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Encyclopedia > Rubber
Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree
Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree

Natural rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer that naturally occurs as a milky colloidal suspension, or latex, in the sap of some plants. It can also be synthesized. The entropy model of rubber was developed in 1934 by Werner Kuhn. The scientific name for the rubber tree is Hevea brasiliensis. Rubber has several uses including: The material rubber, originally from the rubber tree A rubber in contract bridge is two 100-point games In baseball the rubber is the thin white slab on the pitchers mound from which the pitcher throws, or at times the pitchers mound in... Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 527 KB)Latex dripping out a rubber tree. ... Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 527 KB)Latex dripping out a rubber tree. ... Rubber tapping in Kerala Rubber tapping is the process by which rubber is gathered. ... Binomial name Hevea brasiliensis Müll. ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... A colloidal suspension consists of a mixture of compounds in which a solid or liquid is suspended in a fluid because of its particle size. ... The extraction of latex from a tree; latex is used in Rubber production Latex, as found in nature, is the milky sap of many plants that coagulates on exposure to air. ... For other uses, see: information entropy (in information theory) and entropy (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Hevea brasiliensis Müll. ...

Contents

Explanation

The major commercial source of natural rubber latex is the Para rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis (Euphorbiaceae). This is largely because it responds to wounding by producing more latex. Henry Wickham gathered thousands of seeds from Brazil in 1876 and they were germinated in Kew Gardens, England. The seedlings were sent to Colombo, Indonesia, Singapore and British Malaya. Malaya(now Malaysia) was later to become the biggest producer of rubber. Liberia and Nigeria are examples of African rubber-producing countries. Binomial name Müll. ... Genera See text Ref: Euphorbiaceae in The Families of Flowering Plants, as of 2002-07-13 The Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) is a large family of flowering plants with 280 genera and around 6000 species. ... Sir Henry Alexander Wickham was responsible for gathering 70,000 seeds from the rubber-bearing tree, Hevea brasiliensis, in the Manaus area of Brazil in 1876. ... Kew Gardens is the name of several places: Kew Gardens is a commonly-used name for the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, London, United Kingdom Kew Gardens is the name of a park in The Beaches neighborhood of Toronto, Ontario, Canada Kew Gardens is also the name of a neighborhood... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: , District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ...


Other plants containing latex include figs (Ficus elastica), Castilla, euphorbias, and the common dandelion. Although these have not been major sources of rubber, Germany attempted to use such sources during World War II when it was cut off from rubber supplies. These attempts were later supplanted by the development of synthetic rubber. Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... Binomial name Roxb. ... Species See text Castilla (sometimes incorrectly spelled Castilloa) is a tree genus belonging to the family Moraceae found native in Central America. ... This article needs cleanup. ... For other uses, see Dandelion (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. ...


Synthetic rubbers are made by the polymerization of a single monomer or a mixture of monomers to produce polymers. These form part of a broad range of products extensively studied by polymer science and rubber technology. Examples are SBR, or styrene-butadiene rubber, BR or butadiene rubber, CR or chloroprene rubber and EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene rubber). Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


History

Charles Marie de La Condamine is credited with introducing samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736.[1] In 1751 he presented a paper by François Fresneau to the Académie (eventually published in 1755) which described many of the properties of rubber. This has been refered to as the first scientific paper on rubber.[1] Charles-Marie de La Condamine Charles Marie de La Condamine (January 28, 1701 - February 4, 1774) was a French geographer and mathematician. ... The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The first European to return to Portugal from Brazil with samples of such water-repellent rubberized cloth so shocked people that he was brought to court on the charge of witchcraft.


When samples of rubber first arrived in England, it was observed by Joseph Priestley, in 1770, that a piece of the material was extremely good for rubbing out pencil marks on paper, hence the name "rubber". For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (13 March 1733 (Old Style) – 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century British theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... This article is about the handwriting instrument. ...


The para rubber tree initially grew in South America, where it was the main source of what limited amount of latex rubber was consumed during much of the 19th century. About 100 years ago, the Congo Free State in Africa was a significant source of natural rubber latex, mostly gathered by forced labor. After repeated efforts (see Henry Wickham) rubber was successfully cultivated in Southeast Asia, where it is now widely grown. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ... Sir Henry Alexander Wickham was responsible for gathering 70,000 seeds from the rubber-bearing tree, Hevea brasiliensis, in the Manaus area of Brazil in 1876. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


In India commercial cultivation of natural rubber was introduced by the British Planters, although the experimental efforts to grow rubber on a commercial scale in India were initiated as early as 1873 at the Botanical Gardens, Kolkata. The first commercial Hevea plantations in India were established at Thattekadu in Kerala in 1902. 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... -1... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Properties

Rubber latex.
Rubber latex.

