FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Rubicon
Presumed course of the Rubicon

The Rubicon (Rubicō, Italian: Rubicone) is an ancient Latin name for a small river in northern Italy. It is believed that in Roman times it flowed into the Adriatic Sea between Ariminum (Rimini) and Caesena (Cesena). The actual modern identity of the river is uncertain; it is usually identified as the Pisciatello in its upper reaches and then the Fiumicino to the sea. "Crossing the Rubicon" is a popular idiom meaning to go past a point of no return because it was an ancient boundary between Gaul and Italy. Julius Caesar crossed the river in 49 BC deliberately as an act of war where he is supposed to have said that "the die is cast" and where he would eventually come to power. [1] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Rubicon is the name of: a river in northern italy an Alberta-Canada society of the same name. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... River Gambia flowing through Niokolokoba National Park A river is a large natural waterway. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. ... Cesena (ancient Caesena) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, south of Ravenna and west of Rimini, on the Savio River, co-chief of the Province of Forlì-Cesena. ... River Gambia flowing through Niokolokoba National Park A river is a large natural waterway. ... Crossing the Rubicon is a phrase connoting the passage of a point of no return. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gaius Julius Caesar[1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC), often simply referred to as Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... Alea iacta est (Latin: The die is cast) [ˈaːlÉ›a ˈjakta É›st] is what Julius Caesar is reported to have said on January 10, 49 BC as he led his army across the River Rubicon in Northern Italy out of the province assigned to him by the Roman Senate. ...

Contents

History

The river is notable as Roman law forbade any general from crossing it with a standing army. The river was considered to mark the boundary between the Roman province of Cisalpine Gaul to the north and Italy proper to the south; the law thus protected the republic from internal military threat. When Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, supposedly on January 10 of the Roman calendar to make his way to Rome he broke that law and made armed conflict inevitable. According to Suetonius he uttered the famous phrase ālea iacta est ("the die is cast").[1] Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... Cisalpine Gaul (Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning Gaul this side of the Alps) was a province of the Roman Republic, in Emilia and Lombardy of modern-day northern Italy. ... Gaius Julius Caesar[1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC), often simply referred to as Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... Consuls: Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus, Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Alea iacta est (Latin: The die is cast) [ˈaːlÉ›a ˈjakta É›st] is what Julius Caesar is reported to have said on January 10, 49 BC as he led his army across the River Rubicon in Northern Italy out of the province assigned to him by the Roman Senate. ... Two standard six-sided pipped dice with rounded corners. ...


Suetonius also described how Caesar was apparently still undecided as he approached the river, and the author gave credit for the actual moment of crossing to a supernatural apparition. The phrase "crossing the Rubicon" has survived to refer to any people committing themselves irrevocably to a risky and revolutionary course of action – similar to the current phrase "passing the point of no return". It also refers, in limited usage, to its plainer meaning of using military power in a non-receptive homeland. Crossing the Rubicon is a phrase connoting the passage of a point of no return. ... The point of no return, or the Rubicon, is the point beyond which someone, or some group of people, must continue on their current course of action. ...


British historian E.H. Carr, in his well-known book "What is History?" (1961), stated that "not everything which happened in the past is a historical fact". He demonstrated that by noting that millions of people have crossed the Rubicon in ancient and modern times (and even Caesar crossed it several times before 49 BC), but only one specific crossing gets the attention of historians due to its important consequences, and is called by them The Crossing of the Rubicon. Edward Hallett Carr (1892–1982) was a British historian and international relations theorist. ... What is History? is a 1961 nonfiction book by historian Edward Hallet Carr on historiography. ...


Location confusion

After Caesar’s crossing, the Rubicon was a geographical feature of note, but only for a few years, until imperator Augustus abolished the Province of Gallia Cisalpina (today’s northern Italy) in 42 B.C, and the river ceased to be the extreme border line of Italy. Augustus’ decision caused the Rubicon to lose a great deal of importance, and as memories faded, the name “Rubicon” gradually disappeared from local toponymy. Image File history File links Information_icon. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ...


After the Roman Empire fell, and during first centuries of the Middle Ages, the coastal plain between Ravenna and Rimini was flooded many times. The Rubicon, together with other small rivers of the region, often changed its course during this period. For this reason, and in order to supply fields with water after the revival of agriculture after the Middle Ages, during the 14th and 15th centuries hydraulic works were built to prevent other floods and to regulate streams. As a result of this, these rivers eventually turned into straight lines, which is how they appear today. As the centuries went by, several rivers of Italian Adriatic coast between Ravenna and Rimini have at times been said to correspond to the ancient Rubicon.The Via Aemilia (National Road N°9), still follows its original Roman course as it runs between hills and plain. Attempts to deduce the original flow of the Rubicon can be done only by studying written documents and other archaeological evidence such as Roman milestones which indicate the distance between the ancient river and the nearest Roman towns. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Ravenna is a city and commune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. ... Via Aemilia (It. ...


