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Encyclopedia > Rubella
Rubella
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 B06.
ICD-9 056
DiseasesDB 11719
MedlinePlus 001574
eMedicine emerg/388  peds/2025 derm/259

Rubella (in some other languages: rubeola), commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by Rubella virus. The name is derived from the Latin, meaning little red. Rubella is also known as German measles because the disease was first described by German physicians in the mid-eighteenth century. This disease is often mild and attacks often pass unnoticed. The disease can last one to five days. Children recover more quickly than adults. Infection of the mother by Rubella virus during pregnancy can be serious; if the mother is infected within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, the child may be born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which entails a range of serious incurable illnesses. Spontaneous abortion occurs in up to 20% of cases.[1] The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Rubella (also known as epidemic roseola, German measles or three-day measles) is a disease caused by the Rubella virus. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella during her first trimester. ...


Rubella is a common childhood infection usually with minimal systemic upset although transient arthropathy may occur in adults. Serious complications are very rare. If it were not for the effects of transplacental infection on the developing foetus, rubella is a relatively trivial infection. An arthropathy is a disease of a joint. ...


Acquired, (i.e. not congenital), rubella is transmitted via airborne droplet emission from the upper respiratory tract of active cases. The virus may also be present in the urine, faeces and on the skin. There is no carrier state: the reservoir exists entirely in active human cases. The disease has an incubation period of 2 to 3 weeks.[2] Incubation period, also called the latent period or latency period, is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, or chemical or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. ...


In most people the virus is rapidly eliminated. However, it may persist for some months post partum in infants surviving the CRS. These children were an important source of infection to other infants and, more importantly, pregnant female contacts.

Contents

Signs and Symptoms

After an incubation period of 14-21 days, the primary symptom of rubella virus infection is the appearance of a rash (exanthem) on the face which spreads to the trunk and limbs and usually fades after three days. Other symptoms include low grade fever, swollen glands (post cervical lymphadenopathy), joint pains, headache, conjunctivitis.[3] The swollen glands or lymph nodes can persist for up to a week and the fever rarely rises above 38 oC (100.4 oF). The rash disappears after a few days with no staining or peeling of the skin. Forchheimer's sign occurs in 20% of cases, and is characterized by small, red papules on the area of the soft palate. An exanthem is a widespread rash, usually of viral origin, and usually occurring in children. ... Human submaxillary gland. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... A papule is a small, solid and usually conical elevation of the skin. ... The soft palate, or velum, is the soft tissue comprising the back of the roof of the mouth. ...


Rubella can affect anyone of any age and is generally a mild disease, rare in infants or those over the age of 40. The older the person is the more severe the symptoms are likely to be. Up to one-third of older girls or women experience joint pain or arthritic type symptoms with rubella. The virus is contracted through the respiratory tract and has an incubation period of 2 to 3 weeks. During this incubation period, the carrier is contagious but may show no symptoms.


Congenital Rubella Syndrome

Rubella can cause congenital rubella syndrome in the newly born. The syndrome (CRS) follows intrauterine infection by Rubella virus and comprises cardiac, cerebral, ophthalmic and auditory defects.[4] It may also cause prematurity, low birth weight, and neonatal thrombocytopenia, anaemia and hepatitis. The risk of major defects or organogenesis is highest for infection in the first trimester. CRS is the main reason a vaccine for rubella was developed. Many mothers who contract rubella within the first critical trimester either have a miscarriage or a still born baby. If the baby survives the infection, it can be born with severe heart disorders (PDA being the most common), blindness, deafness, or other life threatening organ disorders. The skin manifestations are called "blueberry muffin lesions." [5] Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella during her first trimester. ... Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella during her first trimester. ...


Cause

Main article: Rubella virus

The disease is caused by Rubella virus, a togavirus that is enveloped and has a single-stranded RNA genome.[6] The virus is transmitted by the respiratory route and replicates in the nasopharynx and lymph nodes. The virus is found in the blood 5 to 7 days after infection and spreads throughout the body. It is capable of crossing the placenta and infecting the fetus where it stops cells from developing or destroys them.[3] Rubella (also known as epidemic roseola, German measles or three-day measles) is a disease caused by the Rubella virus. ... Genera Alphavirus Rubivirus The Togaviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Alphavirus; type species: Sindbis virus; others include Ross River virus Genus Rubivirus; type species: Rubella virus Categories: Viruses | Virus stubs ... The nasopharynx (nasal part of the pharynx) lies behind the nose and above the level of the soft palate: it differs from the oral and laryngeal parts of the pharynx in that its cavity always remains patent (open). ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ...


