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Encyclopedia > Rudolf Nureyev
Rudolf Nureyev

Rudolf Nureyev (Tatar form Rudolf Xämät ulı Nuriev, Russian Рудольф Хаметович Нуриев) (17 March 19386 January 1993), a Tatar ballet dancer, is regarded as one of the greatest male dancers of the 20th century, alongside Vaslav Nijinsky and Mikhail Baryshnikov. Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Nureyev (1977-2001) was a Kentucky-bred Thoroughbred racehorse and Champion sire who was bought in 1978 at the Keeneland yearling sale by Stavros Niarchos for US$1. ... Image File history File links Rudolph_Nureyev. ... Image File history File links Rudolph_Nureyev. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... Vaslav Nijinsky as Vayou in Nikolai Legats revival of Marius Petipas The Talisman, St. ... Alexandra Danilova and Mikhail Baryshnikov, 1976 Mikhail Nikolaevitch Baryshnikov (Russian: ) (born January 28, 1948) is a Russian dancer, choreographer, and actor. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life and career at the Kirov

Nureyev was born on a train near Irkutsk, while his mother Farida was travelling across Siberia to Vladivostok, where his father Hamat, a Red Army political commissar was stationed. Rudolf was raised in a Tatar family in a village near Ufa in Soviet Bashkiria. As a child he was encouraged to dance in Bashkir folk performances and his precocity was soon noticed. Irkutsks location Kazansky Church in Irkutsk Irkutsk (Russian: ) is one of the largest cities in Siberia. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... A political commissar is an officer appointed by a government to oversee a unit of the military. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... UFA or Ufa may refer to: Ufa, a city in Russia Ufa, a town in Ethiopia Uniform Firearms Act, a set of laws in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Unit factor analysis, another name for dimensional analysis. ... The Republic of Bashkortostan or Bashkiria (Russian: Респу́блика Башкортоста́н or Башки́рия; Bashkir:) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ...


Due to the disruption of Soviet cultural life caused by World War II, Nureyev was unable to enroll in a major ballet school until 1955, when he was sent to the Vaganova Choreographic Institute, attached to the Kirov Ballet in Leningrad. Despite his late start, he was soon recognised as the most gifted dancer the school had seen for many years. He never joined the ranks of the corps de ballet but was immediately promoted to soloist. Already, however, his extremely difficult temperament was evident. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872. ... Vaganova as Odette-Odile, 1900es Agrippina Yakovlevna Vaganova (July 6, 1879 - November 5, 1951) was an outstanding Russian ballet teacher who developed the Vaganova method. ... The Mariinsky Ballet is one of the most famous ballet schools in history (formerly the Kirov Ballet, and also the Academic State Theatre), located in St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... A Ballet company is group of dancers who perform ballets. ...


Within two years Nureyev was one of the Soviet Union's best-known dancers, in a country which revered the ballet and made national heroes of its stars. Soon he enjoyed the rare privilege of travel outside the Soviet Union, when he danced in Vienna at the International Youth Festival. Not long after, for disciplinary reasons, he was told he would not be allowed to go abroad again. He was confined to tours of the Soviet Republics. “Wien” redirects here. ...


Defection to the West

In 1961 Nureyev's situation changed. The Kirov's leading male dancer, Konstantin Sergeyev, was injured, and at the last minute Nureyev was chosen to replace him on the Kirov's European tour. In Paris, his performances electrified audiences and critics, but he broke the rules about mingling with foreigners, which alarmed the Kirov's management. The Kirov's management and the KGB wanted to send him back to the Soviet Union immediately, which, contrary to popular belief, was due to the fact that KGB agents had been investigating him for quite some time, as by that time they were going to take serious action against him for being gay. As a subterfuge, they told him that he would not travel with the company to London to continue the tour because he was needed at home to dance at a special performance in the Kremlin. He correctly believed that if he returned, he would likely be imprisoned. It has been the more popular and accepted belief that he "leaped to freedom" in order to be more of a "free artist", though many of Nureyev's private accounts of the events in Paris in 1961, as well the accounts of many of his close friends, tell that he stayed in the west due to the consequences of living in the Soviet Union and being gay. Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Konstantin Mikhailovich Sergeyev (1910 - April 1, 1992) was a Russian ballet danseur, artistic director and choreographer for the Kirov Theatre. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Moscow Kremlin in the 19th century. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


