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Encyclopedia > Ruble
100,000 Belarusian rubles issued in 2005
100,000 Belarusian rubles issued in 2005
1 Transnistrian ruble issued in 2000
1 Transnistrian ruble issued in 2000

The ruble or rouble is a unit of currency. It is currently the currency unit of Belarus, Russia, and Transnistria, and was the currency unit of several other countries, notably countries influenced by Russia and the Soviet Union. One ruble is divided into 100 kopeks or copecks[1]. Belarusian ruble (ISO-code BYR, before 2000 - BYB) is the official currency of Belarus. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... ISO 4217 Code None User(s) Transnistria Inflation 10. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ...

Contents

Coinage/Paper Bill Values

Paper bills:


5 rubles, 10 rubles, 50 rubles, 100 rubles , 500 rubles, 1000 rubles, 5000 rubles, 10,000 rubles, 50,000 rubles, 100,000 rubles, 500,000 rubles


Coins:


1 kopeck, 5 kopecks, 10 kopecks, 50 kopecks, 1 ruble,


Etymology

Origin

According to one version, the word "ruble" is derived from the Russian verb рубить, rubit, i.e., to chop. Historically, "ruble" was a piece of a certain weight chopped off a silver ingot (grivna), hence the name. Another more convincing version is that the name comes from the Russian noun рубец, rubets, i.e., the seam that is left around the coin after casting: silver was added to the cast in two goes. Therefore the word ruble means "a cast with a seam"[2]. This article is about the chemical element. ... Modern gold ingots from the Bank of Sweden An Ingot is a mass of material cast into a shape which is easy to handle. ... The hryvnia (Ukrainian гривня) has been the national currency of Ukraine since 1996 when it replaced the coupon (or karbovanets), the temporary currency used after Ukraine left the Soviet Union and the ruble zone. ...


It was the Russian equivalent of the mark, a measurement of weight for silver and gold used in medieval western Europe. The weight of one ruble was equal to the weight of one grivna. The word mark (from an apparently non-Teutonic word found in all Teutonic and Romance languages, and Latinized as marca or marcus) originally expressed a measure of weight only for gold and silver, commonly used throughout western Europe and equivalent to 8 oz (ounces). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


In Russian, a folk name for "ruble", tselkovy (целковый, wholesome), is known, which is a shortening of the "целковый рубль" ("tselkovyi ruble"), i.e. a wholesome, uncut ruble.


The word kopek, kopeck or copeck (копейка, kopeyka) derives from the Russian kop'yo (копьё) – a spear. The first kopek coins, minted at Novgorod and Pskov from about 1535 onwards, show a horseman with a spear. From the 1540s onwards the horseman bears a crown, and doubtless the intention was to represent Ivan the Terrible who was Grand Prince of all Russia until 1547 and Tsar thereafter. Spears were one of the most common personal weapons from the late Bronze Age until the advent of firearms. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Pskov (Russian: , ancient Russian spelling Пльсковъ (Plescow)) is an ancient city, located in the north-west of Russia about 20 km east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River. ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ...


It is worth noting that Russia was the first country in the world to introduce a decimal monetary system (1704) where one ruble was equal to 100 kopeks.


English spelling

Both the spellings "ruble" and "rouble" are used in English. The form "rouble" is preferred by the Oxford English Dictionary, but the earliest use recorded in English is the now completely obsolete "robble". The form "rouble" probably derives from the transliteration into French used among the Tsarist aristocracy. There is some tendency for North American authors to use "ruble" and other English speakers to use "rouble", and also some tendency for older sources to use "rouble" and more recent ones to use "ruble", but neither tendency is absolute. An accurate, but ungainly, English transliteration is rubl'. The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Росси́йская Импе́рия, (also Imperial Russia) covers the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great into the Russian Empire stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposition of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start of the Russian Revolution... Aristocrat redirects here. ... There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. ...


Plurals in Russian

The Russian plurals that may be seen on the actual currency are modified according to Russian grammar. Numbers 1, 21, 31 etc. will be followed by nominative singular рубль, копейка. Numbers 2-4, 22-24, 32-34 etc. will be followed by genitive singular рубля, копейки. Numbers 5-20, 25-30, 35-40 etc. will be followed by genitive plural рублей, копеек. Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Russian grammar encompasses: a highly synthetic morphology a syntax that, for the literary language, is the conscious fusion of three elements: a Church Slavonic inheritance; a Western European style; a polished vernacular foundation. ...


Other languages

See also: Soviet ruble

In several languages spoken in Russia and the former Soviet Union, the currency name has no etymological relation with rouble. Especially in Turkic languages or languages influenced by them, the rouble is often known (also officially) as som or sum, (meaning pure), or manat (from Russian moneta, meaning coin). ISO 4217 Code SUR User(s) Soviet Union Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural rublya (gen. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ...


Soviet banknotes had their value printed in the languages of 15 republics of the Soviet Union. In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ...


List of rubles

Current

Belarusian ruble (ISO-code BYR, before 2000 - BYB) is the official currency of Belarus. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... ISO 4217 Code None User(s) Transnistria Inflation 10. ...

Obsolete

(This list may not contain all historical rubles, especially rubles issued by sub-national entities)

Numismatics Portal 

The ruble was the separate currency of Armenia between 1919 and 1922. ... The ruble was the separate currency of Azerbaijan between 1919 and 1922. ... ISO 4217 Code AZN User(s) Azerbaijan except Nagorno-Karabakh Inflation 11. ... The maneti (მანეთი) was the currency of the Democratic Republic of Georgia and the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic between 1919 and 1923. ... ISO 4217 Code SUR User(s) Soviet Union Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural rublya (gen. ... The ruble was the currency of Tajikistan between 1995 and 2001. ... The ruble (Russian: рубль, Armenian: ռուբլի), manat (Azerbaijani: منات) or maneti (Georgian: მანეთი) was the currency of both Transcaucasian states, the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic and the Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic. ... The Karbovanets (Ukrainian: plural karbovantsi) has been a distinct unit of currency in the Ukraine during three separate periods. ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (910x910, 596 KB)Media:Example. ...

References

  1. ^ Also, a copeck is the one hundredth part of a Ukrainian hryvnia
  2. ^ Sergey Khalatov. History of Ruble and Kopek on "Collectors' Portal UUU.RU" (In Russian)
ISO 4217 Code UAH User(s) Ukraine Inflation 11. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Russian Political Parties, United Russia - JRL 8-5-03 (760 words)
The People's Party with 115.202 million rubles is second, the Union of Right Forces with 52.793 million is third, and Yabloko with 45.312 million is fourth.
Judging by the available accounts, United Russia was the least profligate: they show that it didn't spend a single ruble in 2002 on congresses or conferences.
Yabloko donated almost a million rubles to the poor, the People's Party a similar sum, the Communists over 300,000 rubles, and United Russia 51,000 rubles.
Forty-Three Rubles - Charity: an Anthology (0 words)
When Chassidic master Rabbi Zvi Elimelech Spira (known as the "Bnei Yissaschar" after the book he authored by that name) was ten years old, his father took a position as a teacher in a distant town.
The innkeeper figured he owed the teacher 40 rubles for teaching his children, but the teacher owed him 43 rubles for taking in the peasants.
The innkeeper wished him a Happy Passover and said he could bring the three rubles upon his return after the festival.
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