Rubber exhibits unique physical and chemical properties. Rubber's stress-strain behavior exhibits the Mullins effect, the Payne effect and is often modeled as hyperelastic. Rubber strain crystallizes. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The stress-strain response in filled rubbers typically depends strongly on the maximum loading previously encountered. ... The Payne effect is a particular feature of the stress-strain behaviour of rubber, especially rubber compounds containing fillers such as carbon black. ... A hyperelastic or Green elastic material is an ideally elastic material for which the stress-strain relationship derives from a strain energy density function. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Owing to the presence of a double bond in each and every repeat unit, natural rubber is sensitive to ozone cracking In polymer chemistry, a structural unit is a building block of a polymer chain. ...


Chemical makeup

Aside from a few natural product impurities, natural rubber is essentially a polymer of isoprene units, a hydrocarbon diene monomer. Synthetic rubber can be made as a polymer of isoprene or various other monomers. The material properties of natural rubber make it an elastomer and a thermoplastic. However it should be noted that as the rubber is vulcanized it will turn into a thermoset. Most rubber in everyday use is vulcanized to a point where it shares properties of both; i.e., if it is heated and cooled, it is degraded but not destroyed. A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Isoprene is a common synonym for the chemical compound 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene. ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... Dienes are hydrocarbons which contain two double bonds. ... A monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer [1]. // Examples of monomers are hydrocarbons such as the alkene and arene homologous series. ... The term elastomer is often used interchangeably with the term rubber, and is preferred when referring to vulcanisates. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) refer to a range of polymer materials that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form. ...


Elasticity

In most elastic materials, such as metals used in springs, the elastic behavior is caused by bond distortions. When force is applied, bond lengths deviate from the (minimum energy) equilibrium and strain energy is stored electrostatically. Rubber is often assumed to behave in the same way, but it turns out this is a poor description. Rubber is a curious material because, unlike metals, strain energy is stored thermally. For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). ... A compression coil spring A tension coil spring A selection of conical coil springs A Coil spring, also known as a helical spring, is a mechanical device, which is typically used to store energy and subsequently release it, to absorb shock, or to maintain a force between contacting surfaces. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... Electric potential is the potential energy per unit charge associated with a static (time-invariant) electric field, also called the electrostatic potential, typically measured in volts. ... In thermal physics, thermal energy is the energy portion of a system that increases with its temperature. ...


In its relaxed state rubber consists of long, coiled-up polymer chains that are interlinked at a few points. Between a pair of links each monomer can rotate freely about its neighbour. This gives each section of chain leeway to assume a large number of geometries, like a very loose rope attached to a pair of fixed points. At room temperature rubber stores enough kinetic energy so that each section of chain oscillates chaotically, like the above piece of rope being shaken violently. In chemistry, a disulfide bond is a single covalent bond derived from the coupling of thiol groups. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... The cars of a roller coaster reach their maximum kinetic energy when at the bottom of their path. ...


When rubber is stretched the "loose pieces of rope" are taut and thus no longer able to oscillate. Their kinetic energy is given off as excess heat. Therefore, the entropy decreases when going from the relaxed to the stretched state, and it increases during relaxation. This change in entropy can also be explained by the fact that a tight section of chain can fold in fewer ways (W) than a loose section of chain, at a given temperature (nb. entropy is defined as S=k*ln(W)). Relaxation of a stretched rubber band is thus driven by an increase in entropy, and the force experienced is not electrostatic, rather it is a result of the thermal energy of the material being converted to kinetic energy. Rubber relaxation is endothermic, and for this reason the force exerted by a stretched piece of rubber increases with temperature (metals, for example, become softer as temperature increases). The material undergoes adiabatic cooling during contraction. This property of rubber can easily be verified by holding a stretched rubber band to your lips and relaxing it. For other uses, see: information entropy (in information theory) and entropy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the common household item. ... This article is about the physical effect. ... In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a thermodynamic process in which no heat is transferred to or from the working fluid. ...


Stretching of a rubber band is in some ways equivalent to the compression of an ideal gas, and relaxation in equivalent to its expansion. Note that a compressed gas also exhibits "elastic" properties, for instance inside an inflated car tire. The fact that stretching is equivalent to compression may seem somewhat counter-intuitive, but it makes sense if rubber is viewed as a one-dimensional gas. Stretching reduces the "space" available to each section of chain. Bold text Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: compressor, compression inthe wkjhrlfidhb;g/df == Compressor may refer to: Gas compressor, a mechanical device that compresses a gas e. ... An ideal gas or perfect gas is a hypothetical gas consisting of identical particles of zero volume, with no intermolecular forces, where the constituent atoms or molecules undergo perfectly elastic collisions with the walls of the container and each other and are in constant random motion. ... Expansion can have several meanings, including: In physics: Expansion of space In computer hardware: an Expansion card In computer programming: In-line expansion In computer gaming: an expansion pack See also: Wikipedia:Requests for expansion This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Firestone tire This article is about pneumatic tires. ...