So, on June 17, 1961, at the Paris Airport, Rudolf Nureyev defected. Within a week, he was signed up by the Grand Ballet du Marquis de Cuevas and was performing The Sleeping Beauty with Nina Vyroubova. He was an instant celebrity in the west, and his dramatic defection, outstanding technique, good looks, and astonishing charisma on stage made him an international star. is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Le Bourget airport (Aéroport du Bourget) is an airport, located in Le Bourget, close to Paris, France, nowadays only used for general aviation (business jets) as well as air shows. ... Sir Edward Burne-Jones painted The Sleeping Beauty. ...


Nureyev's defection also gave him the personal freedom he had been denied in the Soviet Union. On a tour of Denmark he met Erik Bruhn, another dancer ten years his senior, who became his lover, his closest friend and his protector (mainly from his own folly) for many years. The relationship was a stormy one, for Nureyev was highly promiscuous. Bruhn was director of the Royal Swedish Ballet from 1967 to 1972 and Artistic Director of the National Ballet of Canada from 1983 until his death in 1986. Erik Belton Evers Bruhn (October 3, 1928–April 1, 1986) was a Danish ballet dancer, choreographer, actor, and writer. ... Promiscuity is the practice of making relatively unselective, casual and indiscriminate choices. ... King Gustav III founded the ballet in 1773. ... The National Ballet of Canada is Canadas largest ballet troupe. ...


Although he petitioned the Soviet government for many years to be allowed to visit his mother to whom he remained very close, he was not allowed to do so until 1989, when his mother was dying and Mikhail Gorbachev consented to the visit. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


During this visit, he was invited to dance once again with the Kirov Ballet at the Maryinsky theatre in Leningrad (now renamed Saint Petersburg). Alas, it was too late; he was too old, his technique was by then defective, and his performance disappointed. Nonetheless, the visit gave him the opportunity to see many of the teachers and colleagues he had not seen since he defected, including his first ballet teacher in Ufa, where his mother lived.


Fonteyn and Nureyev

Nureyev's first appearance in England was at a ballet matinée organised by Margot Fonteyn in aid of The Royal Academy of Dancing, at which he danced "Poeme Tragique", a heavily symbolic solo choreographed by Frederick Ashton, and brought the house to its feet in the Black Swan pas de deux from Swan Lake. He formed a partnership with Fonteyn which became perhaps the most famous in modern theatre history. Their first performance together was at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, in Giselle on February 21 1962, when the applause from the audience lasted longer than the ballet itself. Dame Margot Fonteyn de Arias, DBE, (18 May 1919, Reigate, Surrey, England - 21 February 1991 Panama City, Panama), the English assoluta, was considered the greatest ballerina of her time. ... Sir Frederick William Mallandaine Ashton (September 17, 1904 - October 18, 1988) began his career as a dancer but is largely remembered as a choreographer. ... Tamara Karsavina as Odile and Pierre Vladimirov as Prince Siegfried in the original Petipa/Ivanov production of Swan Lake, St. ... Anna Pavlova as Giselle in Act I (ca. ...


