Area A, immediately west of Vancouver, British Columbia. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ...


Towards the end of his career Vrba had trouble getting grant money; according to Walker, he was not "treated appropriately by the Canadian scientific community. He was prescient in his understanding of his area, which is proteins, and how their function may be changed if they have glucose attached to them". Rather than complaining, he instead focused on teaching, and was loved by his students.[65]


Impressed with Vrba's heroism, in 1992 British historian Sir Martin Gilbert supported a campaign to have him awarded the Order of Canada, and solicited letters from well-known Canadians on his behalf. One of them was law professor (and later Minister of Justice and Attorney General) Irwin Cotler, who, in a handwritten letter to Gilbert said "I fully concur with you that Vrba is a 'real hero'. Indeed, there are few more deserving of the Order of Canada than Vrba, and few, anywhere, who have exhibited his moral courage. Canada will honour itself — and redeem itself somewhat — by awarding him the order of Canada." However, Gilbert's efforts were unsuccessful.[65] Sir Martin John Gilbert, CBE (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and the author of over seventy books, including works on the Holocaust and Jewish history. ... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ... The Minister of Justice (French: Ministre de la Justice) of Canada is the minister in the Cabinet of Canada who is responsible for the Department of Justice and is also Attorney General of Canada. ... The Attorney General of Canada is the top prosecuting officer in Canada. ... Irwin Cotler, PC , MP , OC , BA , BCL , LL.D , Ph. ...


In 1998, at the instigation of Ruth Linn, he received the title of Doctor of Philosophy Honoris Causa from the University of Haifa "in recognition of his heroism and daring in exposing, during the war itself, the horrors of Auschwitz, which action led to the saving of Jewish lives; and in profound appreciation of his educational contribution and devotion to spreading knowledge about the Holocaust."[16][20] Ruth Linn is an Israeli academic and currently dean of the Faculty of Education at Haifa University in Israel. ... The University of Haifa (אוניברסיטת חיפה) is a university in Haifa, Israel. ...


Vrba died of cancer on March 27, 2006 in Vancouver; he was survived by his first wife Gerta, second wife Robin, younger daughter Zuza Vrbová Jackson, granddaughter Hannah, and grandson Jan.[21][70][71][72] He was pre-deceased by his older daughter Dr. Helená Vrbová, who died doing malaria research in Papua-New Guinea in 1982.[73] His fellow escapee, Alfréd Wetzler, died in Slovakia in 1988. is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Alfréd Wetzler (1918–1988), who later wrote under the alias Jozef Laník, was a Slovak Jew, and one of a very small number of Jews known to have escaped from the Auschwitz death camp during the Holocaust. ...


Awards and documentaries

The Czech "One World festival", in its "Right to Know" category, annually awards the "Rudolf Vrba Award" to original documentaries which "draw attention to an unknown or silenced theme concerning human rights."[74] The award was established in 2001 by Mary Robinson, then United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, and Václav Havel, then President of the Czech Republic.[68] One World Week is the World’s Largest Student-run International Event hosted annually at The University of Warwick. ... Mary Robinson (Irish name Máire Mhic Róibín; born 21 May 1944) was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, from 1997 to 2002. ... The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. ... Václav Havel, GCB, CC, (IPA: ) (born October 5, 1936 in Prague) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ... Flag of the President of the Czech Republic This is a list of presidents of the Czech Republic. ...


Several documentaries have told Vrba's story: Genocide, part of ITV's World at War series in 1973; Auschwitz and the Allies, directed by Rex Bloomstein and Martin Gilbert for the BBC in 1982; Shoah by Claude Lanzmann in 1985; and Witness to Auschwitz by Robin Taylor for CBC's Man Alive series in 1990. Genocide is episode 20 of the 1973 Thames Television documentary series The World at War. ... Independent Television (generally known as ITV but also as ITV Network or Channel 3) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990... The World at War was a 26-episode television documentary series on World War II, as well as the the events leading up to it and following in its wake. ... Sir Martin John Gilbert, CBE (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and the author of over seventy books, including works on the Holocaust and Jewish history. ... Shoah is a nine-hour documentary film completed by Claude Lanzmann in 1985 about the Holocaust (or Shoah). ... Claude Lanzmann is a Paris-based filmmaker and professor of documentary film at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland where he conducts a summer workshop. ... Man Alive was a Canadian television series, which aired documentary programming on issues of faith and spirituality. ...


Controversy

See also: Joel Brand, Rudolf Kastner, Kastner train, Malchiel Gruenwald, and Kurt Becher

Joel Brand Joel Brand (1907 – 1964) was a Hungarian Jew who played a prominent role in trying to save the Hungarian Jewish community from deportation to the German death camp at Auschwitz during the Holocaust. ... Rudolf Kastner Rudolf (Rezső) Kastner (Kasztner), also known as Israel (Yisrael) Kastner, (1906, Cluj, Transylvania–March 3, 1957, Tel Aviv, Israel) was the de facto head of a small Jewish organization in Budapest, Hungary known as the Vaadat Ezrah Vehatzalah (Vaada), or Aid and Rescue Committee, during the Nazi... Rudolf Kastner The Kastner train, or Kastner transport, refers to a trainload of 1,684 Jews who escaped from Nazi-controlled Hungary in 1944. ... Malchiel Gruenwald (also written Grünwald, Gruenvald, and Greenwald) (1881-?) was an Israeli hotelier, amateur journalist and stamp collector, who came to public attention in 1953, when he accused an Israeli government employee, Rudolf Kastner, of having collaborated with the Nazis during the Holocaust. ... Kurt Andreas Ernst Becher (September 12, 1909 – August, 1995) was an SS Untersturmführer (lieutenant) and later a Standartenführer (colonel) who was active in Hungary during the German occupation in 1944. ...

Vrba's allegations

"Blood for goods"
proposal

Background
Auschwitz · The Holocaust
Hungary:WWII · Jews in Hungary
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... // In Hungary, the Great Depression induced a drop in the standard of living and the political mood of the country shifted further toward the right. ... History of the Jews in Hungary concerns the Jews of Hungary and of Hungarian origins. ...