Vulcanization of rubber creates more disulfide bonds between chains so it makes each free section of chain shorter. The result is that the chains tighten more quickly for a given length of strain. This increases the elastic force constant and makes rubber harder and less extendable. Vulcanization refers to a specific curing process of rubber involving high heat and the addition of sulfur. ... A disulfide bond (SS-bond), also called a disulfide bridge, is a strong covalent bond between two sulfhydryl groups. ... This article is about the deformation of materials. ...


When cooled below the glass transition temperature, the quasi-fluid chain segments "freeze" into fixed geometries and the rubber abruptly loses its elastic properties, though the process is reversible. This is a property it shares with most elastomers. At very cold temperatures rubber is actually rather brittle; it will break into shards when struck or stretched. This critical temperature is the reason that winter tires use a softer version of rubber than normal tires. The failing rubber o-ring seals that contributed to the cause of the Challenger disaster were thought to have cooled below their critical temperature. The disaster happened on an unusually cold day. The glass transition temperature is the temperature below which the physical properties of amorphous materials vary in a manner similar to those of a solid phase (glassy state), and above which amorphous materials behave like liquids (rubbery state). ... Firestone tire A tire (US spelling) or tyre (UK spelling) is a roughly toroidal piece of (usually) rubber placed on a wheel to cushion it. ... Typical O-ring and application An O-ring is a loop of elastomer with a round (o-shaped) cross-section used as a mechanical seal. ... STS-51-L was the 25th launch of a Space Shuttle and the tenth launch of the Challenger. ...


Current sources

Close to 21 million tons of rubber were produced in 2005 of which around 42% was natural. Since bulk of the rubber produced is the synthetic variety which is derived from petroleum, the price of even natural rubber is determined to a very large extent by the prevailing global price of crude oil[citation needed]. Today Asia is the main source of natural rubber, accounting for around 94% of output in 2005. The three largest producing countries (Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand) together account for around 72% of all natural rubber production. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Cultivation

A tree woman in Sri Lanka in the process of harvesting rubber.
A tree woman in Sri Lanka in the process of harvesting rubber.

Rubber latex is extracted from Rubber trees. The economic life period of rubber trees in plantations is around 32 years – 7 years of immature phase and about 25 years of productive phase. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The soil requirement of the plant is generally well-drained weathered soil consisting of laterite, lateritic types, sedimentary types, nonlateritic red or alluvial soils.


The climatic conditions for optimum growth of Rubber tree consist of (a) Rainfall of around 250 cm evenly distributed without any marked dry season and with at least 100 rainy days per annum (b) Temperature range of about 20oC to 34oC with a monthly mean of 25 to 28oC (c) High atmospheric humidity of around 80% (d) Bright sunshine amounting to about 2000 hours per annum at the rate of 6 hours per day throughout the year and (e) Absence of strong winds.


Many high yielding clones have been developed for Rubber plantation. These clones yield more than 1,500 Kilogrammes of dry Rubber per hectare per annum, when grown in good conditions.


Collection

In places like Kerala, where coconuts are in abundance, the shell of half a coconut is used as the collection container for the latex. The shells are attached to the tree via a short sharp stick and the latex drips down into it overnight. This usually produces latex up to a level of half to three quarters of the shell. The latex from multiple trees is then poured into flat pans, and this is mixed with formic acid, which serves as a coagulant resulting in rubber crump. After a few hours, the very wet sheets of rubber are wrung out by putting them through a press before they are sent onto factories where vulcanization and further processing is done to it.-1... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ... Vulcanization refers to a specific curing process of rubber involving high heat and the addition of sulfur. ...


Uses

The use of rubber is widespread, ranging from household to industrial products, entering the production stream at the intermediate stage or as final products. Tires and tubes are the largest consumers of rubber, accounting for around 56% total consumption in 2005. The remaining 44% are taken up by the general rubber goods (GRG) sector, which includes all products except tires and tubes.


Other significant uses of rubber are door and window profiles, hoses, belts, matting, flooring and dampeners (anti-vibration mounts) for the automotive industry in what is known as the "under the bonnet" products. Gloves (medical, household and industrial) are also large consumers of rubber and toy balloons, although the type of rubber used is that of the concentrated latex. Significant tonnage of rubber is used as adhesives in many manufacturing industries and products, although the two most noticeable are the paper and the carpet industry. Rubber is also commonly used to make rubber bands and pencil erasers. Car redirects here. ... A glove (Middle English from Old English glof) is a type of garment which covers the hand. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... For other uses, see Carpet (disambiguation). ... This article is about the common household item. ... For other uses, see Eraser (disambiguation). ...


