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Encyclopedia > Rubidium
37 kryptonrubidiumstrontium
K

Rb

Cs
General
Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37
Chemical series alkali metals
Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s
Appearance grey white
Standard atomic weight 85.4678(3) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Kr] 5s1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 8, 1
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 1.532 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 1.46 g·cm−3
Melting point 312.46 K
(39.31 °C, 102.76 °F)
Boiling point 961 K
(688 °C, 1270 °F)
Critical point (extrapolated)
2093 K, 16 MPa
Heat of fusion 2.19 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 75.77 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 31.060 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 434 486 552 641 769 958
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic body centered
Oxidation states 1
(strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 0.82 (scale Pauling)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 403.0 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2633 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3860 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 235 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 265 pm
Covalent radius 211 pm
Van der Waals radius 244 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 128 n Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 58.2 W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 1300 m/s
Young's modulus 2.4 GPa
Bulk modulus 2.5 GPa
Mohs hardness 0.3
Brinell hardness 0.216 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-17-7
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of rubidium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
83Rb syn 86.2 d ε - 83Kr
γ 0.52, 0.53,
0.55
-
84Rb syn 32.9 d ε - 84Kr
β+ 1.66, 0.78 84Kr
γ 0.881 -
β- 0.892 84Sr
85Rb 72.168% Rb is stable with 48 neutrons
86Rb syn 18.65 d β- 1.775 86Sr
γ 1.0767 -
87Rb 27.835% 4.88×1010 y β- 0.283 87Sr
References

Rubidium (pronounced /ruːˈbɪdiəm/, /rəˈbɪdiəm/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Rb and atomic number 37. Rb is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metal group. Rb-87, a naturally occurring isotope, is (slightly) radioactive. Rubidium is very soft and highly reactive, with properties similar to other elements in group 1, like rapid oxidation in air. For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x270, 22 KB) Image by Daniel Mayer or GreatPatton and released under terms of the GNU FDL File links The following pages link to this file: Rubidium User:Femto/elements e5 ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The alkali metals are a chemical series. ... A period 5 element is one of the chemical elements in the fifth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The s-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the first two groups: the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, plus hydrogen. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Rubidium sample. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Rubidium (Rb) Standard atomic mass: 85. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... Positron emission is a type of beta decay, sometimes referred to as beta plus (β+). In beta plus decay, a proton is converted to a neutron via the weak nuclear force and a beta plus particle (a positron) and a neutrino are emitted. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Air redirects here. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Rubidium is the second most electropositive of the stable alkaline elements and liquefies at high ambient temperature (102.7°F = 39.3°C). Like other group 1 elements this metal reacts violently in water. In common with potassium and caesium this reaction is usually vigorous enough to ignite the liberated hydrogen. Rubidium has also been reported to ignite spontaneously in air. Also like other alkali metals, it forms amalgams with mercury and it can form alloys with gold, caesium, sodium, and potassium. The element gives a reddish-violet color to a flame, hence its name. An electropositive atom, or element, is one that easily loses electrons. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about mixtures (alloys) of mercury with other elements. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... Violet (named after the flower violet) is used in two senses: first, referring to the color of light at the short-wavelength end of the visible spectrum, approximately 380–420 nanometres (this is a spectral color). ...


Uses

Potential or current uses of rubidium include:

Rubidium is easily ionized, so it has been considered for use in ion engines for space vehicles (but caesium and xenon are more efficient for this purpose). A Bose–Einstein condensate is a phase of matter formed by bosons cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero (0 kelvins or -273. ... This article is about electronics. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... A photoresistor is an electronic component whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. ... “Nuclear Clock” redirects here. ... In atomic physics, hyperfine structure is a small perturbation in the energy levels (or spectra) of atoms or molecules due to the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, arising from the interaction of the nuclear magnetic dipole with the magnetic field of the electron. ... This article is about the material. ... Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Ion channels are present in the membranes that surround all biological cells. ... A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... An ion engine test An ion thruster is a type of spacecraft propulsion that uses beams of ions for propulsion. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer-Earth objects and generally anything that involves the technologies, science, and politics regarding space endeavors. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ...