People and events
Aid and Rescue Committee
Kurt Becher
Joel Brand
Adolf Eichmann
Malchiel Gruenwald
Heinrich Himmler
Rudolf Kastner · Kastner train
Joel Teitelbaum
Rudolf Vrba
Vrba-Wetzler report
Rabbi Weissmandl
Alfréd Wetzler
For the Union of Orthodox Rabbis Vaad Hatzalah, see Vaad Hatzalah. ... Kurt Andreas Ernst Becher (September 12, 1909 – August, 1995) was an SS Untersturmführer (lieutenant) and later a Standartenführer (colonel) who was active in Hungary during the German occupation in 1944. ... Joel Brand Joel Brand (1907 – 1964) was a Hungarian Jew who played a prominent role in trying to save the Hungarian Jewish community from deportation to the German death camp at Auschwitz during the Holocaust. ... Image File history File links Cscr-featured. ... Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ... Malchiel Gruenwald (also written Grünwald, Gruenvald, and Greenwald) (1881-?) was an Israeli hotelier, amateur journalist and stamp collector, who came to public attention in 1953, when he accused an Israeli government employee, Rudolf Kastner, of having collaborated with the Nazis during the Holocaust. ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900–23 May 1945) was the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany by being second in power to Adolf Hitler in the Nazi hierarchy. ... Rudolf Kastner Rudolf (RezsÅ‘) Kastner (Kasztner), also known as Israel (Yisrael) Kastner, (1906, Cluj, Transylvania–March 3, 1957, Tel Aviv, Israel) was the de facto head of a small Jewish organization in Budapest, Hungary known as the Vaadat Ezrah Vehatzalah (Vaada), or Aid and Rescue Committee, during the Nazi... Rudolf Kastner The Kastner train, or Kastner transport, refers to a trainload of 1,684 Jews who escaped from Nazi-controlled Hungary in 1944. ... Grand Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum of Satmar Grand Rabbi Joel (Yoel) Teitelbaum, (1887-1979), known variously as Reb Yoelish and the Satmar Rav (or Rebbe) (יואל טייטלבוים), was a prominent Hungarian Hasidic rebbe and Talmudic scholar. ... Image File history File links Cscr-featured. ... One of the maps from the Vrba-Weztler report The Vrba-Wetzler report, also known as the Vrba-Wetzler statement, the Auschwitz Protocols, and the Auschwitz notebook, is a 32-page document about the German Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland during the Holocaust. ... Rabbi Chaim Michael Dov Weissmandl (1903-1957) became famous for his tireless efforts to the save the Jews of Slovakia from extermination at Nazi hands during the European Holocaust. ... Alfréd Wetzler (1918–1988), who later wrote under the alias Jozef Laník, was a Slovak Jew, and one of a very small number of Jews known to have escaped from the Auschwitz death camp during the Holocaust. ...

Sources
Yehuda Bauer
John Conway
Ben Hecht
Raul Hilberg
Miroslav Karny
Ruth Linn
Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ... Professor John Conway John S. Conway is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of British Columbia. ... Ben Hecht (February 28, 1894 – April 18, 1964) was a prolific Hollywood screenwriter, even though he professed disdain for the motion picture industry. ... Dr. Raul Hilberg Raul Hilberg (born June 2, 1926) is one of the best-known and most distinguished of the Holocaust historians. ... Miroslav Karny (September 9, 1919 – May 9, 2001) was an historian and writer from Slovakia. ... Ruth Linn is an Israeli academic and currently dean of the Faculty of Education at Haifa University in Israel. ...

Categories
Category:The Holocaust

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Rudolf Vrba in 1946
Rudolf Vrba in 1946

Vrba believed that many of the 437,000 Hungarian Jews sent to Auschwitz between May 15 and July 7, 1944 — when 12,000 Jews were being dispatched by train every day — would have resisted or hidden had they known they were to be killed and not resettled.[16][75] He wrote: "From the testimony of survivors such as Elie Wiesel, it seems clear that the Jewish masses assumed that if something truly horrible was in store for them, these respectable leaders would know about it and would share their knowledge ... It is my contention that a small group of informed people, by their silence, deprived others of the possibility or privilege of making their own decisions in the face of mortal danger."[15] Image File history File linksMetadata 46RudolfVrba. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 46RudolfVrba. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Eliezer Wiesel, KBE (commonly known as Elie Wiesel, born September 30, 1928)[1] is a Romania-born American novelist, political activist, Nobel Laureate and Holocaust survivor of Hungarian Jewish descent. ...


Vrba wrote in his memoirs that, as the Germans were preparing the mass deportations to Auschwitz, the Jewish communities in Slovakia and Hungary placed their trust either in the Zionist leadership (people such as Rudolf Kastner, the de facto head of the Aid and Rescue Committee), or in Orthodox Jewish leaders, such as Rabbi Weissmandl and Philip von Freudiger. The Nazis were aware of this, which is why they lured precisely those members of the community into various negotiations, supposedly designed to lead to the release of some, or even most, of the Jews, but probably regarded by the Nazis as a way of placating the Jewish leadership into not spreading panic, in order to avoid an uprising. Vrba wrote: "That the negotiators and their families were in fact pathetic, albeit voluntary, hostages in the hands of Nazi power was an important part of these 'deals'."[15] Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Rudolf Kastner Rudolf (Rezső) Kastner (Kasztner), also known as Israel (Yisrael) Kastner, (1906, Cluj, Transylvania–March 3, 1957, Tel Aviv, Israel) was the de facto head of a small Jewish organization in Budapest, Hungary known as the Vaadat Ezrah Vehatzalah (Vaada), or Aid and Rescue Committee, during the Nazi... For the Union of Orthodox Rabbis Vaad Hatzalah, see Vaad Hatzalah. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Rabbi Chaim Michael Dov Weissmandl (1903-1957) became famous for his tireless efforts to the save the Jews of Slovakia from extermination at Nazi hands during the European Holocaust. ...


At the time Vrba arrived in Slovakia from Auschwitz, Kastner was involved with other members of the Aid and Rescue Committee, particularly Joel Brand, in a series of complex negotiations with SS Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann, who was in charge of the deportation of Jews to Auschwitz, and who was offering to trade as many as one million Jews — who were supposedly to be allowed to settle anywhere but Palestine — in exchange for 10,000 trucks and other goods from the Western Allies.[76] Joel Brand Joel Brand (1907 – 1964) was a Hungarian Jew who played a prominent role in trying to save the Hungarian Jewish community from deportation to the German death camp at Auschwitz during the Holocaust. ... The   (German for Protective Squadron), abbreviated (Runic) or SS (Latin), was a large security and military organization of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) in Germany. ... SS-Obersturmbannführer Rank Patch SA-Obersturmbannführer Rank Patch Obersturmbannführer was a paramilitary Nazi Party rank which was used by both the SA and the SS. The title was first created as an SA rank in 1932 after an expansion of the SA created the need for an... Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ...


Kastner's first meeting with Eichmann took place on April 25, 1944, and three days later, on April 28 — the same day the first trainload of Hungarian Jews left for Auschwitz, although not as part of the mass transports — Kastner is believed to have received a copy of the Vrba-Wetzler Report,[77] though possibly in German and not yet translated. Vrba alleged that Kastner failed to distribute it in order not to jeopardize the negotiations with Eichmann, but instead acted on it privately by arranging for a trainload of 1,684 Hungarian Jews to escape to Switzerland.[24] According to historian John Conway of UBC, the escaping party consisted of "themselves, their relatives, a coterie of Zionists, some distinguished Jewish intellectuals, and a number of wealthy Jewish entrepreneurs."[16] is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Professor John Conway John S. Conway is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of British Columbia. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public university with its main campus located at Point Grey in the unincorporated Electoral Area A, immediately west of Vancouver, British Columbia. ...


Historian Yehuda Bauer argues against this interpretation of Kastner's motives, writing that Kastner put his own family on the train only in order to prove to the other passengers that it was safe.[78] Vrba, in response, alleged that Bauer is one of the Israeli historians who have downplayed Vrba's role in Holocaust historiography, and who seeks to defend the Israeli and Zionist establishment. Vrba argued that Kastner's negotiations with the Nazis were far-fetched and foolish, and that they amounted to collaboration, an accusation Israeli historians such as Bauer reject.[16] Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ... Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ...