It is important to underline that the starting point of a Roman road (some kind of “mile zero”), from which distances were counted, was always the crossing between Cardo and Decumanum, the two basic streets in every Roman town, running north-south and east-west, respectively. In a section of the Tabula Peutingeriana, an ancient document showing the network of Roman roads, a river in north-eastern Italy labeled “fl. Rubico” is marked at a position 12 (Roman) miles (18 km) north of Rimini along the coastline; 12 miles is the distance between Rimini and a place called “Ad confluentes,” drawn west of the Rubicon, on the Via Aemilia. A Roman road in Pompeii Road Construction on Trajans Column The Roman roads were essential for the growth of their empire, by enabling them to move armies. ... For the crustacean genus Cardus, see Polychelidae. ... Palmyra in Syria In Roman city planning, a Decumanus Maximus was an east-west-oriented road in a Roman city, military camp, or colonia. ... The Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger table) is an itinerarium showing the cursus publicus, the road network in the Roman Empire. ...


In 1933, after various efforts spanning centuries, the river called Fiumicino, crossing the town of Savignano di Romagna (now Savignano sul Rubicone), was officially identified as the former Rubicon. The final proof came only in 1991, when three Italian scholars (Pignotti, Ravagli and Donati), after a comparison between Tabula Peutingeriana and other ancient sources (including Cicero), showed that the distance running from Rome to Rubicon river was 200 miles. Key elements of their work are: Savignano sul Rubicone is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Forlì-Cesena in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 90 km southeast of Bologna and about 30 km southeast of Forlì. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 15,952 and an area of 23. ... Some people named Donati: Baldassare Donati, Italian composer of the late Renaissance Danilo Donati, Italian costume designer (1926 - 2001) Giovanni Battista Donati, Italian astronomer Giuseppe Donati, inventor of the modern ocarina Ignazio Donati, Italian composer (1570 - 1638) Virgil Donati, Australian drummer Category: ... The Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger table) is an itinerarium showing the cursus publicus, the road network in the Roman Empire. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ; Latin pronunciation:  ; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator, statesman, political theorist, lawyer and philosopher of Ancient Rome. ...

  • The locality of San Giovanni in Compito (now a western quarter of Savignano) has to be identified with old Ad Confluentes (“compito” means confluence of roads and it’s synonymous with “confluentes”);
  • The distance between Ad Confluentes and Rome, according the Tabula Peutingeriana, is 201 miles;
  • The distance from today’s San Giovanni in Compito and Fiumicino river is 1 (Roman) mile (1.48 km), according to ancient sources.

San Giovanni, the Italian form of the name of Saint John. ... The Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger table) is an itinerarium showing the cursus publicus, the road network in the Roman Empire. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Swedish/Norwegian mil. ...

Present

Today there is very little evidence of Caesar’s historical passage. Savignano sul Rubicone is an industrial town and the river became one of most polluted in the Emilia-Romagna region. The intense exploitation of underground waters in the upper course of the Rubicon, together with natural drying of its spring, have led to reduce its flow. It was a minor river even during Roman times (“parvi Rubiconis ad undas” as Lucan said). The Rubicon has since lost its natural route except in its upper course, between low and woody hills. Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Lucan can refer to: Lucan, a town in County Dublin Lucan, a town in Minnesota, USA Lucan, a town in Ontario, Canada Earl of Lucan, a British peerage title Richard Bingham, 7th Earl of Lucan, the most famous holder Lucan, a Roman poet Lucan the Butler, a Knight of the...


The mouth is probably the place where the historical passage occurred. Caesar was travelling with his soldiers from Ravenna to Rimini, which were both near the sea. The location of the mouth of the river must be 17 km north from Rimini. Today it is a crowded tourist region, with modern hotels and shops. The correct area of the historical crossing, today’s locality of Gatteo Mare, has no signs commemorating the event, nor is the former position of the river commemorated. Ravenna is a city and commune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. ...


Link

  • Rubico (49 BCE) Brief notice with a photo of the bridge at Savignano today.

Notes

  1. ^ Lives of the Caesars 'Divus Julius' sect. 32. Suetonius gives the Latin version, iacta alea est, although according to Plutarch's Parallel Lives, Caesar quoted a line from the playwright Menander: ἀνερρίφθω κύβος / anerriphthô kubos, or 'let the die be cast'. Suetonius' subtly different translation is often also quoted as alea iacta est. Alea was a game played with a die or dice rather than the actual dice themselves, so another translation might be "The game is afoot."

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rubicon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (989 words)
The Rubicon (Rubicō, Italian: Rubicone) is an ancient Latin name for a small river in northern Italy.
The river was considered to mark the boundary between the Roman province of Cisalpine Gaul to the north and Italy proper to the south; the law thus protected the republic from internal military threat.
After Caesar’s crossing, the Rubicon was a geographical feature of note, but only for a few years, until imperator Augustus abolished the Province of Gallia Cisalpina (today’s northern Italy) in 42 B.C, and the river ceased to be the extreme border line of Italy.
Rubicon Reference Manual (5764 words)
Rubicon addresses this problem by employing a "soft", or rule-based method for establishing geometric constraints which is based on a powerful language for describing chemical patterns (SMARTS).
In this case, Rubicon behaves like a non-distance-geometry rule-based model builders, with the advantage that unspecified geometries are sampled (and also that additional knowledge may be added as needed without rebuilding the program).
Rubicon methods have two attributes which are somewhat unusual: a rule set and a linked list of minimizers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m