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Encyclopedia > Ruby
Ruby

Ruby crystal before faceting, length 0.8 inches (2 cm)
General
Category Mineral variety
Chemical formula aluminium oxide with chromium, Al2O3::Cr
Identification
Color Red, may be brownish or purplish
Crystal habit Varies with locality. Terminated tabular hexagonal prisms.
Crystal system Trigonal
Cleavage No true cleavage
Fracture Uneven or conchoidal
Mohs Scale hardness 9.0
Luster Vitreous
Refractive index ~1.762-1.770
Pleochroism Orangey red, purplish red
Ultraviolet fluorescence red under longwave
Streak white
Specific gravity 4.0
Melting point 2050°C
Solubility none
Diaphaneity transparent

Ruby is a pink to blood red gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide). The common red color is caused mainly by the element chromium. Its name comes from ruber, Latin for red. Other varieties of gem-quality corundum are called sapphires. It is considered one of the four precious stones, together with the sapphire, the emerald and the diamond. Improvements used include color alteration, improving transparency by dissolving rutile inclusions, healing of fractures (cracks) or even completely filling them. A ruby is a red gemstone. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x975, 78 KB) Sumario Ruby crystal before faceting, length 0. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Alumina redirects here. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... In mineralogy, shape and size give rise to descriptive terms applied to the typical appearance, or habit of crystals. ... A crystal system is a category of space groups, which characterize symmetry of structures in three dimensions with translational symmetry in three directions, having a discrete class of point groups. ... Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite planes, creating smooth surfaces, of which there are several named types: Basal cleavage: cleavage parallel to the base of a crystal, or to the plane of the lateral axes. ... For other uses, see Fracture (disambiguation). ... Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer. ... Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... Pleochroism is an optical phenomenon in which grains of a rock appear to be different colors when observed at different angles,under a petrographic microscope. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... The streak (also called powder color) of a mineral is the color of the powder produced when it is dragged across a unweathered surface. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Corundum (from Tamil kurundam) is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide and one of the rock-forming minerals. ... Alumina redirects here. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sapphire (disambiguation). ... For the Gemstone as a mineral see Gemstone. ... For other uses, see Sapphire (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the mineral. ...


Prices of rubies are primarily determined by color (the brightest and best "red" called Pigeon Blood Red, command a huge premium over other rubies of similar quality). After color follows clarity: similar to diamonds, a clear stone will command a premium, but a ruby without any needle-like rutile inclusions will indicate the stone has been treated one way or another. Cut and carat (size) also determine the price. Ruby is also dark red and used in jewelery. Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2. ... The carat is a unit of mass used for measuring gems and pearls, and is exactly 200 milligrams. ...

Contents

Physical properties

Rubies have a hardness of 9.0 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Among the natural gems only diamond is harder, with a Mohs 10.0 by definition. Look up hardness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... This article is about the mineral. ...


All natural rubies have imperfections in them, including color impurities and inclusions of rutile needles known as "silk". Gemologists use these needle inclusions found in natural rubies to distinguish them from synthetics, simulants, or substitutes. Usually the rough stone is heated before cutting. Almost all rubies today are treated in some form, with heat treatment being the most common practice. However, rubies that are completely untreated are still of excellent quality and command a large premium. Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2. ...


Some rubies show a 3-point or 6-point asterism or star. These rubies are cut into cabochons to display the effect properly. Asterisms are best visible with a single-light source, and move across the stone as the light moves or the stone is rotated. Such effects occur when light is reflected off the silk (the structurally oriented rutile needle. inclusions) in a certain way. This is one example where inclusions increase the value of a gemstone. Rubies can furthermore show color changes — though this occurs very rarely — and chatoyancy. Asterism on the surface of a blue star sapphire Asterism as seen in a lab-created blue star sapphire This article is about the characteristic in some gems. ... Moonstone cabochons in a jewellers window A cabochon or cabouchon is a gemstone which has been shaped and polished as opposed to facetted. ... Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2. ... Tiger eye In gemology, chatoyancy (or chatoyance) is an optical reflectance effect seen in certain gemstones. ...