Additionally, rubber produced as a fiber sometimes called elastic, has significant value for use in the textile industry because of its excellent elongation and recovery properties. For these purposes, manufactured rubber fiber is made as either an extruded round fiber or rectangular fibers that are cut into strips from extruded film. Because of its low dye acceptance, feel and appearance, the rubber fiber is either covered by yarn of another fiber or directly woven with other yarns into the fabric. In the early 1900’s, for example, rubber yarns were used in foundation garments. While rubber is still used in textile manufacturing, its low tenacity limits its use in lightweight garments because latex lacks resistance to oxidizing agents and is damaged by aging, sunlight, oil, and perspiration. Seeking a way to address these shortcomings, the textile industry has turned to Neoprene (polymer form of Chloroprene), a type of synthetic rubber as well as another more commonly used elastomer fiber, spandex (also known as elastane), because of their superiority to rubber in both strength and durability. Neoprene is the DuPont Chemical trade name for a family of synthetic rubbers based on polychloroprene. ... Chemical Structure of Chloroprene Chloroprene is the common name for the organic compound 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, which has the chemical formula C4H5Cl. ... Example of spandex Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. ...


Hypoallergenic rubber can be made from Guayule. Look up hypoallergenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Parthenium argentatum L. Guayule (Parthenium argentatum), pronounced wa-YOO-lee, is a shrub in the genus Parthenium of the family Asteraceae, native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. ...


Early experiments in the development of synthetic rubber also led to the invention of Silly Putty. Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. ... Silly putty dripping through a hole Silly Putty shown as a solid cube Silly Putty (originally called nutty putty, and also known as Potty Putty) is a silicone plastic, marketed today as a toy for children, but originally created as an accident during the course of research into potential rubber...


Natural rubber is often vulcanized, a process by which the rubber is heated and sulfur, peroxide or bisphenol are added to improve resilience and elasticity, and to prevent it from perishing. Vulcanization greatly improved the durability and utility of rubber from the 1830s on. The successful development of vulcanization is most closely associated with Charles Goodyear. Carbon black is often used as an additive to rubber to improve its strength, especially in vehicle tires. Vulcanization refers to a specific curing process of rubber involving high heat and the addition of sulfur. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Vulcanization refers to a specific curing process of rubber involving high heat and the addition of sulfur. ... For other persons named Charles Goodyear, see Charles Goodyear (disambiguation). ... Carbon black is a material, today usually produced by the incomplete combustion of petroleum products. ...


See also

Nickname: The Rubber Capital of the World Location within the state of Ohio Country United States State Ohio County Summit Founded 1825 Incorporated 1835 (village) - 1865 (city) Government  - Mayor Don Plusquellic (D) Area  - City  62. ... For other persons named Charles Goodyear, see Charles Goodyear (disambiguation). ... Charles H. Greville Williams (September 22, 1829 - June 15, 1910), was an English Scientist and analytical Chemist who published many scientific papers (from 1853). ... The term elastomer is often used interchangeably with the term rubber, and is preferred when referring to vulcanisates. ... Fordlândia (Ford-land) was a vast tract of land purchased by American automobile tycoon Henry Ford in the 1920s. ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... Rubber tapping in Kerala Rubber tapping is the process by which rubber is gathered. ... The Stevenson Plan was an effort by the British government to stabilize low rubber prices resulting from a glut of rubber following World War I. // Background In the early 1900s increased reliance on the automobile and the use of rubber in common products such as boots was driving demand... Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. ...

References

  • Rubbery Materials and their Compounds by J.A Brydson
  • Rubber Technology by Maurice Morton

External links

Look up Rubber in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
rubber. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 (1423 words)
Thus, for most purposes, the rubber is ground, dissolved in a suitable solvent, and compounded with other ingredients, e.g., fillers and pigments such as carbon fl for strength and whiting for stiffening; antioxidants; plasticizers, usually in the form of oils, waxes, or tars; accelerators; and vulcanizing agents.
Used and waste rubber may be reclaimed by grinding followed by devulcanization with steam and chemicals, refining, and remanufacture.
Silicone rubbers are organic derivatives of inorganic polymers, e.g., the polymer of dimethysilanediol.
RUBBER, (4208 words)
Crude rubber is insoluble in water, alkali, and weak acid; it is soluble in benzene, gasoline, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and carbon bisulfide.
It enabled rubber technologists to measure rapidly the deterioration caused by various conditions, especially exposure to atmospheric oxygen, and to adopt the use of agents, called antioxidants, that notably prolonged the useful life of heavy rubber articles, such as automobile tires.
One type is the rubber mill, consisting of two power-driven steel rollers, which rotate at different rates in a trough to shear and knead the rubber until it is broken down to a soft and pliable condition.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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