The allegations against Kastner were heard by the Supreme Court of Israel in 1957, after Malchiel Gruenwald, an Israeli amateur writer and stamp collector, accused Kastner in a self-published pamphlet of being a Nazi collaborator. Because Kastner was by then a senior Israeli civil servant, the Israeli government sued the writer for libel, and although Kastner was eventually exonerated, as a result of the controversy he was shot by an assassin on March 3, 1957, and died of his wounds nine days later.[79] The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... Malchiel Gruenwald (also written Grünwald, Gruenvald, and Greenwald) (1881-?) was an Israeli hotelier, amateur journalist and stamp collector, who came to public attention in 1953, when he accused an Israeli government employee, Rudolf Kastner, of having collaborated with the Nazis during the Holocaust. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


Most Holocaust historians disagree with Vrba's interpretation of the Slovakian Jewish leadership's actions. British historian Martin Gilbert argues that "Kastner and his colleagues in the Zionist leadership in Hungary were already committed to their negotiations with Eichmann ... Not urgent warnings to their fellow Jews to resist deportation, but secret negotiations with the SS aimed at averting deportation altogether, had become the avenue of hope chosen by the Hungarian Zionist leaders."[24][80] Sir Martin John Gilbert, CBE (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and the author of over seventy books, including works on the Holocaust and Jewish history. ...


Bauer writes that, by the time the report was prepared, it was already too late for anything to alter the Nazis' deportation plans.[81] Bauer cautions about the need to distinguish between the receipt of information and its "internalization," where it's regarded as correct and worthy of action, arguing that this is a complicated process: "During the Holocaust, countless individuals received information and rejected it, suppressed it, or rationalized about it, were thrown into despair without any possibility of acting on it, or seemingly internalized it and then behaved as though it had never reached them."[82] Bauer has written that Vrba's "wild attacks on Kastner and on the Slovak underground are a-historical and simply wrong from the start ..."[83]


What Vrba knew

Vrba was criticized in 2001 in a series of articles — Leadership under Duress: The Working Group in Slovakia, 1942–1944 — edited by a group of leading Israeli historians with ties to the Slovak community, including Yehuda Bauer, Hanna Yablonka, Gila Fatran, and Livia Rothkirchen. The introduction by Giora Amir refers to those who argue that the Slovakian Jewish Council may have collaborated with the Nazis, as "a bunch of mockers and pseudo-historians ..." Amir writes that the "baseless" accusation was lent credence when Haifa University awarded an honorary doctorate to the "head of these mockers, Peter [sic] Vrba." Amir continues: "The heroism of this person, who together with the late Alfred Wetzler, was among the first to escape from Auschwitz, is beyond doubt. But the fact that, just because he was an Auschwitz prisoner endowed with personal heroism, he has crowned himself as knowledgeable to judge all those involved in the noble work of rescue, and accuse them falsely, deeply disturbs us, the Czech community.[84] Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ... The University of Haifa (אוניברסיטת חיפה) is a university in Haifa, Israel. ... Alfréd Wetzler (1918–1988), who later wrote under the alias Jozef Laník, was a Slovak Jew, and one of a very small number of Jews known to have escaped from the Auschwitz death camp during the Holocaust. ...


The tension between what Ruth Linn calls the "survivor discourse" and the "expert discourse" lies at the heart of this criticism of Vrba. Bauer has called Vrba's memoir "not a memoir in the usual sense," alleging that it "contains excerpts of conversations of which there is no chance that they are accurate and it has elements of a second-hand story that does not necessarily correspond with reality." When writing about himself and his personal experiences, Vrba's account is an important one, argues Bauer. "Everything he tells about himself and about his actions ... is not only the truth, but also [forms] a document of significant historical value." But he continues: "I admired Vrba, with true admiration — though mixed with resistance to his thoughts in historical matters in which he thinks he is an expert, though I am not sure he is justified in thinking so."[18] For his part Vrba often dismissed the opinion of Holocaust historians; for example, regarding the number of people killed at Auschwitz, he said "Yehuda Bauer simply doesn't know what he's talking about, but with his impressive title, he thinks he can throw around figures without doing any research. Hilberg and Bauer don't know enough about the history of Auschwitz or the Einsatzgruppen."[85] Ruth Linn is an Israeli academic and currently dean of the Faculty of Education at Haifa University in Israel. ... Dr. Raul Hilberg Raul Hilberg (born June 2, 1926) is one of the best-known and most distinguished of the Holocaust historians. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ...


It has also been alleged that Vrba embellished what he said was his eyewitness account. Vrba wrote in his memoir, written in 1963, that he overheard SS officers in Auschwitz discuss how they would soon have "Hungarian salami ... by the ton," allegedly a reference to the imminent arrival of hundreds of thousands of deported Hungarian Jews. However, Vrba did not mention in the Vrba-Wetzler report, written in April 1944, that he had advance warning of the mass deportation of Hungary's Jews, which began in May 1944.[86] If he had known about such a momentous event, why would he not have mentioned it at the time?


Czech historian Miroslav Kárný writes: "It is generally accepted that at the time Vrba and Wetzler were preparing their escape, it was known in Auschwitz that annihilation mechanisms were being perfected in order to kill hundreds of thousands of Hungary's Jews. It was this knowledge, according to Vrba, that became the main motive for their escape. ... But in fact, there is no mention in the Vrba and Wetzler report that preparations were under way for the annihilation of Hungary's Jews. ... If Vrba and Wetzler considered it necessary to record rumors about the expected arrival of Greece's Jewish transports, then why wouldn't they have recorded a rumor — had they known it — about the expected transports of hundreds of thousands of Hungary's Jews? ..."[87] Miroslav Kárný (September 9, 1919 – May 9, 2001) was an historian and writer from Prague, Czechoslovakia. ... There have been organized Jewish communities in Greece for more than two thousand years. ...


Kárný argues that, although Vrba and Wetzler did not, in his view, have advance warning of the imminent Hungarian Endloesung, Vrba later — long after the war was over — wanted to testify about it out of a longing to force the world to face the magnitude of the Nazis' crimes. The suspicion is that Vrba's longing may have led to a degree of embellishment, in his subsequent accounts (although not in the Vbra-Wetzler report itself), regarding how much he actually knew when he escaped from the camp.[87] In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ...


In a later edition of his memoirs, Vrba responded that he is certain the reference to the imminent Hungarian deportations was in the original, Slovakian version of Vrba-Wetzler report, some of which he wrote by hand. He wrote that he recalled Oscar Krasniansky of the Slovakian Jewish Council, who translated the report into German, arguing that only actual deaths should be recorded, and not speculation, in order to lend the report maximum credibility. Vrba speculates this was the reason Krasniansky omitted the references to Hungary from the German translation the latter prepared, which was the main version that was copied around the world. The original version in Slovak did not survive.[88] Slovak (slovenčina, slovenský jazyk) is an Indo-European language belonging to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish and Sorbian). ... Judenrats, German for Jewish council, were administrative bodies that the Germans required Jews to form in each ghetto in General Government (the Nazi-occupied teritory of Poland) and later in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union. ...


Vrba's story allegedly suppressed

Vrba believed that successive Israeli historians have virtually erased his story from the Israeli Holocaust narrative[89] because of his controversial views about Rudolf Kastner and the Hungarian Judenrat, many of whom went on to hold prominent positions in Israel.[16] Rudolf Kastner Rudolf (Rezső) Kastner (Kasztner), also known as Israel (Yisrael) Kastner, (1906, Cluj, Transylvania–March 3, 1957, Tel Aviv, Israel) was the de facto head of a small Jewish organization in Budapest, Hungary known as the Vaadat Ezrah Vehatzalah (Vaada), or Aid and Rescue Committee, during the Nazi...