Occurrence

Rubies are mined in Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, and Cambodia, but they have also been found in the U.S. states of Montana, North Carolina and South Carolina. The Mogok Valley in Upper Myanmar has produced some of the finest rubies, but in recent years very few good rubies have been found there. The unique color in Myanmar (Burmese) rubies is described as "pigeon’s blood". They are known in the trade as “Mogok” rubies. In central Myanmar the area of Mong Hsu also produces rubies. The latest ruby deposit to be found in Myanmar is situated in Nam Ya. In 2002 rubies were found in the Waseges River area of Kenya. Sometimes spinels are found along with rubies in the same rocks and are mistaken for rubies. However, fine red spinels may approach the average ruby in value. For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Mokok is a city (population 150,000) in the Mandalay Division of Myanmar, located 200 km north of Mandalay and 148 km north-east of Shwebo. ... The spinels are any of a class of minerals which crystallize in the isometric system with an octahedral habit. ...

A cut ruby.
A cut ruby.

ImageMetadata File history File links Cut_Ruby. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Cut_Ruby. ...

Treatments and enhancements

Improving the quality of gemstones by treating them is common practice. Some treatments are used in almost all cases and are therefore considered "acceptable". Nevertheless, ruby prices dropped in the mid to late 1990s due a sudden surge in supply of heat-treated rubies. This large supply of low-cost material contributed to massive pressures on ruby prices.


The most common treatment is using heat, most if not all rubies at the lower end of the market are heat treated on the rough stones to improve color, remove purple tingle, blue patches and silk. These heat treatments typically occur around temperatures of 1800°C (3300°F).[1] Some rubies undergo a process of low tube heat, when the stone is heated over charcoal of a temperature of about 1300°C (2400°F) for 20 to 30 minutes. The silk is only partially broken as the color is improved.


A less acceptable treatment, and one which has gained notoriety in recent years is "Lead Glass Filling" of Rubies. By filling the fractures inside the ruby with lead glass the transparency of the stone is dramatically improved making previously unsuited rubies now fit for applications in jewelry. The process is done in 4 steps: Lead glass is potassium silicate glass which has been impregnated with lead oxide (from 12% to 28% by weight) in its fabrication. ...

  1. The rough stones are pre-polished to eradicate all surface impurities that may affect the process
  2. The rough is cleaned with hydrogen fluoride
  3. The first heating process whereby no fillers are added. The heating process eradicates impurities inside the fractures. Although this can be done at temperatures up to 1400°C (2500°F) it most likely occurs at a temperature of around 900°C (1600°F) since the rutile silk is still intact
  4. The second heating process in an electrical oven with different chemical additives. Different solutions and mixes have shown to be successful, however mostly lead-containing glass-powder is used at present. The ruby is dipped into oils, then covered with powder, embedded on a tile and placed in the oven where it is heated at around 900°C (1600°F) for one hour in an oxidizing atmosphere. The orange colored powder transforms upon heating into a transparent to yellow-colored paste, which fills all fractures. After cooling the color of the paste is fully transparent, that dramatically improves the overall transparency of the ruby.

If a color needs to be added, the glass powder can be "enhanced" with copper or other metal oxides as well as elements such as sodium, calcium, potassium etc. Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the formula HF. Together with hydrofluoric acid, it is the principal industrial source of fluorine and hence the precursor to many important compounds including pharmaceuticals and polymers (e. ...


The second heating process can be repeated three to four times, even applying different mixtures.[2] When jewelry containing rubies is heated (for repairs) it should not be coated with boracic acid or any other substance, as this can etch the surface; it does not have to be "protected" like a diamond.


Synthetic and imitation rubies

In 1837 Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing aluminium at a high temperature with a little chromium as a pigment. In 1847 Edelman made white sapphire by fusing alumina in boric acid. In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little Chromium at red heat. In 1903 Verneuil announced he could produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process. [3] Corundum (from Tamil kurundam) is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide and one of the rock-forming minerals. ... Auguste Victor Louis Verneuil (1856-1913) was a French chemist best known for inventing the first commercially viable process for the manufacture of synthetic gemstones. ... The Verneuil process, also called flame fusion, is a method of manufacturing synthetic gemstones, developed in 1902 by the French chemist Auguste Verneuil. ...


