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Encyclopedia > Royal Ulster Constabulary
Irish Police forces
Royal Irish Constabulary. (All Ireland police force 1822—1922)
Royal Irish Constabulary. (All Ireland police force 1822—1922)
Dublin Metropolitan Police
(1836—1925).
An Garda Síochána (Republic of Ireland 1922—present)
An Garda Síochána (Republic of Ireland 1922—present)
Royal Ulster Constabulary (Northern Ireland 1922—2001)
Royal Ulster Constabulary (Northern Ireland 1922—2001)

The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. It was founded on 1 June 1922 out of the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC). At its peak the force had around 8500 officers with a further 4500 reservists, officially members of the RUC Reserve, but in practice members of the RUC (unlike the earlier Ulster Special Constabulary, which was a force in its own right, with its own rank structure). It was renamed as the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) in 2001. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (573x841, 122 KB)Station badge of the Royal Irish Constabulary This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (573x841, 122 KB)Station badge of the Royal Irish Constabulary This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was one of Irelands two police forces in the early twentieth century, alongside the Dublin Metropolitan Police. ... The Dublin Metropolitan Police was formed in 1836, after twenty years of attempts to create an effective policing force in Ireland Rural policing in Ireland began when Chief Secretary for Ireland, Robert Peel created the Peace Preservation Force in 1816. ... Image File history File links Óglaigh_na_hÉireann. ... Image File history File links Óglaigh_na_hÉireann. ... The Irish Republican Police (IRP) was the police force of the Irish Republic. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x624, 356 KB)Garda Siochana badge. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x624, 356 KB)Garda Siochana badge. ... Badge of the Garda Síochána. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links cropped version of existing PNG on Wikipedia. ... Image File history File links cropped version of existing PNG on Wikipedia. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ... Dieu et mon droit (motto) (French for God and my right)2 Northern Irelands location within the UK Main language English Other recognised languages Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Hain MP Area  - Total Ranked 4th... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was one of Irelands two police forces in the early twentieth century, alongside the Dublin Metropolitan Police. ... The Ulster Special Constabulary (USC) was a reserve force of the Royal Ulster Constabulary. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ...

Contents


Controversy

To unionists, the majority community, the police were seen as the upholders of law and order. To Irish nationalists, the RUC was seen as the security arm of a state that lacked legitimacy and to which they refused to give their allegiance. Throughout its history, the RUC faced constant and serious allegations of improper behaviour from many nationalists and republicans, who accused it of police brutality and political and religious bias. Some unionists accused it of not being tough enough on terrorists. Throughout its existence, republican political leaders urged members of the nationalist community not to join the RUC. The force was overwhelmingly Protestant and unionist in membership. Social Democratic and Labour Party MP and critic of the force Seamus Mallon, who later served as Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland, claimed the RUC was "97% Protestant and 100% unionist." In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in... An Irish nationalist is generally one who seeks (greater) independence of Ireland from Great Britain, including since 1921 the goal of a United Ireland. ... Irish Republicanism is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a united independent republic. ... Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers. ... Terrorism refers to the use of violence for the purpose of achieving a political, religious, or ideological goal. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The word Unionist, simply meaning one espousing a union, has a number of connotations, depending on context: Unionists are people in Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales who were historically in favour of uniting their nations into a United Kingdom, or who in modern times wish their nations to remain part... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... Seamus Mallon, MP Seamus Mallon (born on 17 August 1936) is a Northern Irish politician and former Deputy Leader of the nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party. ... The First Minister of Northern Ireland and the Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland are the leaders of the Northern Ireland Executive, Northern Irelands home rule government set up in the 1990s as a result of the Good Friday Agreement. ...


Casualties

302 officers were killed and over 9000 were injured during the Troubles (mid-1960s to late 1990s), of whom 277 were killed in attacks by the IRA. The Troubles is a generic and euphemistic term used to describe a period of sporadic communal violence involving paramilitary organisations, the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), the British Army and others in Northern Ireland from the late 1960s until the mid-1990s with the Good Friday Agreement on April 10, 1998. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA; more commonly referred to as the IRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the army or the RA) is an Irish Republican paramilitary organisation dedicated to the end of British rule in Northern Ireland and to a United Ireland. ...


Early history

The RUC officially came into existence on 1 June 1922. The force's new headquarters were established at the Atlantic Buildings in Belfast, and Charles Wickham was the first Inspector-General. The force was largely identical to the RIC - with the twin duties of law enforcement and maintenance of the political status quo. Like the RIC, and in contrast to Great Britain and the rest of Ireland, all members of the new force were armed and wore a dark green uniform as opposed to the dark blue worn by the British police and the Garda Síochána. In a civilian or military administration, an Inspector General is a high ranking official charged with the mission to inspect and report on some bodies in his field of competency. ... The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was one of Irelands two police forces in the early twentieth century, alongside the Dublin Metropolitan Police. ... The British police are a group of similar but independent police services which operate in the United Kingdom. ... Badge of the Garda Síochána. ...


The new RUC was immediately involved in dealing with the sectarian rioting and assassinations in Belfast and Londonderry. A District Inspector Nixon, formerly of the RIC, is infamous in Belfast Catholic folk memory for having allegedly organised and taken part in sectarian murders of Catholics (especially those of the entire McMahon family) in the city during Northern Ireland's turbulent birth. He later became an independent unionist MP. However, as the 1920s progressed violence soon fell sharply away and was only briefly revived by the economic downturn of the 1930s, although the IRA kept its hand in with sporadic bombing campaigns in Northern Ireland and Great Britain. During World War II, the main concern of the RUC was smuggling from across the border and the enforcement of wartime regulations. In April 1943 women were allowed to join the force for the first time. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Derry or Londonderry (in Irish , Doire Cholm Chille or Doire), often called the Maiden City, is a city in Northern Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... Following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921, the Irish Republican Army in the 26 counties that were to become the Irish Free State split between supporters and opponents of the Treaty. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II...