Together Nureyev and Fonteyn forever transformed such cornerstone ballets as Swan Lake and Giselle. Fonteyn and Nureyev premiered Sir Frederick Ashton's ballet Marguerite and Armand, a ballet danced to Liszt's B minor piano sonata, which became their signature piece. They always completely sold out the house, and this led to some injustice, notably when Kenneth Macmillan was forced to allow them to premiere his Romeo and Juliet, which was mounted for two other dancers. Films exist of their partnership in Les Sylphides, Swan Lake, Romeo and Juliet, and other roles. Nureyev did much for the Royal Ballet, and their management made a colossal blunder in not appointing him as the director of the company after Ashton's retirement, thus loosing him to Paris. Tamara Karsavina as Odile and Pierre Vladimirov as Prince Siegfried in the original Petipa/Ivanov production of Swan Lake, St. ... Anna Pavlova as Giselle in Act I (ca. ... Sir Frederick William Mallandaine Ashton (1904-1988) began his career as a dancer but is largely remembered as a choreographer. ... Sir Kenneth MacMillan (December 11, 1929 Dunfermline, Scotland - October 29, 1992, London) was a noted Scottish ballet dancer and choreographer. ... Romeo and Juliet in the famous balcony scene by Ford Madox Brown For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ...


Fonteyn and Nureyev's relationship was not just onstage. Offstage, they became lifelong close friends, even after her retirement to Panama. They were known to giggle their way through practices. They often fought too -- Nureyev was not a patient person, and was known to curse at Fonteyn when practices did not go well. Nevertheless, anyone who ever knew them said Fonteyn was the dearest person to Nureyev's heart, and Fonteyn in turn was fanatically loyal to Nureyev. When she was suffering from cancer, Nureyev paid many of her medical bills and visited her constantly despite his busy schedule. Towards the end of Nureyev's life, when his body was wracked by AIDS, Fonteyn urged him to start a career conducting, and he did, to some success. According to Meredith Daneman's biography of Fonteyn, when Nureyev admitted that his body was too wracked with disease and injury to dance, and he was considering conducting, Fonteyn exclaimed, "Darling, that's perfect!!!" Nureyev once said of Fonteyn that they danced with "one body, one soul." Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ...


Later career

In 1964 he came to the Vienna State Opera, where he remained as a dancer and chief of choreography till 1988. Vienna State Opera (German: Wiener Staatsoper), located in Vienna, Austria, is one of the most important opera companies in Europe. ... Look up Choreography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Nureyev was immediately in demand by film-makers, and in 1962 he made his screen debut in a film version of Les Sylphides. In 1977 he played Rudolph Valentino in Ken Russell's Valentino, but he had neither the talent nor the temperament for a serious acting career. He branched into modern dance with the Dutch National Ballet in 1968. In 1972 Robert Helpmann invited him to tour Australia with his own production of Don Quixote [1]), his directorial debut. Les Sylphides is a short, non-narrative ballet choreographed by Michel Fokine to music by Frédéric Chopin. ... Rudolph Valentino (May 6, 1895 – August 23, 1926) was an Italian actor. ... Henry Kenneth Alfred Russell, known as Ken Russell (born July 3, 1927), is a controversial English film director, particularly known for his films about famous composers. ... Valentino is an american biographical drama film about the life of Rudolph Valentino, directed by Ken Russell. ... Sir Robert Helpmann (April 9, 1909 – September 28, 1986), Australian dancer, actor, director and choreographer, was born in Mount Gambier, South Australia. ... (IPA: , but see spelling and pronunciation below), fully titled (The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha) is an early novel written by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ...


During the 1970s, Nureyev appeared in several movies and toured the United States in a revival of the Broadway musical The King and I. His guest appearance on the then-struggling television series The Muppet Show is credited for boosting the series to worldwide success. In 1982 he became a naturalized Austrian. In 1983 he was appointed director of the Paris Opera Ballet, where as well as directing he continued to dance and to promote younger dancers. Among the dancers he groomed to stardom were Sylvie Guillem, Isabel Guerin, Manuel Legris, Elisabeth Maurin, Elisabeth Platel, Charles Jude, and Monique Loudieres. Despite advancing illness towards the end of his tenure, he worked tirelessly, staging new versions of old standbys and commissioning some of the most groundbreaking choreographic works of his time. His own Romeo and Juliet, set in Hollywood, was a popular success. The King and I is a musical by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, with a script based on the book Anna and the King of Siam by Margaret Landon. ... The Muppet Show was a television program featuring a cast of Muppets (diverse hand-operated puppets, typically with oversized eyes and large moving mouths) produced by Jim Henson and his team from 1976 to 1981. ... The Paris Opera Ballet is the ballet company of the Paris Opera. ... Sylvie Guillem (born February 25, 1965 in Paris) is a French ballet dancer who has performed with the Paris Opera Ballet and is currently a guest principal dancer with the Royal Ballet. ... Romeo and Juliet in the famous balcony scene by Ford Madox Brown For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ...