Ruth Linn, dean of education at Haifa University in Israel, writes: "Ever since I saw the Lanzmann documentary, this question stayed in my mind: Am I the only crazy Israeli who fell asleep in class when we studied this in the Holocaust? Or maybe we never studied it ... In terms of literature, [Escape from Auschwitz: I cannot forgive] is in the class of Primo Levi, Elie Wiesel, first-class novelists of the Holocaust. But then I turned the book back and forth and I see on the cover, 'First published 1963.' And the year is 1994. I said to myself, 'Where has this book been for 31 years? I never read about it in Israel."[89] Ruth Linn is an Israeli academic and currently dean of the Faculty of Education at Haifa University in Israel. ... The University of Haifa (אוניברסיטת חיפה) is a university in Haifa, Israel. ... Shoah is a nine-hour documentary film completed by Claude Lanzmann in 1985 about the Holocaust (or Shoah). ... Primo Levi (July 31, 1919 – April 11, 1987) was a Jewish Italian chemist, Holocaust survivor and author of memoirs, short stories, poems, and novels. ... Eliezer Wiesel, KBE (commonly known as Elie Wiesel, born September 30, 1928)[1] is a Romania-born American novelist, political activist, Nobel Laureate and Holocaust survivor of Hungarian Jewish descent. ...


Linn alleges that a "family of Israeli historians" have misnamed, misreported, miscredited, and misrepresented Vrba's story.[90] She writes that the story is misrepresented in Hebrew textbooks by omitting Vrba's and Wetzler's names or by minimizing their contribution. Standard histories of the Holocaust typically refer only to the escape by "two young Slovak Jews", "two chaps," or "two young people,"[16] and represent Vrba and Wetzler as emissaries of the Polish underground in Auschwitz, as mere messengers.[91]


Linn cites the non-publication in Hebrew of Vrba's memoirs for 35 years after their publication in English,[92] and the failure to translate the Vrba-Wetzler report itself into Hebrew.[93] Yad Vashem holds one of the world's most extensive collections of Holocaust documentation, and yet, as of 2004, there was no English or Hebrew version of the Vrba-Wetzler report.[94] The Hungarian version, marked 015/9, is held in the archives in a file about Rudolf Kastner, and without the names of its authors. Linn quotes Yad Vashem's response to an inquiry in June 1997 from Yehoshua Ben Ami, the Hebrew translator of Vrba's memoirs, about having the report translated into Hebrew: "Indeed, it would have been important to translate the Vrba-Wetzler report, just as it is important to translate other significant documents ... Hopefully we will have the money one day."[95] “Hebrew” redirects here. ... An exterior view of the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial museum in Jerusalem. ...


Uri Dromi of the Israel Democracy Institute writes that Vrba's story has in fact been told, citing at least four popular Israeli books on the Holocaust that mention Vrba and Wetzler's escape, and that Weztler's testimony is recounted at length in Livia Rothkirchen's Hurban yahadut Slovakia (The Destruction of Slovakian Jewry), published by Yad Vashem in 1961. Yeshayahu Jelinek, a historian of Slovakia's Jewish community, credits Vrba's obscurity to the general obscurity of Slovakian Jews: "Who ever thinks about the Jews of Slovakia? A medium-size ghetto in Poland was larger than our whole community. Everyone knows about Hannah Szenes. How many people know about Haviva Raik?"[1] Hannah Szenes Hannah Szenes (or Chana Senesh) (July 17, 1921 — November 7, 1944) was a Hungarian Jew, one of 17 Jews living in Palestine, now Israel, who were trained by the British army to parachute into Yugoslavia during the Second World War in order to help save the Jews of... Haviva Reik (Chaviva Reich, Havivah Reich) (1914–1944) was one of thirty-two (or thirty-three) Palestinian Jewish parachutists sent by the Jewish Agency and the British Army Special Operations Executive from Palestine on military missions in Nazi-occupied Europe. ...


Dr. Robert Rozett, head librarian at Yad Vashem, Israel's official Holocaust memorial and museum in Jerusalem, and author of the entry on the "Auschwitz Report" in Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, has said of the Vrba controversy: "There are people who come into the subject from a certain angle and think that they've uncovered the truth. A historian who deals seriously with the subject understands that the truth is complex and multifaceted."[1] An exterior view of the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial museum in Jerusalem. ...