Diagnosis of acquired rubella

Rubella virus specific IgM antibodies are present in people recently infected by Rubella virus but these antibodies can persist for over a year and a positive test result needs to be interpreted with caution.[7] The presence of these antibodies along with, or a short time after, the characteristic rash confirms the diagnosis.[8] IGM might be an acronym or abbreviation for: The polymeric immunoglobulin, IgM International Grandmaster, a chess ranking intergalactic medium Intragroup medium - see: Intracluster medium IG Metall - the dominant German metalworkers union IGM is an acronym created by Robinson Technologies for several early BBS door games, including Legend of the Red...


Prevention

Main article: MMR vaccine

Rubella infections are prevented by active immunisation programs using live, disabled virus vaccines. Two live attenuated virus vaccines, RA 27/3 and Cendehill strains, were effective in the prevention of adult disease. However their use in prepubertile females did not produce a significant fall in the overall incidence rate of CRS in the UK. Reductions were only achieved by immunisation of all children. The MMR vaccine is a mixture of three live attenuated viruses, administered via injection for immunization against measles, mumps and rubella. ... Immunization (AmE) or Immunisation (BE) has a number of meanings: In medicine immunization is the process by which an individual is exposed to a material that is designed to prime his or her immune system against that material. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...


The vaccine is now given as part of the MMR vaccine. The WHO recommends the first dose is given at 12 to 18 months of age with a second dose at 36 months. Pregnant women are usually tested for immunity to rubella early on. Women found to be susceptible are not vaccinated until after the baby is born because the vaccine contains live virus.[9] The MMR vaccine is a mixture of three live attenuated viruses, administered via injection for immunization against measles, mumps and rubella. ... Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The immunization program has been quite successful with Cuba declaring the disease eliminated in the 1990s. In 2004 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that both the congenital and acquired forms of rubella had been eliminated from the United States.[10][11] In medicine immunization is the process by which an individual is exposed to a material that is designed to prime his or her immune system against that material. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


Treatment

Symptoms are usually treated with paracetamol[citation needed] until the disease has run its course. Treatment of newly born babies is focused on management of the complications. Congenital heart defects[citation needed] and cataracts can be corrected by surgery.[12] Management for ocular CRS is similar to that for age-related macular degeneration, including counseling, regular monitoring, and the provision of low vision devices, if required.[13] Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN) is a widely-used analgesic and antipyretic. ...


Prognosis

Rubella infection of children and adults is usually mild, self-limiting and often asymptomatic. The prognosis in children born with CRS is poor.[14]


Epidemiology

Rubella is a disease that occurs worldwide. The virus tends to peak during the spring in countries with temperate climates. Before the vaccine to rubella was introduced in 1969, widespread outbreaks usually occurred every 6-9 years in the United States and 3-5 years in Europe, mostly affecting children in the 5-9 year old age group.[15] Since the introduction of vaccine, occurrences have become rare in those countries with high uptake rates. However, in the UK there remains a large population of men susceptible to rubella who have not been vaccinated. Outbreaks of rubella occurred amongst many young men in the UK in 1993 and in 1996 the infection was transmitted to pregnant women, many of whom were immigrants and were susceptible. Outbreaks still arise, usually in developing countries where the vaccine is not as accessible.[16]  Newly industrialized countries  Other emerging markets  Other developing economies  High income  Upper-middle income  Lower-middle income  Low income A developing country is that country which has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita...


During the epidemic in the US between 1962-1965, Rubella virus infections during pregnancy were estimated to have caused 30,000 still births and 20,000 children to be born impaired or disabled as a result of CRS.[17][18] Universal immunisation producing a high level of herd immunity is important in the control of epidemics of rubella.[19] …Herd immunity describes a type of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of the a portion of the population (or herd) provides protection to un-vaccinated individuals. ...


History

Rubella was first described in the mid-eighteenth century. Friedrich Hoffmann made the first clinical description of rubella in 1740,[20] which was confirmed by de Bergen in 1752 and Orlow in 1758.[21] Friedrich Hoffmann (February 19, 1660 – November 12, 1742) was a German physician. ...


In 1814, George de Maton first suggested that it be considered a disease distinct from both measles and scarlet fever. All these physicians were German, and the disease was known as Rötheln (from the German name Röteln), hence the common name of "German measles". [22] Henry Veale, an English Royal Artillery surgeon, described an outbreak in India. He coined the name "rubella" (from the Latin, meaning "little red") in 1866.[20][23][24][25]


It was formally recognised as an individual entity in 1881, at the International Congress of Medicine in London.[26] In 1914, Alfred Fabian Hess theorised that rubella was caused by a virus, based on work with monkeys.[27] In 1938, Hiro and Tosaka confirmed this by passing the disease to children using filtered nasal washings from acute cases.[24]


In 1940, there was a widespread epidemic of rubella in Australia. Subsequently, ophthalmologist Norman McAllister Gregg found 78 cases of congenital cataracts in infants and 68 of them were born to mothers who had caught rubella in early pregnancy.[23][24] Gregg published an account, Congenital Cataract Following German Measles in the Mother, in 1941. He described a variety of problems now know as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) and noticed that the earlier the mother was infected, the worse the damage was. The virus was isolated in tissue culture in 1962 by two separate groups led by physicians Parkman and Weller.[25][23] Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella during her first trimester. ...