Nureyev's choreographies

LA BAYADERE ACTE III - 3 october 1974 - After Petipa


MANFRED - 20 november 1979 - Original choreography


DON QUICHOTTE - 6 march 1981 - After Petipa


RAYMONDA - 5 november 1983 - After Petipa


LE LAC DES CYGNES - 20 december 1984 - After Sergueev and Bourmeister


ROMEO ET JULIETTE - 19 october 1984 - Original choreography


THE TEMPEST - 9 march 1984 - Original choreography


BACH SUITE - 16 april 1984 - Avec Francine Lancelot


CASSE NOISETTE - 20 december 1985 - After Petipa


WASHINGTON SQUARE - 25 june 1985 - Original choreography


CENDRILLON - 24 october 1986 - Original choreography


LA BELLE AU BOIS DORMANT - 18 march 1989 - After Petipa


LA BAYADERE - 8 october 1992 - After Petipa


Personality

Because of Nureyev's talent, beauty, and charm he was forgiven for many things, but stardom did little to improve his temperament. He was notoriously impulsive and did not have much patience with rules, limitations and hierarchical order. His impatience mainly showed itself when the failings of others interfered with his work. Most ballerinas with whom he danced, including Antoinette Sibley and Annette Page paid tribute to him as a considerate partner. He socialized with Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Mick Jagger and Andy Warhol, but he developed an intolerance fornon-celebrities. He kept up old friendships in and outside the ballet world for decades, and was a loyal and generous friend. He was known as extremely generous to many ballerinas, who credit him with helping them during difficult times. In particular, the Canadian ballerina Lynn Seymour -- distressed when she was denied the opportunity to premiere Macmillan's Romeo and Juliet -- says that he often found projects for her even when she was suffering from weight issues and depression and had trouble finding appearances. He helped an elderly and increasingly impoverished Tamara Karsavina. His interests were widespread and he showed an amazing wealth of knowledge in many fields. Dame Antoinette Sibley is a British prima ballerina. ... The Simpsons, see Bouvier family#Jacqueline Bouvier. ... Sir Michael Phillip Mick Jagger CBE (born July 26, 1943) is an English rock musician, actor, songwriter, record and film producer and businessman. ... Andy Warhol (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987) was an American artist who became a central figure in the movement known as pop art. ... Tamara Platonovna Karsavina (March 10, 1885 – May 26, 1978) was a famous Russian ballerina who eventually settled in England, where she helped found the Royal Academy of Dancing in 1920. ...


By the end of the 1970s, when he was in his 40s, he faced the inevitable decline of his amazing physical prowess. Unfortunately, he continued to tackle the big classical roles far too long, and his rather undistinguished performances in the late 1980s disappointed many of his admirers. Towards the end of his life, he was wracked with the ravages of AIDS, but he still worked tirelessly on productions for the Paris Opera Ballet. His last work was a lavish, beautiful production of La Bayadere which closely follows the Kirov Ballet version he danced as a young man. At Margot Fonteyn's urging, he also started to conduct concerts and ballets. The Mariinsky Ballet is one of the most famous ballet schools in history (formerly the Kirov Ballet, and also the Academic State Theatre), located in St. ...


Influence and AIDS

Nureyev's influence on the world of ballet changed especially the perception of male dancers; in his own productions of the classics the male roles got much more choreography than in earlier productions. The second very important influence was his crossing the borders between classical ballet and modern dance by dancing both, although having been trained as a classical dancer. Today it is absolutely normal for dancers to get training in both styles but Nureyev was the one who started this and it was a sensation and even much criticized in his days.