Rubidium compounds are sometimes used in fireworks to give them a purple color. For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... This article is about the color. ...


RbAg4I5 has the highest room temperature conductivity of any known ionic crystal. This property could be useful in thin film batteries and in other applications. Rubidium silver iodide, formula RbAg4I5, is an unusually conductive crystal, with the conductivity involving movement of the silver ions within the crystal lattice. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with electrical conductance, a measure of an objects or circuits ability to conduct an electric current between two points, which is dependent on the electrical conductivity and the geometric dimensions of the conducting object. ... An ionic crystal is a crystal consisting of ions bound together by their electrostatic attraction. ... Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ...


Rubidium has also been considered for use in a thermoelectric generator using the magnetohydrodynamic principle, where rubidium ions are formed by heat at high temperature and passed through a magnetic field. These conduct electricity and act like an armature of a generator thereby generating an electric current. Thermoelectricity is the conversion from heat differentials to electricity or vice versa. ... Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magnetofluiddynamics or hydromagnetics) is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings Magnetostatics Electrodynamics Electrical Network Tensors in Relativity This box:      In physics, the magnetic field is a field that permeates space and which exerts a magnetic force on moving electric charges and magnetic dipoles. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... In electrical engineering, an armature is usually the rotating part of an electric motor or dynamo. ... Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ...


Rubidium, particularly 87Rb, in the form of vapor, is one of the most commonly-used atomic species employed for laser cooling and Bose-Einstein condensation. Its desirable features for this application include the ready availability of inexpensive diode laser light at the relevant wavelength, and the moderate temperatures required to obtain substantial vapor pressures. Laser cooling is a technique that uses light to cool atoms to a very low temperature. ... A Bose–Einstein condensate is a phase of matter formed by bosons cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero. ... A laser diode is a laser where the active medium is a semiconductor p-n junction similar to that found in a light-emitting diode. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ...


Rubidium has been used for polarizing 3He (that is, producing volumes of magnetized 3He gas, with the nuclear spins aligned toward a particular direction in space, rather than randomly). Rubidium vapor is optically pumped by a laser and the polarized Rb polarizes 3He by the hyperfine interaction.[2] Spin-polarized 3He cells are becoming popular for neutron polarization measurements and for producing polarized neutron beams for other purposes.[3] Spin polarization is the degree by which the spin, i. ...


History

Rubidium (L rubidus, deepest red) was discovered in 1861 by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff in the mineral lepidolite through the use of a spectroscope. However, this element had minimal industrial use until the 1920s. Historically, the most important use for rubidium has been in research and development, primarily in chemical and electronic applications. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (31 March 1811 – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist. ... Gustav Robert Kirchhof (March 12, 1824 – October 17, 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Crystal of lepidolite, Brazil Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al,Si)3O10(F,OH)2) is a lilac or rose-violet colored phyllosilicate mineral of the mica group that is a secondary source of lithium. ... A spectroscope is a device which measures the spectrum of light. ...


Occurrence

Rubidium is about the sixteenth most abundant metal in the Earth's crust, roughly as abundant as zinc and rather more common than copper. It occurs naturally in the minerals leucite, pollucite, and zinnwaldite, which contains traces of up to 1% of its oxide. Lepidolite contains 1.5% rubidium and this is the commercial source of the element. Some potassium minerals and potassium chlorides also contain the element in commercially significant amounts. One notable source is also in the extensive deposits of pollucite at Bernic Lake, Manitoba. This table shows the abundance of elements in Earths crust. ... Leucite or amphigene is a rock-forming mineral composed of potassium and aluminium metasilicate KAl(SiO3)2. ... Pollucite is a mineral, one of the Zeolite group pf minerals. ... Zinnwaldite, KLiFeAl(AlSi3)O10(OH,F)2, is a potassium lithium iron aluminium silicate hydroxide fluoride silicate mineral in the mica group. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... Crystal of lepidolite, Brazil Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al,Si)3O10(F,OH)2) is a lilac or rose-violet colored phyllosilicate mineral of the mica group that is a secondary source of lithium. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide composed of potassium and chlorine. ... Pollucite is a mineral, one of the Zeolite group pf minerals. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797...