See also

History of the Jews in Hungary concerns the Jews of Hungary and of Hungarian origins. ... Holocaust resources for main article The Holocaust. ... Judenrats, German for Jewish council, were administrative bodies that the Germans required Jews to form in each ghetto in General Government (the Nazi-occupied teritory of Poland) and later in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union. ... Witold Pilecki (May 13, 1901 – May 25, 1948; pronounced [vitɔld pileʦki]; codenames Roman Jezierski, Tomasz Serafiński, Druh, Witold) was a soldier of the Second Polish Republic, founder of the resistance movement Secret Polish Army (Tajna Armia Polska) and member of the Home... Before a wall map of the Warsaw Ghetto at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jan Karski recalls his secret 1942 missions into the Nazi prison-city-within-a-city. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Dromi, Uri. "Deaf ears, blind eyes", Haaretz, January 1, 2005.
  2. ^ According to Ruth Linn, 76 Jews escaped overall, though only five managed to pass information about the camp to the Allies. (Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 15.) Hundreds of Polish prisoners escaped from Auschwitz, but it was harder for Jewish inmates, according to Polish historian Henryk Świebocki, because many had no friends or relatives in Poland that they could rely on, spoke no Polish, and had limited contact with the Polish resistance inside the camp. (Świebocki, Henryk. "Prisoner Escapes" in Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, p. 511, Gutman, Yisrael & Berenbaum, Michael (eds), Indiana University Press and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1994.) Miroslav Kárný, citing Polish historian Tadeusz Iwaszko, writes that 667 prisoners are known to have tried to escape, 270 of whom were caught and killed. Very little documentation exists about the remaining 397. (Kárný, Miroslav. "The Vrba and Wetzler report," in Berenbaum, Michael & Gutman, Yisrael (eds). Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, p. 553, Indiana University Press and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1994.)
  3. ^ a b Gutman, Yisrael. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 0-02-896090-4
  4. ^ "The Vrba Wetzler Report" The Holocaust History Project, retrieved April 2, 2006.
  5. ^ a b "Vrba, Rudolf", no byline, BC BookWorld Author Bank, retrieved April 01, 2006.
  6. ^ Katz, Leslie. "Auschwitz escapee to help mark Yom HaShoah here", in Jewish News Weekly of Northern California j., April 25, 1997.
  7. ^ A two-part report had been prepared by the Polish underground on August 10 and 12, 1943, based on information from Witold Pilecki, and was sent to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in London. The report included details about the gas chambers, about "selection," and about the sterilization experiments. It stated that there were three crematoria in Birkenau able to burn 10,000 people daily, and that 30,000 people had been gassed in one day. The author wrote: "History knows no parallel of such destruction of human life." Raul Hilberg writes that the report was filed away with a note that there was no indication as to the reliability of the source. (Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews, Yale University Press, 2003, p. 1212.)
  8. ^ Kárný, Miroslav. "The Vrba and Wetzler Report," in Berenbaum, Michael & Gutman, Yisrael (eds). Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, Indiana University Press, 1994, p. 556.
  9. ^ Linn, Ruth. (2003) "Genocide and the Politics of Remembering: The Nameless, the Celebrated and the Would-Be Holocaust Heroes," Journal of Genocide Research, 5, 4 (December 2003), pp. 565–586.
  10. ^ a b c d e Hume, Mark. "Auschwitz escapee who told the world dies in B.C.", The Globe and Mail, March 31, 2006.
  11. ^ The BBC first broadcast information from the report on June 18, not June 15, according to Ruth Linn in Escaping Auschwitz: A Culture of Forgetting, p. 28.
  12. ^ Although information from the report was published in June 1944, the full report was first published on November 25, 1944 by the U.S. War Refugee Board, the same day that the last 13 prisoners, all women, were killed in Auschwitz. The women were "unmittelbar getötet," leaving open whether they were gassed or otherwise disposed of. (Czech, Danuta (ed) Kalendarium der Ereignisse im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau 1939–1945, Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1989, pp.920 and 933, using information from a series called Hefte von Auschwitz, and cited in Kárný, Miroslav. "The Vrba and Wetzler report," in Berenbaum, Michael & Gutman, Yisrael (eds). Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, p. 564, Indiana University Press and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1994.)
  13. ^ a b c d e f Linn, Ruth. "Rudolf Vrba", obituary in The Guardian, April 13, 2006.
  14. ^ a b c Kárný, Miroslav. "The Vrba and Wetzler report," in Berenbaum, Michael & Gutman, Yisrael (eds). Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, Indiana University Press and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1994, p. 556.
  15. ^ a b c d Vrba, Rudolf. I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, p. 419–20.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Conway, John. "Escaping Auschwitz: Sixty years later", Vierteljahreshefte fuer Zeitgeschichte, Vol. 53, no. 3, 2005, pp. 461–472.
  17. ^ Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 108.
  18. ^ a b Yehuda Bauer in a letter to Mr. Ben Ami, the Hebrew translator of Vrba's memoir, cited in Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 111.
  19. ^ Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. Yale University Press; New Ed edition, 2002, p. 230.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Rudolf Vrba: Curriculum Vitae", UBC Pharmacology & Therapeutics.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rudolf Vrba, The Daily Telegraph, April 12, 2006.
  22. ^ a b c d Vrba, Rudolf. I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, p. 207.
  23. ^ a b c Kárný, Miroslav. "The Vrba and Wetzler report," in Berenbaum, Michael & Gutman, Yisrael (eds). Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, p. 553, Indiana University Press and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1994.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lungen, Paul. "Auschwitz escapee hoped to warn Hungarian Jews", Canadian Jewish News, January 27, 2005.
  25. ^ a b Strzelecki, Andrzej. "The Plunder of Victims and Their Corpses," in Berenbaum, Michael & Gutman, Yisrael (eds). Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp. Indiana University Press and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1998, p. 251.
  26. ^ Strzelecki, Andrzej. "The Plunder of Victims and Their Corpses," in Berenbaum, Michael & Gutman, Yisrael (eds). Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp. Indiana University Press and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1998, p. 250.
  27. ^ a b c Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 17.
  28. ^ Vrba, Rudolf. I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, p. 377.
  29. ^ In his testimony at the 1985 Ernst Zündel trial, Vrba gave the date as January 15, 1943. However, Paul Lungen gives June 1943 as the transfer date.
  30. ^ Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 19.
  31. ^ a b Vrba, Rudolf. "The one that got away" (Extract from the book "I Escaped From Auschwitz"), The Guardian, April 14, 2006.
  32. ^ a b c Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 18.
  33. ^ In March 1990 Vrba stated "Hilberg's estimate of 1 million killed is a gross error bordering on ignorance... According to my observations there were 1,765,000 victims which I counted." (Nueman, Elena. "New List of Holocaust Victims Reignites Dispute over Figures", Jewish Telegraphic Agency, March 5, 1990).
  34. ^ Linn, Ruth. "Rudolf Vrba", obituary in The Guardian, April 13, 2006.
  35. ^ Gilbert, Martin. "What Was Known and When," in Berenbaum, Michael & Gutman, Yisrael (eds). Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, Indiana University Press, 1994, p. 551.
  36. ^ a b "April 7", Yad Vashem.
  37. ^ a b Levine, Alan J. Captivity, Flight, and Survival in World War II, Praeger Publishers, August 30, 2000, p. 220.
  38. ^ a b Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 20.
  39. ^ Fatran, Gila; The "Working Group", Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 8:2 (1994), pp. 164–201.
  40. ^ a b c Kárný, Miroslav. "The Vrba and Wetzler report," in Berenbaum, Michael & Gutman, Yisrael (eds). Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, Indiana University Press and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1994, p. 554.
  41. ^ a b Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 21.
  42. ^ Vrba, Rudolf. I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, p. 399.
  43. ^ Vrba, Rudolf. I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, p. 400.
  44. ^ a b c This description of how the report was written was recorded in the first post-war edition, issued in 1946, Oswiecim, hrobka štyroch miliónov ľudí, Bratislava, p. 74. Wetzler also confirmed it in a letter to Miroslav Kárný, dated April 14, 1982. Cited in Kárný, Miroslav. "The Vrba and Wetzler report," in Berenbaum, Michael & Gutman, Yisrael (eds). Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, Indiana University Press, 1994, p. 564, footnote 5.
  45. ^ Vrba, Rudolf. I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, p. 402.
  46. ^ Vrba, Rudolf. I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, p. 403.
  47. ^ "It is clear that the account of the layout of the interior is based on second-hand information derived from the Sonderkommando. Indeed, in a sworn deposition Vrba made in 1961 and in his later book I Cannot Forgive (1963), Vrba stated that he and Wetzlar received all the specific information on the crematoria from Sonderkommando Filip Müller and his colleagues. In his autobiographical Eyewitness Auschwitz, Müller confirmed Vrba's story. "I had described to them in full detail the process of extermination so that they would be able to report to the outside world exactly how the victims had their last pitiful belongings taken away from them; how after the gassings their teeth were wrenched out and women's hair cut off; how the dead were searched for hidden valuables; how their spectacles, artificial limbs and dentures were collected; and everything else that took place." (Pelt, Robert Jan van. The Case for Auschwitz: Evidence from the Irving Trial, Indiana University Press, January 1, 2002, p. 149).