There was a pandemic of rubella between 1962 and 1965, starting in Europe and spreading to the United States.[25] In the years 1964-65, the United States had an estimated 12.5 million rubella cases. This led to 11,000 miscarriages or therapeutic abortions and 20,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome. Of these, 2,100 died as neonates, 12,000 were deaf, 3,580 were blind and 1,800 were mentally retarded. In New York alone, CRS affected 1% of all births [28]


In 1969 a live attenuated virus vaccine was licensed.[24] In the early 1970s, a triple vaccine containing attenuated measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) viruses was introduced.[25]


See also

  • Eradication of infectious diseases

Eradication is the reduction of an infectious diseases prevalence in the a human population to zero. ...

References

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  2. ^ Richardson M, Elliman D, Maguire H, Simpson J, Nicoll A (2001). "Evidence base of incubation periods, periods of infectiousness and exclusion policies for the control of communicable diseases in schools and preschools". Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 20 (4): 380–91. PMID 11332662. 
  3. ^ a b Edlich RF, Winters KL, Long WB, Gubler KD (2005). "Rubella and congenital rubella (German measles)". J Long Term Eff Med Implants 15 (3): 319–28. doi:10.1615/JLongTermEffMedImplants.v15.i3.80. PMID 16022642. 
  4. ^ Atreya CD, Mohan KV, Kulkarni S (2004). "Rubella virus and birth defects: molecular insights into the viral teratogenesis at the cellular level.". Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol. 70 (7): 431–7. doi:10.1002/bdra.20045. PMID 15259032. 
  5. ^ De Santis M, Cavaliere AF, Straface G, Caruso A (2006). "Rubella infection in pregnancy.". Reprod. Toxicol. 21 (4): 390–8. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2005.01.014. PMID 16580940. 
  6. ^ Frey TK (1994). "Molecular biology of rubella virus.". Adv. Virus Res. 44: 69–160. PMID 7817880. 
  7. ^ Best JM (2007). "Rubella.". Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 12 (3): 182–92. doi:10.1016/j.siny.2007.01.017. PMID 17337363. 
  8. ^ Stegmann BJ, Carey JC (2002). "TORCH Infections. Toxoplasmosis, Other (syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes infections". Curr Women's Health Rep 2 (4): 253–8. PMID 12150751. 
  9. ^ Watson JC, Hadler SC, Dykewicz CA, Reef S, Phillips L (1998). "Measles, mumps, and rubella--vaccine use and strategies for elimination of measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome and control of mumps: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)". MMWR Recomm Rep 47 (RR-8): 1–57. PMID 9639369. 
  10. ^ Dayan GH, Castillo-Solórzano C, Nava M, et al (2006). "Efforts at rubella elimination in the United States: the impact of hemispheric rubella control". Clin. Infect. Dis. 43 Suppl 3: S158–63. doi:10.1086/505949. PMID 16998776. 
  11. ^ "Elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome--United States, 1969-2004" (2005). MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54 (11): 279–82. PMID 15788995. 
  12. ^ Khandekar R, Sudhan A, Jain BK, Shrivastav K, Sachan R (2007). "Pediatric cataract and surgery outcomes in Central India: a hospital based study.". Indian J Med Sci 61 (1): 15–22. PMID 17197734. 
  13. ^ Weisinger HS, Pesudovs K (2002). "Optical complications in congenital rubella syndrome". Optometry 73 (7): 418–24. PMID 12365660. 
  14. ^ Freij BJ, South MA, Sever JL (1988). "Maternal rubella and the congenital rubella syndrome". Clin Perinatol 15 (2): 247–57. PMID 3288422. 
  15. ^ Reef SE, Frey TK, Theall K, et al (2002). "The changing epidemiology of rubella in the 1990s: on the verge of elimination and new challenges for control and prevention". JAMA 287 (4): 464–72. doi:10.1001/jama.287.4.464. PMID 11798368. 
  16. ^ Reef S (2006). "Rubella mass campaigns". Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 304: 221–9. PMID 16989272. 
  17. ^ Plotkin SA (2001). "Rubella eradication". Vaccine 19 (25-26): 3311–9. PMID 11348695. 
  18. ^ Cooper, L.Z. Congenital Rubella in the United States. 1975 In: Krugman, S Gershon, A (eds), Symposium on Infections Of the Fetus and Newborn Infant. New York, Alan R. Liss Inc.,p.1.
  19. ^ Danovaro-Holliday MC, LeBaron CW, Allensworth C, et al (2000). "A large rubella outbreak with spread from the workplace to the community". JAMA 284 (21): 2733–9. doi:10.1001/jama.284.21.2733. PMID 11105178. 
  20. ^ a b Ackerknecht, Erwin Heinz (1982). A short history of medicine. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 129. ISBN 0-8018-2726-4. 
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  22. ^ Best, J.M., Cooray, S., Banatvala J.E. Rubella in Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, Vol. 2, Virology, Chapter 45, p.960-92, ISBN 0 340 88562 9, 2005
  23. ^ a b c Lee JY, Bowden DS (2000). "Rubella virus replication and links to teratogenicity". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13 (4): 571-87. doi:10.1128/CMR.13.4.571-587.2000. PMID 11023958. 
  24. ^ a b c d Atkinson W, Hamborsky J, McIntyre L, Wolfe S, eds. (2007). "Chapter 12. Rubella", Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. 10th ed.. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on 2007-07-03. 
  25. ^ a b c d (April 2006) "Chapter 11 - Rubella", Immunisation Handbook 2006. Ministry of Health, Wellington, NZ.. ISBN 0-478-29926-5. Retrieved on 2007-07-03. 
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  27. ^ Hess, Alfred Fabian (1914). "German measles (rubella): an experimental study". The Archives of Internal Medicine 13: 913-916.  as cited by Enersen, Ole Daniel. Alfred Fabian Hess. WhoNamedIt. Retrieved on 2007-07-03.
  28. ^ J.B. Hanshaw, J.A. Dudgeon, and W.C. Marshall. Viral diseases of the fetus and newborn. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1985