Other processes in which synthetic rubies can be produced are through the Pulling process, flux process, and the hydrothermal process. Most synthetic rubies originate from flame fusion, due to the low costs involved. Synthetic rubies may have no imperfections visible to the naked eye but magnification may reveal curves striae and gas bubbles. The fewer the number and the less obvious the imperfections, the more valuable the ruby is; unless there are no imperfections (i.e., a "perfect" ruby), in which case it will be suspected of being artificial. Dopants are added to some manufactured rubies so they can be identified as synthetic, but most need gemmological testing to determine their origin. The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e. ... Hydrothermal synthesis includes the various techniques of crystallizing substances from high-temperature aqueous solutions at high vapor pressures; also termed hydrothermal method. The term hydrothermal is of geologic origin. ... A thin, narrow groove or channel, or a thin line or band especially if several of them are parallel or close together. ... A dopant, also called doping agent and dope, is an impurity element added to a semiconductor lattice in low concentrations in order to alter the optical/electrical properties of the semiconductor. ... Gemology (gemmology outside the United States) is the science, art and profession of identifying and evaluating gemstones. ...


Imitation rubies are also marketed. Red spinel, red garnet and glass have been falsely named as rubies. Imitations go back to Roman times and already in the 17th century techniques were developed to color foil red -- by burning scarlet wool in the bottom part of the furnace -- which was then placed under the imitation stone. [4] Trade terms such as balas ruby for red spinel and rubellite for red tourmaline can mislead unsuspecting buyers. Such terms are therefore discouraged from use by many gemological associations such as the Laboratory Manual Harmonisation Committee (LMHC). Imitation is an advanced animal behaviour whereby an individual observes anothers behaviour and replicates it itself. ... The spinels are any of a class of minerals which crystallize in the isometric system with an octahedral habit. ... The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. ... The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. ...


Records

  • Although pieces of red corundum can be found weighing many kilograms, they are generally not of sufficient quality to be valuable as gemstones. For this reason, auction prices are the best indicator of a stone's true value, and prices do not necessarily correlate with size. As of 2006, the record price paid at auction for a single stone was $5,860,000 for an unnamed 38.12 carat cabochon-cut ruby.[5]
  • The Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC, has received one of the world's largest and finest ruby gemstones. The spectacular 23.1-carat Burmese ruby, set in a platinum ring with diamonds, was donated by businessman and philanthropist Peter Buck in memory of his wife Carmen Lúcia. This extraordinary gemstone displays a richly saturated red color combined with an exceptional transparency. The finely proportioned cut provides vivid red reflections. The stone was mined from the fabled Mogok region of Burma, now Myanmar in the 1930s.[6]

Inside the National Museum of Natural History, underneath the rotunda. ... Mokok is a city (population 150,000) in the Mandalay Division of Myanmar, located 200 km north of Mandalay and 148 km north-east of Shwebo. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ...

Historical and cultural references

  • According to Rebbenu Bachya, and the New International Version, the word odem means "ruby" in the verse Exodus 28:17 (referring to a stone on the Hoshen), and was the stone representing the tribe of Reuben. Modern Hebrew has taken this meaning. However, odem actually means earth, and is cognate with Adam; in the Middle East, the earth it refers to is certainly reddish, but the Septuagint translates the term as sard (which also means red), which is also the name of a common, somewhat opaque, gem. Scholars think the stone intended is probably a aard, as does the King James Version, scholars think that if not a sard it may possibly be the related gem carnelian; it is thought possible that sard and odem here just mean the colour of the stone, and red jasper would therefore also be a possibility.
  • Ruby is the most commonly named precious stone in English translations of the Bible; an example being Proverbs 31: "A virtuous wife is worth more than rubies.". The underlying masoretic text doesn't necessarily refer to rubies, however. Not only are there issues such as that mentioned with odem, but in the case of Proverbs 31, the masoretic text merely states jewels, and the Septuagint makes Proverbs 31 refer to precious stones (estin lithon ); some English versions of the bible believe that pearls is a better translation here.
  • An early recorded note of the transport and trading of rubies arises in the literature on the North Silk Road of China, where in about 100 BC rubies were carried along this ancient trackway moving westward from China.[7]
  • The famous lighted "Red Stars" mounted above Kremlin spires, thought to be giant rubies mined in Siberia, are colored glass.
  • Ruby is the birthstone associated with July and of the zodiac sign Cancer.
  • Ruby is associated with the sun in Vedic astrology.
  • Ruby is associated with a 40th wedding anniversary.
  • Rubies have always been held in high esteem in Asian countries. They were used to ornament armor, scabbards, and harnesses of noblemen in India and China. Rubies were laid beneath the foundation of buildings to secure good fortune to the structure.[8]