  48. ^ Pressac, Jean-Claude. Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers, the Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1989, p. 464.
  49. ^ Pelt, Robert Jan van. The Case for Auschwitz: Evidence from the Irving Trial, Indiana University Press, January 1, 2002, p. 151.
  50. ^ a b Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 27.
  51. ^ a b c d e f Rees, Laurence. (2005). Auschwitz: A New History. Public Affairs, pp. 242–3.
  52. ^ Ruth Linn writes that Oscar Krasniansky quickly translated the report into Hungarian for Kastner's arrival in Bratislava on April 28, but Yehuda Bauer writes that Kastner gave a copy of the report, untranslated, to Geza Soos, a Hungarian Foreign Ministry official, that Soos gave it to Joszef Elias, head of the Joe Pasztor Misszio, and that it was Elias's secretary, Maria Szekely, who translated the report into Hungarian. (Bauer, Yehuda. Jews for Sale? Nazi–Jewish Negotiations 1933–1945. Yale University Press, 1994, p. 157).
  53. ^ Bauer, Yehuda. Jews for Sale? Nazi–Jewish Negotiations 1933–1945. Yale University Press, 1994, p. 157.
  54. ^ Vrba, Rudolf. I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, p. 408. Vrba writes of Weissmandl: "The visibility of Yeshiva life in the center of Bratislava, less than 150 miles [250 km.] south of Auschwitz, was in my eyes a typical piece of Goebbels-inspired activity and brazen Nazi humor. There — before the eyes of the world — the pupils of Rabbi Weissmandel could study the rules of Jewish ethics while their own sisters and mothers were being murdered and burned in Birkenau. At that time, only two months and 150 miles away from an Auschwitz working at highest capacity, this Yeshiva struck me as merely a circus with Rabbi Weissmandel as its main, albeit tragicomic, clown" (Vrba 2002, p. 410).
  55. ^ Conway, John S. "The first report about Auschwitz", Museum of Tolerance, Simon Wiesenthal Center, Annual 1 Chapter 07, retrieved September 11, 2006.
  56. ^ Vrba, Rudolf. I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, p. 406.
  57. ^ The text of the Vrba-Wetzler report, under the title "German Extermination Camps—Auschwitz and Birkenau," was first published in full in an English translation on November 26, 1944 by the Executive Office of the U.S. War Refugee Board. It was this document that combined the testimony of Vrba and Wetzler with two other reports, and these came to be known jointly as the Auschwitz Protocols. (John Conway. "The Significance of the Vrba-Wetzler Report on Auschwitz-Birkenau," in Rudolf Vrba. I escaped from Auschwitz, Appendix I, p. 292–3, footnote 3.) The protocols consisted of the Vrba-Wetzler report, and an earlier two-part report from August 10 and August 12, 1943 written by Witold Pilecki who was a member of the Polish underground in Auschwitz, and sent to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in London. The August 1943 Polish report included details about the gas chambers, about "selection," and about the sterilization experiments. It stated that there were three crematoria in Birkenau with the capacity to incinerate 10,000 bodies daily, and that 30,000 people had been gassed in one day. The author wrote: "History knows no parallel of such destruction of human life." Raul Hilberg writes that the report was filed away with a note that there was no indication as to the reliability of the source. (Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews, Yale University Press, 2003, p.1212). The four-to-seven page report based on information from Arnost Rosin and Czesław Mordowicz, who escaped from Auschwitz on May 27, 1944, shortly after Vrba and Wetzler, was also attached. All three reports were submitted in evidence at the Nuremberg Trials and were assigned the document number 022-L. The full text is held in the archives of the War Refugee Board at the F.D. Roosevelt Library in New York. It is not known when the reports were first called the Auschwitz Protocols. R. Braham referred to them as the Auschwitz Protocols in The Politics of Genocide. The Holocaust in Hungary, volume 2, 1981, pp.708-16. (John Conway. "The Significance of the Vrba-Wetzler Report on Auschwitz-Birkenau," in Rudolf Vrba. I escaped from Auschwitz, Appendix I, p. 292–3, footnote 3).
  58. ^ Vrba, Rudolf. I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, p. 407.
  59. ^ Sakmyster, T.L. Hungary's Admiral on Horseback: Miklos Horthy, 1918–1944. New York: Columbia University Press, 1944, cited in Linn, Ruth. Escaping Auschwitz, p. 138, footnote 2.
  60. ^ Rees, Laurence. Auschwitz: A New History. Public Affairs, 2005, p. 257–8.
  61. ^ a b Vrba, Rudolf. I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, p. 404.
  62. ^ a b Vrba, Rudolf. I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, p. 410–11.
  63. ^ a b Rose, Hilary and Steven. Letter: Rudolf Vrba, The Guardian, April 25, 2006.
  64. ^ a b c Vrba, Rudolf. "Full curriculum vitae", University of British Columbia.
  65. ^ a b c d e f Martin, Sandra. "Rudolf Vrba, Scientist and Professor 1924–2006", The Globe and Mail, April 8, 2006.
  66. ^ "‘Trust and Deceit’ launched", no byline, UCL News, University College London, June 9, 2006, retrieved September 7, 2006.
  67. ^ Barkat, Amiran. "Death camp escapee Vrba dies at 82", Haaretz, April 2, 2006.
  68. ^ a b Sanderson, David & Smith, Lewis. "Witness to Auschwitz horror dies at 82", The Times, April 01, 2006.
  69. ^ Proudfoot, Shannon. "Auschwitz escapee alerted world to horrors of the Holocaust", Ottawa Citizen, March 31, 2006.
  70. ^ a b Martin, Douglas. "Rudolf Vrba, 82, Auschwitz Witness, Dies", The New York Times, April 7, 2006.
  71. ^ Medoff, Rafael. "In memoriam: the man who exposed Auschwitz"PDF (2.92 MiB), The Jewish Tribune, April 20, 2006, p. 4.
  72. ^ Auschwitz escapee, 82, dies in Canada, The Jerusalem Post, April 1, 2006.
  73. ^ "Sources of Funding for UK & EU Applicants", Helena Vrbova Scholarship. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, retrieved September 7, 2006.
  74. ^ Rudolf Vrba, One World 2006 website, retrieved April 2, 2006.
  75. ^ Linn argues "A small calculation suggests that, if only one percent of the 437,000 Hungarian Jewish victims had been persuaded of the truth of the report and had chosen not to board the boxcar trains to Auschwitz, almost three times 1,684 Jews [the number on the Kastner train] could probably have been saved". (Linn, Ruth. Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, 2004, p. 47).
  76. ^ April 25: "Blood for Trucks" Negotiations Start, Yad VaShem website. Accessed April 5, 2005. The "one million Jews", who would have to leave Hungary and emigrate anywhere but Palestine, were being offered for 25,000 trucks supplied by the Western Allies, which would be used for German civilian purposes, or on the Eastern Front.
  77. ^ Bauer, Yehuda. Jews for Sale? Nazi–Jewish Negotiations 1933–1945. Yale University Press, 1994, p. 156.
  78. ^ Bauer, Yehuda. Jews for Sale? Nazi–Jewish Negotiations 1933–1945. Yale University Press, 1994, p. 198.
  79. ^ Hecht, Ben. Perfidy. Milah Press, first published 1961; this edition 1999. ISBN 0-9646886-3-8
  80. ^ "The greatest 'idealist' Eichmann ever encountered among the Jews was Dr. Rudolf Kastner, with whom he negotiated during the Jewish deportations from Hungary and with whom he came to an agreement that he, Eichmann, would permit the 'illegal' departure of a few thousand Jews to Palestine (the trains were in fact guarded by German police) in exchange for 'quiet and order' in the camps from which hundreds of thousands were shipped to Auschwitz. The few thousand saved by the agreement, prominent Jews and members of the Zionist youth organizations, were, in Eichmann's words, 'the best biological material.' Dr. Kastner, as Eichmann understood it, had sacrificed his fellow-Jews to his 'idea,' and this was as it should be." (Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil, Penguin Classics, 1 January 1994, p. 42).
  81. ^ Bauer, Yehuda. "Anmerkungen zum 'Auschwitz-Bericht' von Rudolf Vrba," Vierteljahreshefte für Zeitgeschichte, Vol. 45 1997, pp. 297–307.
  82. ^ Bauer, Yehuda. Jews for Sale? Nazi–Jewish Negotiations 1933–1945. Yale University Press, 1994, p. 72.
  83. ^ Yehuda Bauer in a letter to Ruth Linn, cited in Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 111.
  84. ^ Bauer, Y., Yablonka, H., Jelinek, Y., Akiva, N., Fatran, G., Frider, E., Conway, J., Rothkirchen, L., Spitzer, J. Leadership in Time of Distress: The Working Group in Slovakia, 1942–1944. Kibbutz Dalia:Maarecht, 2001, 11–12. Introduction by Giora Amir. Translation from Hebrew. Cited in Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 109.
  85. ^ Nueman, Elena. "New List of Holocaust Victims Reignites Dispute over Figures", Jewish Telegraphic Agency, March 5, 1990.
  86. ^ Gilbert, Martin. "What Was Known and When," in Berenbaum, Michael & Gutman, Yisrael (eds). Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, Indiana University Press, 1994, p. 551.
  87. ^ a b Kárný, Miroslav. "The Vrba and Wetzler report," in Berenbaum, Michael & Gutman, Yisrael (eds). Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, Indiana University Press, 1994, p. 559.
  88. ^ Vrba, Rudolf. I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, p. 413.
  89. ^ a b Johnson, Pat. "Israeli narrative omits Vrba", Jewish Independent, April 21, 2006.
  90. ^ Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 55.
  91. ^ Cohen, A. (1996) "The Holocaust Hungarian Jews in light of the research of Randolph Braham," Yad Vashem. Studies, Vol xxv, pp 360–382, cited in Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 85.
  92. ^ Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 70.
  93. ^ Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 71.
  94. ^ The German version of the Vrba-Wetzler report in the Yad Vashem archive is marked M-20/153.
  95. ^ Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 72.