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Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... species Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Exanthem subitum (meaning sudden rash), also referred to as roseola infantum (or rose rash of infants), sixth disease and (confusingly) baby measles, or three day fever, is a benign disease of children, generally under two years old, whose manifestations... Fifth disease is also referred to as erythema infectiosum (meaning infectious redness) and as slapped cheek syndrome, slap face or slapped face. ... Not to be confused with Foot-and-mouth disease. ... Not to be confused with hand, foot and mouth disease. ... Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses is HHV-8. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Species Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... This page is for the disease. ... Hepatitis D is a disease caused by a small circular RNA virus (Hepatitis delta virus); this virus is replication defective and therefore cannot propagate in the absence of another virus. ... Hepatitis E is an acute viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... Hepatitis G and GB virus C (GBV-C) are RNA viruses that were independently identified in 1995, and were subsequently found to be two isolates of the same virus. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Flu redirects here. ... SARS redirects here. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. ... Species Turkey rhinotracheitis virus Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... HPV redirects here. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is believed to be the cause of several diseases, including adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a rare cancer of the immune systems own T-cells. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Norovirus, an RNA virus of the Caliciviridae taxonomic family, causes approximately 90% of epidemic non-bacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world,[1][2] and is responsible for 50% of all foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the US.[3] Norovirus affects people of all ages. ... Astroviruses that infect humans have been poorly studied due to the fact that they do not grow in culture. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. ... An oncolytic virus is a virus used to treat cancer due to their ability to specifically infect cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unharmed. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Bornholm disease or pleurodynia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie virus. ... An exanthem is a widespread rash, usually of viral origin, and usually occurring in children. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Type species Measles virus Measles, also known as rubeola, is a disease caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. ... Dukes disease or fourth disease is a viral rash most commonly caused by enteroviruses, Echoviruses, and members of the coxsackievirus family. ... Fifth disease is also referred to as erythema infectiosum (meaning infectious redness) and as slapped cheek syndrome, slap face or slapped face. ... species Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Exanthem subitum (meaning sudden rash), also referred to as roseola infantum (or rose rash of infants), sixth disease and (confusingly) baby measles, or three day fever, is a benign disease of children, generally under two years old, whose manifestations... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Scarlet fever is an exotoxin-mediated disease that occurs most often in association with a sore throat and rarely with impetigo or other streptococcal infections. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Rubella (618 words)
Rubella is a contagious viral infection with mild symptoms associated with a rash.
Rubella is most serious because of its ability to produce defects in a developing fetus if the mother is infected during early pregnancy.
Congenital rubella syndrome occurs in 25% or more of infants born to women who acquired rubella during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Lifespan's A - Z Health Information Library - Rubella (576 words)
Rubella is a contagious viral infection with mild symptoms associated with a rash.
Rubella is most serious because of its ability to produce defects in a developing fetus if the mother is infected during early pregnancy.
Congenital rubella syndrome occurs in 25% or more of infants born to women who acquired rubella during the first trimester of pregnancy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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