Not to be confused with Bahya ibn Paquda. ... The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible which is the most popular of the modern translations of the Bible made in the twentieth century. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... The Hoshen (Khosen) was the breastplate of Judgment worn by the High Priest in the book of Exodus in the Bible, covered by 12 stones that represented the 12 tribes of Israel. ... Reuben may refer to: People Ruben Zambrano,Basketball player for Houston Rockets]] Reuben, the first-born son of Jacob and the founder of the Tribe of Reuben mentioned in the Book of Genesis tried to save his brother. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Adam in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Sard is a reddish-brown chalcedony, SiO2, much used by the ancients as a gemstone. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Imprint of a carnelian seal with Brahmi inscription Kusumadasasya (Flowers servant). 4-5th century CE, probably Punjab. ... Polished jasper pebble, one inch (2. ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh). ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... A trackway is a set of impressions in the soft earth, usually a set of footprints, left by a life-form. ... The Kremlin stars (Russian: Кремлёвские звёзды) are the pentagonal luminescent ruby stars, installed in the 1930s on five towers of the Moscow Kremlin, replacing the gilded eagles that had symbolized Imperial Russia. ... This article is about Russian citadels. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... For other uses, see Birthday (disambiguation). ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Cancer astrology sign on the ceiling of the main concourse of Grand Central Terminal. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A wedding anniversary is an anniversary which falls on the month and day a particular wedding took place, and which recurs every subsequent year, except for those who were married on February 29th. ...

Valley of rubies

Of the world's rubies, 90% currently derive from Myanmar (Burma) whose red stones are prized for their purity and hue. Thailand buys the majority of Myanmar's gems. Myanmar's "Valley of Rubies", the mountainous Mogok area, 200 km (125 miles) north of Mandalay, is noted for its rare pigeon's blood rubies and blue sapphires. But working conditions in the mines are horrendous. Debbie Stothard of the Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma stated that mining operators used drugs on employees to improve productivity, with needles shared, raising the risk of HIV infection: "These rubies are red with the blood of young people." Brian Leber (41-year-old jeweler who founded The Jewellers' Burma Relief Project) stated that: "For the time being, Burmese gems should not be something to be proud of. They should be an object of revulsion. It's the only country where one obtains really top quality rubies, but I stopped dealing in them. I don't want to be part of a nation's misery. If someone asks for a ruby now I show them a nice pink sapphire."[9] In 2007, following the crackdown on pro-democracy protests in Myanmar, human rights organizations, gem dealers, and US First Lady Laura Bush called for a boycott of a Myanmar gem auction held twice yearly, arguing that the sale of the stones profits the dictatorial regime in that country. [10] Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... ... An image with the hues cyclically shifted The hues in the image of this Painted Bunting are cyclically rotated with time. ... Gems can refer to: gemstones, or Gems Gems TV, a shopping channel specializing in Gemstones. ... Mokok is a city (population 150,000) in the Mandalay Division of Myanmar, located 200 km north of Mandalay and 148 km north-east of Shwebo. ... This article is about the city in Myanmar. ... Sapphire is the single crystal form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3). ... ASEAN[1], pronounced // (AH-SEE-AHN) in English, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand[2] as a display of solidarity... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Protesters in Yangon with a banner that reads non-violence: national movement in Burmese, in the background is Shwedagon Pagoda The 2007 Burmese anti-government protests are a wave of anti-government protests that started in Burma (also known as Union of Myanmar) on August 15, 2007. ... Laura Lane Welch Bush (born November 4, 1946) is the wife of the forty-third and current President of the United States George W. Bush and is thereby the First Lady of the United States. ...


