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Encyclopedia > Ruby characters

Ruby characters, also called ruby, rubi or furigana, are sometimes used in the typography of ideographic languages, especially Japanese and Chinese. They are small characters placed above or to the side of an ideogram (kanji in the case of Japanese) that the reader may not recognize, providing its phonetic equivalent. Ruby annotations are used frequently in instructional books and books for children. Japanese ruby characters are also known as furigana outside of publishing circles. Chinese ruby characters are also known as Zhuyin symbols.


Ruby vs. rubi

When writing in Japanese or Chinese, pronunciation hints can be written on top of or alongside (when written vertically) of Chinese characters whose pronunciation is in question. These annotations are called furigana in Japanese and Zhuyin in Chinese. They are not restricted to printed material, but are used in handwriting as well. This may be done for many reasons:

  • because the character is a rare one, and the pronunciation is unknown to many
  • because the character has more than one pronunciation, and the context is insufficient to determine which to use
  • because the intended readers of the text are children (or non-native speakers) who are not expected to know the pronunciation
  • to emphasize either a pun or a joke using an alternate reading for a kanji characters. This is often done in comic books to emphasize puns (dajare, ja:駄洒落).
  • because a possibly-unfamiliar (usually foreign) or slang word is used, and a character is given to show the meaning, but in all other respects the pronunciation has nothing to do with the character itself; generally used with spoken dialogue (this possibly applies only to Japanese)

"Ruby" was originally the name of a British 5.5 pt font. Because of its size, it was originally used for the annotations in printed documents. In Japanese, this word lost its meaning "name of font" and became "typeset furigana". When it was translated back into English, the word was rendered by some as "rubi", which is the standard romanization for the Japanese ルビ. However, the spelling "ruby" has become more common since being adopted as a W3C standard.

In Japanese and Chinese, Ruby retains its connotation of referring to typeset, as opposed to handwritten, annotations. As English has no native word for such annotations, this connotation is lost in English.

Sample use of ruby characters

Note: not all web browsers can display ruby; font size has been increased to show details

Japanese ruby of the word Tokyo ("東京"):

(とう) (きょう)
(トウ) (キョウ)
() (kyō)

Chinese ruby of the word Beijing ("北京"):

(ㄅㄟˇ)(ㄐㄧㄥ )
(běi) (jīng)

Complex ruby (http://www.w3.org/TR/ruby/#complex) is also possible but it is not supported by Wikipedia.

Supporting W3C Specifications

Ruby annotations are part of the XHTML 1.1 Specification only. It is not a part of HTML 4.01 or any of the XHTML 1.0 Specifications (XHTML-1.0-Strict, XHTML-1.0-Transitional, and XHTML-1.0-Frameset). The lack of support for this tag in most browsers may have something to do with the fact that XHTML 1.1 is not yet widely supported and excludes all of the deprecated functionality of HTML 4. (See below)

Browser compatibility

In regards to the latest versions of major browsers, Ruby annotations are now partially supported by Microsoft Internet Explorer for Windows and Macintosh (5.0+), but not by Mozilla (including Firefox), Safari/Konqueror or Opera, which otherwise have good international compatibility. Fortunately, there are plug-ins that may allow you to view Ruby in such incompatible browsers. See below for links.

External links

  • W3C: XHTML Ruby Annotation (http://www.w3.org/TR/ruby/)
  • W3C: XHTML 1.1 Specification (http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/)
  • Web Specifications supported in Opera 7 (http://www.opera.com/docs/specs/)
  • XHTML Ruby Support (http://piro.sakura.ne.jp/xul/_rubysupport.html.en) - A Mozilla extension to add furigana rubies to pages
  • Rikai.com (http://www.rikai.com/perl/Home.pl) - A tool to add popup readings to web-pages, works for simplified Chinese or Japanese

  Results from FactBites:
Ruby character - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1126 words)
Ruby characters are small, annotative characters that can be placed above or to the side of a character when writing logographic languages such as Chinese or Japanese to show the pronunciation.
Ruby is sometimes used to provide word-for-word translations of a document to aid a reader who may not know the original language well, but can read another language well.
Ruby markup is structured such that a fallback rendering, consisting of the ruby characters in parentheses immediately after the main text, will appear if the browser does not have support for ruby.
  More results at FactBites »



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