When AIDS appeared in France in about 1982, Nureyev, like many homosexual men, took little notice. He presumably contracted HIV at some point in the early 1980s. For several years he simply denied that anything was wrong with his health: when, in about 1990, he became undeniably ill, he pretended he had several other ailments. He tried several experimental treatments but they did not stop the inevitable decline of his body. Towards the end of his life, as dancing became more and more agonizing for him, he resigned himself to small non-dancing roles, and dabbled with the idea of becoming a conductor. At the urging of Fonteyn, he had a short but successful conducting career, which was unfortunately cut short due to his declining health. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...


Eventually, however, he had to face the fact that he was dying. He won back the admiration of many of his detractors by his courage during this period. The loss of his looks pained him, but he continued to struggle through public appearances. At his last appearance, at a 1992 production of La Bayadère at the Palais Garnier, Nureyev received an emotional standing ovation from the audience. The French Culture Minister, Jack Lang, presented him with France's highest cultural award, the Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et Lettres. He died in Paris, France, a few months later, aged 54. His grave, at Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois near Paris, is featured in this photograph with an oriental Turkic-style carpet. [http://www.nureyev.org/tombeau.php (Link to photographs.) The Entrance of the Shades (Entrée de lombres) of the scene The Kingdom Of the Shades from the Kirov/Mariinsky Ballets 1941 production of La Bayadère, St. ... Jack Lang in Belém (Brazil) Jack Mathieu Emile Lang (born 2 September 1939) is a French politician and a member of the French Socialist Party. ... A Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres, sometimes called a Chevalier dans lOrdre des Arts et des Lettres (in English, Knight [of the Order] of Arts and Letters) is a distinction awarded by the Minister of Culture of France in recognition of outstanding achievement in the arts. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Russian cemetery at Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois Cemetery, specifically the one known as Cimetière de Liers, as there are two cemeteries in the city, is a Russian Orthodox cemetery, located on Rue Léo Lagrange in Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, département...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Set and Costume Designs for Don Quixote by Barry Kay for both the stage production at the Adelaide Festival, 1970, and Nureyev's movie version, gala world premiere at the Sydney Opera House, 1973.

(IPA: , but see spelling and pronunciation below), fully titled (The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha) is an early novel written by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ... Barry Kay (born Melbourne 1932 – died London 1985), trained at the Académie Julian in Paris, was a highly talented and internationally acclaimed stage and costume designer. ...

Further reading

  • Nureyev, ed. Bland, Alexander, "Nureyev: an autobiography with pictures", Hodder & Stoughton, 1962
  • Percival, John, "Nureyev: aspects of the dancer", Faber & Faber, 1975
  • Bland, Alexander, "The Nureyev Valentino: portrait of a film, Studio Vista, 1977
  • Watson, Peter, "Nureyev: a biography", Hodder & Stoughton, 1994
  • Diane Solway, Nureyev: His Life, William Morrow & Co, 1998
  • Rudolf Nureyev, "Nureyev: His Spectacular Early Years"

External links

Dance Portal

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rudolf Nureyev - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2096 words)
Rudolf Nureyev (Tatar form Rudolf Xämät ulı Nuriev, Russian Рудольф Хаметович Нуриев) (17 March 1938 6 January 1993), Tatar-born dancer, is regarded as one of the greatest male dancers of the 20th century, alongside Vaslav Nijinsky and Mikhail Baryshnikov.
Rudolf was raised in a Tatar family in a village near Ufa in Soviet Bashkiria.
Nureyev's first appearance in England was at a ballet matinee organised by Margot Fonteyn in aid of The Royal Academy of Dancing, at which he danced "Poeme Tragique", a heavily symbolic solo choreographed by Frederick Ashton, and brought the house to its feet in the Black Swan pas de deux from Swan Lake.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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