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The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Rudolf Kastner Rudolf (RezsÅ‘) Kastner (Kasztner), also known as Israel (Yisrael) Kastner, (1906, Cluj, Transylvania–March 3, 1957, Tel Aviv, Israel) was the de facto head of a small Jewish organization in Budapest, Hungary known as the Vaadat Ezrah Vehatzalah (Vaada), or Aid and Rescue Committee, during the Nazi... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... The cover of Eichmann in Jerusalem by Hannah Arendt Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil is a book written by political theorist Hannah Arendt, originally published in 1963. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ... Ruth Linn is an Israeli academic and currently dean of the Faculty of Education at Haifa University in Israel. ... Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ... Ruth Linn is an Israeli academic and currently dean of the Faculty of Education at Haifa University in Israel. ... The Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) is an international news agency serving Jewish community newspapers and media around the world. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Sir Martin John Gilbert, CBE (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and the author of over seventy books, including works on the Holocaust and Jewish history. ... Michael Berenbaum is an American scholar, professor, writer, and film-maker, who specializes in the study of the memorialization of the Holocaust. ... Miroslav Kárný (September 9, 1919 – May 9, 2001) was an historian and writer from Prague, Czechoslovakia. ... 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References

  • "Vrba, Rudolf", no byline, BC Bookworld author bank, retrieved April 1, 2006.
  • "The Vrba-Wetzler Report", The Holocaust History Project, retrieved April 2, 2006.
  • "Rudolf Vrba Curriculum Vitae", Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, retrieved April 2, 2006.
  • "April 7", Yad Vashem, retrieved April 2, 2006.
  • "Rudolf Vrba Award", 8th international human rights documentary film festival, One World, retrieved April 2, 2006.
  • "Sources of Funding for UK & EU Applicants", Helena Vrbova Scholarship. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, retrieved September 7, 2006.
  • "‘Trust and Deceit’ launched", no byline, UCL News, University College London, June 9, 2006, retrieved September 7, 2006.
  • "April 25: Blood for trucks", Yad Vashem, retrieved April 2, 2006.
  • "Auschwitz escapee, 82, dies in Canada", no byline, The Jerusalem Post, April 1, 2006.
  • Rudolf Vrba, no byline, The Daily Telegraph, April 12, 2006.
  • Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil, Penguin Classics, January 1, 1994. ISBN 0-14-018765-0
  • Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. Yale University Press; New Ed edition, 2002. ISBN 0-300-09300-4
  • Bauer, Y., Yablonka, H., Jelinek, Y., Akiva, N., Fatran, G., Frider, E., Conway, J., Rothkirchen, L., Spitzer, J. (eds) Leadership in Time of Distress: The Working Group in Slovakia, 1942–1944. Kibbutz Dalia:Maarecht, 2001, 11–12. Introduction by Giora Amir. Translation from Hebrew. Cited in Linn, Ruth. (2004) Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, p. 109.</ref>
  • Bauer, Yehuda. "Anmerkungen zum 'Auschwitz-Bericht' von Rudolf Vrba," Vierteljahreshefte für Zeitgeschichte, Vol. 45 1997.
  • ____________. Jews for Sale? Nazi–Jewish Negotiations 1933–1945. Yale University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-300-06852-2
  • Barkat, Amiram. "Death camp escapee Vrba dies at 82", Haaretz, April 2, 2006.
  • Cohen, A. (1996) "The Holocaust Hungarian Jews in light of the research of Randolph Braham," Yad Vashem. Studies, Vol xxv, pp 360–382.
  • Conway, John. "Escaping Auschwitz: Sixty years later", Vierteljahreshefte fuer Zeitgeschichte, Vol. 53, no. 3, 2005, pp. 461–472.
  • Czech, Danuta (ed) Kalendarium der Ereignisse im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau 1939–1945, Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1989.
  • Dromi, Uri. "Deaf Ears, Blind Eyes", Haaretz, January 30, 2005.
  • Gilbert, Martin. "What Was Known and When," in Berenbaum, Michael & Gutman, Yisrael (eds). Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, Indiana University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-253-20884-X
  • Gutman, Yisrael. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 0-02-896090-4
  • Hecht, Ben. Perfidy. Milah Press, first published 1961; this edition 1999. ISBN 0-9646886-3-8
  • Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews, first published in 1961, this edition Yale University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-300-09557-0
  • Hume, Mark. "Auschwitz escapee who told the world dies in B.C.", The Globe and Mail, March 31, 2006.
  • Johnson, Pat. "Israeli narrative omits Vrba", Jewish Independent, April 21, 2006.
  • Kárný, Miroslav. "The Vrba and Wetzler report," in Berenbaum, Michael & Gutman, Yisrael (eds). Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp. Indiana University Press and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (1994); this edition 1998. ISBN 0-253-20884-X
  • Katz, Leslie. "Auschwitz escapee to help mark Yom HaShoah here", j., April 25, 1997.
  • Levine, Alan J. Captivity, Flight, and Survival in World War II, Praeger Publishers, August 30, 2000. ISBN 0-275-96955-X
  • Linn, Ruth. "Rudolf Vrba", obituary in The Guardian, April 13, 2006.
  • ________. Escaping Auschwitz. A culture of forgetting, Cornell University Press, August 30, 2004. ISBN 0-8014-4130-7
  • ________. "Genocide and the Politics of Remembering: The Nameless, the Celebrated and the Would-Be Holocaust Heroes," Journal of Genocide Research, 5, 4 (December 2003) pp. 565–586.
  • ________. "Naked victims, dressed-up memory: The escape from Auschwitz and the Israeli historiography," in Israel Studies Bulletin.
  • Lungen, Paul. "Auschwitz escapee hoped to warn Hungarian Jews", Canadian Jewish News, no date, retrieved April 2, 2006.
  • Martin, Douglas. "Rudolf Vrba, 82, Auschwitz Witness, Dies", The New York Times, April 7, 2006.
  • Martin, Sandra. "Rudolf Vrba, Scientist and Professor 1924–2006", The Globe and Mail, April 8, 2006.
  • Medoff, Rafael. "In memoriam: the man who exposed Auschwitz"PDF (2.92 MiB), The Jewish Tribune, April 20, 2006, p. 4.
  • Nueman, Elena. "New List of Holocaust Victims Reignites Dispute over Figures", Jewish Telegraphic Agency, March 5, 1990.
  • Pelt, Robert Jan van. The Case for Auschwitz: Evidence from the Irving Trial, Indiana University Press, January 1, 2002. ISBN 0-253-34016-0
  • Pressac, Jean-Claude. Auschwitz: Technique and operation of the gas chambers, The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1989.
  • Proudfoot, Shannon. "Auschwitz escapee alerted world to horrors of the Holocaust", Ottawa Citizen, March 31, 2006.
  • Rees, Laurence. (2005). Auschwitz: A New History. Public Affairs. ISBN 1-58648-357-9
  • Rose, Hilary and Steven. Letter: Rudolf Vrba, The Guardian, April 25, 2006.
  • Sanderson, David & Smith, Lewis. "Witness to Auschwitz horror dies at 82", The Times, April 1, 2006.
  • Sakmyster, T.L. Hungary's Admiral on Horseback: Miklos Horthy, 1918–1944. New York: Columbia University Press, 1944.
  • Świebocki, Henryk. "Prisoner Escapes" in Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, p. 511, Gutman, Yisrael & Berenbaum, Michael (eds), Indiana University Press and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (1994); this edition 1998. ISBN 0-253-20884-X
  • Vrba, Rudolf. First published as I Cannot Forgive by Sidgwick and Jackson, Grove Press, 1963, ISBN 0-394-62133-6; also published as Escape from Auschwitz: I Cannot Forgive; this edition entitled I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, ISBN 1-56980-232-7
  • __________. "The one that got away", extract from I Escaped from Auschwitz, The Guardian, April 14, 2006.