See also

Gem animals. ...

References

  1. ^ The Heat Treatment of Ruby and Sapphire. Gemlab Inc., Bangkok, Thailand, 1992 | accessdate = 2007-05-28
  2. ^ Milisenda, C C (2005). "Rubine mit bleihaltigen Glasern gefullt". Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 54 (1): 35-41. Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft. Retrieved on 2007-05-28. 
  3. ^ Bahadur: a Handbook of Precious Stones (1943). Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  4. ^ Thomas Nicols: A Lapidary or History of Gemstones (1652). Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  5. ^ Hughes, Richard (2006-04-26). Judging Quality: A Connoisseur's Guide (HTML). Ruby & Sapphire. Retrieved on 2007-01-31.
  6. ^ The Carmen Lúcia Ruby (HTML). Exhibitions. Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
  7. ^ C.Michael Hogan,Silk Road, North China, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham
  8. ^ Smith, Henry G. (1896). Gems and Precious Stones. Charles Potter Government Printer, Australia.  URL:Chapter 2, Sapphires, Rubies
  9. ^ Reuters, Move over, blood diamonds
  10. ^ CBC - Gem dealers push to ban Burmese rubies after bloody crackdown

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

For the Korean music group, see Jewelry (group). ... For the CSI episode of the same name, see Precious Metal (CSI episode). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... Electrum coin of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus. ... Rose gold is a gold and copper alloy widely used for specialized jewelry due to its reddish color. ... Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92. ... White gold is an alloy of gold and at least one white metal, such as silver or palladium. ... In chemistry, the term base metal is used informally to refer to a metal that oxidizes or corrodes relatively easily, and reacts variably with diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form hydrogen. ... Brazen redirects here. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... Aventurine is used for a number of applications, including landscape stone, building stone, aquaria, monuments, and jewelry. ... For other uses, see Agate (disambiguation). ... The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl, not to be confused with beryl, is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4. ... For other uses, see Amethyst (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mineral. ... Imprint of a carnelian seal with Brahmi inscription Kusumadasasya (Flowers servant). 4-5th century CE, probably Punjab. ... Citrine Citrine, also called citrine quartz is an amber-colored gemstone. ... This article is about the mineral. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Garnet is a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Polished jasper pebble, one inch (2. ... For other uses, see Malachite (disambiguation). ... Lapis lazuli, also known as just lapis, is one of the stones with the longest tradition of being considered a gem, with a history stretching back to 5000 BC. Deep blue in color and opaque, this gemstone was highly prized by the pharaohs of ancient Egypt, as can be seen... Moonstone is typically a potassium aluminium silicate, with the chemical formula KAlSi3O8 [1] The most common moonstone is of the mineral Adularia. ... This article is about the mineral. ... For other uses, see Opal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mineral. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sapphire (disambiguation). ... Sodalite is a rare, rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental stone. ... Sunstone, a feldspar exhibiting in certain directions a brilliant spangled appearance, which has led to its use as an ornamental stone. ... Tanzanite is the blue/purple variety of the mineral zoisite discovered in the Meralani Hills of northern Tanzania in 1967, near the city of Arusha. ... Polished tigers eye gemstone Tigers eye (also Tigers eye, Tiger eye) is a chatoyant gemstone that is usually yellow- to red-brown, with a silky luster. ... This article is about the mineral or gemstone. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... Copal is a type of resin, sometimes referred to as pom (the Maya language name). ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... A sample of jet Jet is a geological material that is not considered a mineral in the true sense of the word, but rather, a mineraloid derived from decaying wood under extreme pressure, thus organic in origin. ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ...

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If the width of the ruby text is smaller than that of the base, then the ruby text contents are evenly distributed across the width of the base, with the first and last ruby text glyphs lining up with the corresponding first and last base glyphs.
Neelanjali Ruby - encyclopedia article about Neelanjali Ruby. (409 words)
The Neelanjali Ruby is the world's largest star ruby with a 12 point asterism, which is commonly denoted as a double-star ruby.
The ruby belongs to G. Vidyaraj and is reported to be in Bangalore, India.
Ruby is a red gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide) in which the color is caused mainly by chromium.
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