Rubidium metal can be produced by reducing rubidium chloride with calcium among other methods. In 1997 the cost of this metal in small quantities was about US$ 25/gram. Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ...


Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of rubidium

There are 24 isotopes of rubidium known with naturally occurring rubidium being composed of just two isotopes; Rb-85 (72.2%) and the radioactive Rb-87 (27.8%). Normal mixes of rubidium are radioactive enough to fog photographic film in approximately 30 to 60 days. Rubidium (Rb) Standard atomic mass: 85. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Rb-87 has a half-life of 4.88×1010 years. It readily substitutes for potassium in minerals, and is therefore fairly widespread. Rb has been used extensively in dating rocks; Rb-87 decays to stable strontium-87 by emission of a negative beta particle. During fractional crystallization, Sr tends to become concentrated in plagioclase, leaving Rb in the liquid phase. Hence, the Rb/Sr ratio in residual magma may increase over time, resulting in rocks with increasing Rb/Sr ratios with increasing differentiation. Highest ratios (10 or higher) occur in pegmatites. If the initial amount of Sr is known or can be extrapolated, the age can be determined by measurement of the Rb and Sr concentrations and the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio. The dates indicate the true age of the minerals only if the rocks have not been subsequently altered. See Rubidium-Strontium dating for a more detailed discussion. Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Radiometric dating is a technique used to date materials based on a knowledge of the decay rates of naturally occurring isotopes, and the current abundances. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... Alpha radiation consists of helium nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... In chemistry, Fractional Crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in soluability. ... Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The rubidium-strontium dating method is a radiometric dating technique that geologists use to determine the age of rocks. ...


Compounds

Rubidium chloride is probably the most-used rubidium compound; it is used in biochemistry to induce cells to take up DNA, and as a biomarker since it is readily taken up to replace potassium, and does not normally occur in living organisms. Rubidium hydroxide is the starting material for most rubidium-based chemical processes; rubidium carbonate is used in some optical glasses. Rubidium(I) chloride is an ionic compound. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Rubidium carbonate, Rb2CO3, is a convenient compound of rubidium; it is stable, not particularly reactive, and readily soluble in water (2. ...


Rubidium has a number of oxides, including Rb6O and Rb9O2 which appear if rubidium metal is left exposed to air; the final product of reacting with oxygen is the superoxide RbO2. Rubidium oxide (Rb2O) is a base chemical formed from an oxide and a rubidium ion. ... Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ...


Precautions

Rubidium reacts violently with water and can cause fires. To ensure both safety and purity, this element must be kept under a dry mineral oil, in a vacuum or in an inert atmosphere. Mineral oil or liquid petrolatum is a by-product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Air redirects here. ...


Biological effects

Rubidium, like sodium and potassium, is almost always in its +1 oxidation state. The human body tends to treat Rb+ ions as if they were potassium ions, and therefore concentrates rubidium in the body's electrolytic fluid. The ions are not particularly toxic, and are relatively quickly removed in the sweat and urine. However, taken in excess it can be dangerous.


Pop culture reference

Rubidium crystals are a key component of the subdermal transponders injected into Capt. James T. Kirk and Cmdr. Spock before they beam down to the surface of Ekos in the Star Trek episode "Patterns of Force". James Tiberius Kirk, played by William Shatner, is the main character in the original Star Trek television series and the films based on it. ... This article is about the Star Trek character. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... Patterns of Force is a second season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series, and was broadcast on February 16, 1968. ...


See also

  • Rubidium compounds

References

  1. ^ http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=APPLAB000089000013134105000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes
  2. ^ http://nvl.nist.gov/pub/nistpubs/jres/110/3/j110-3gen.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/AnnualReport/FY2002_html/pages/neutron_spin.htm

Sources

External links

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