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Further reading

  • http://web.archive.org/web/20040314054344/http://www.pharmacology.ubc.ca/vrba/VrbaCV.pdf Rudolf Vrba's academic CV from the University of British Columbia]
  • Berenbaum, Michael. "Righteous Anger Fuels ‘Auschwitz’", The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles, October 15, 2004.
  • Bilsky, Leora. "Judging Evil in the Trial of Kastner", Law and History Review, Vol 19, No. 1, Spring 2001
  • Conway, John S. "The First Report about Auschwitz", Museum of Tolerance, Annual 1, Chapter 7.
  • Dromi, Uri. "Sold his soul to the devil", Haaretz, January 28, 2005
  • __________. "Your State of Kastners", Haaretz January 28, 2005 (in Hebrew)
  • Fried, S. "The Kasztner Trial", Dei'ah veDibur, July 23, 2003.
  • Kulka, Erich, "Attempts by Jewish Escapees to Stop Mass Extermination", Jewish Social Studies 47:3/4 (1985:Summer/Fall) 295–306.
  • Laor, Yitzhak. "Auschwitz, They Tell Me You’ve Become Popular", Haaretz, December 26, 2004 (review of Ruth Linn's Escaping Auschwitz: A Culture of Forgetting, Cornell University Press)
  • Lebor, Adam. "Eichmann's list: a pact with the devil", The Independent, August 23, 2000.
  • Linn, Ruth. (2004) "The Escape from Auschwitz: Why didn't they teach us about it in school", Theory and Criticism, 24:163–184 (in Hebrew).
  • McMaster, Geoff. "Holocaust survivor recounts days at Auschwitz", University of Alberta ExpressNEWS, October 28, 2003.
  • Medoff, Rafael. "The Unmentionable Victims of Auschwitz," The David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies, December 2004.
  • Świebocki, Henryk. London has been informed. Reports by Auschwitz Escapees, Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum: the first full publication of the entire reports, 1997.
  • Teicholz, Tom. "Tommywood - Unanswered Questions",, The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles, April 21, 2006.
  • Vrba, Rudolf. "Personal Memories of Actions of SS-Doctors of Medicine in Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II (Birkenau)" in Roland et al (eds). Medical Science without Compassion, Past and Present, Arbeitspapiere-Atti-Proceedings, No. 11, Hamburger Stiftung für Sozialgeschichte des 20.Jahrhunderts, 1993.
  • __________. "Die Missachtete Warnung. Betrachtungen über den Auschwitz-Bericht 1944," Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, vol. 44, Heft 1/1996, pp. 1–24.
  • __________. "The Preparations For The Holocaust In Hungary: An Eyewitness Account" in The Nazis' Last Victims: The Holocaust in Hungary, pp. 55–102. Edited by Randolph L.Braham with Scott Miller. Wayne State University Press, Detroit, 1998. Also published in: The Holocaust in Hungary. Fifty years later, pp.227–285. Edited by Randolph L. Braham and Attila Pok, Columbia University Press, New York, 1997
  • __________. "Science and the Holocaust", Focus, University of Haifa; an edited version of Vrba's address when he received his honorary doctorate, 1998.
Persondata
NAME Vrba, Rudolf
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Rosenberg, Walter (born)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Author of 1944 report on Auschwitz concentration camp
DATE OF BIRTH September 11, 1924
PLACE OF BIRTH Topoľčany, Slovakia
DATE OF DEATH March 27, 2006
PLACE OF DEATH Vancouver, Canada

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rudolf Vrba - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8995 words)
Rudolf 'Rudi' Vrba, born Walter Rosenberg (September 11, 1924 March 27, 2006), was an escapee from the German death camp at Auschwitz who became an influential Holocaust documentarian and later Professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics at the University of British Columbia in Canada.
Vrba, in response, alleged that Bauer is one of the Israeli historians who have downplayed Vrba's role in Holocaust historiography, and who seeks to defend the Israeli and Zionist establishment.
"Rudolf Vrba: Curriculum Vitae", UBC Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Rudolf Vrba, key witness to Auschwitz - The Boston Globe (825 words)
Rudolf Vrba, one of a handful of prisoners to escape from Auschwitz during World War II and the coauthor of the first eyewitness report detailing the extent of the atrocities there, died of cancer March 27 at a hospital in Vancouver.
LOS ANGELES -- Rudolf Vrba, one of a handful of prisoners to escape from Auschwitz during World War II and the coauthor of the first eyewitness report detailing the extent of the atrocities there, died of cancer March 27 at a hospital in Vancouver.
Vrba was born Walter Rosenberg in Topolcany, Czechoslovakia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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