Policing in a divided society

An RUC police tunicFrom 1970 onwards.
An RUC police tunic
From 1970 onwards.

Policing a divided society such as in Northern Ireland proved difficult, as each community (nationalist and unionist) had different attitudes towards the institutions of the state. To unionists, the state had full legitimacy, as did its institutions, its parliament, the Crown and its police force. Many nationalists, however, viewed the existence and government of Northern Ireland as sectarian, anti-Catholic, anti-nationalist, and as a gerrymander on an unprecedented scale that had partitioned Ireland against the will of its people to create a pro-union electoral majority in the northeast. As policing is by definition the upholding of the law and order of the existing institutional structures, it is not surprising then that the RUC became closely identified with the state, through its largely Protestant and unionist membership, its use of the word 'Royal' in the title and its use of flags and emblems of the northern state and the United Kingdom of which Northern Ireland is a part. Nevertheless, the RUC did initially attract some Roman Catholic members. These men were for the most part former members of the RIC, who came north from the southern and western counties after the partition of the island. The bitterness of the fighting in the Anglo-Irish War precluded them from remaining in territory now controlled by their former enemies. The percentage of Catholics in the RUC dropped as these men retired over time. However, IRA attacks on Catholics who joined the RUC, and the perception that the police force was "a Protestant force for a Protestant people" meant that Catholic participation in the Royal Ulster Constabulary always remained disproproportionally small in terms of the Catholic percentage of the overall Northern Irish population. In December 1997, London's The Independent newspaper published a leaked internal RUC document which reported that a third of all Catholic RUC officers had suffered religious discrimination and/or harassment from Protestant fellow officers [1]. Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Dieu et mon droit (motto) (French for God and my right)2 Northern Irelands location within the UK Main language English Other recognised languages Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Hain MP Area  - Total Ranked 4th... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ...


Post-war policies brought about the gradual improvement in the lot of the constables, interrupted only by a return to hostilities by the IRA. The IRA's 'border campaign' of 1957-1962 killed seven RUC officers. The force was streamlined in the 1960s, a new headquarters was opened at Knock in Belfast and a number of rural barracks were closed. In 1967, the forty-two hour working week was introduced. Following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921, the Irish Republican Army in the 26 counties that were to become the Irish Free State split between supporters and opponents of the Treaty. ... The Border Campaign (December 12, 1956 - February 26, 1962) was an operation (codenamed Operation Harvest) carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) against targets in Northern Ireland. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...


The Troubles

The rise of civil rights protests at the end of the decade marked the beginning of The Troubles. The RUC continued its traditional pro-unionist role when it found itself confronting marchers protesting at the gerrymandering of local governmental electoral wards and the discrimination in local housing allocation. Many of these Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association protests were banned by the government of Northern Ireland, but often the marches went ahead regardless. The events at Duke Street in Londonderry and Burntollet Bridge, in east County Londonderry, were particularly notable for the brutality used. The existence of its own militia, the B Specials, proved highly controversial, with the latter unit seen by some nationalists as much more anti-Catholic and anti-nationalist than the RUC, which unlike the B Specials attracted some Catholic recruits. The severe pressure on the RUC and B-Specials led in August 1969 to the British Army being called in to support the civil administration. Initially the army was welcomed by Catholic nationalists in preference to the RUC and in particular the B Specials. However heavy handed army behaviour, most notably on Bloody Sunday (when thirteen people were shot dead in the aftermath of a civil rights march), soon saw the minority Catholic population turn against the Army. The high level of civil disturbance led to a review of the RUC, headed by Lord Hunt. Most of the recommendations of the report were accepted - the force was reorganized to bringing it into line with other UK police forces with 12 Police Divisions and 39 Sub-Divisions, with British rank and promotion structure and the creation of a Police Authority. All military-style duties were handed over to the new Ulster Defence Regiment, which replaced the B Specials, and which in turn would be replaced, amidst allegations that it too was sectarian, by the Royal Irish Regiment. Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The Troubles is a generic and euphemistic term used to describe a period of sporadic communal violence involving paramilitary organisations, the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), the British Army and others in Northern Ireland from the late 1960s until the mid-1990s with the Good Friday Agreement on April 10, 1998. ... Redrawing electoral districts in this example creates a guaranteed 3-to-1 advantage for Party 1. ... The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association was an organization which campaigned for civil rights for Northern Irelands Catholic minority. ... The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the home rule legislature created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which existed from June 7, 1921 to March 30, 1972, when it was suspended. ... Derry or Londonderry (in Irish , Doire Cholm Chille or Doire), often called the Maiden City, is a city in Northern Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: coord}}}_N_{{{west coord}}}_W_{{{region:IE_type:city}}} {{{north coord}}}° N {{{west coord}}}° W Irish Grid Reference grid}}} {{{irish grid}}} Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: County Town: Derry (Londonderry) Code: Area: 2,074 km² Elevation: Population: Website: [http:// ] County Londonderry (Contae Dhoire or Doire in Irish... The Ulster Special Constabulary (USC) was a reserve force of the Royal Ulster Constabulary. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... For other incidents referred to by this name, see Bloody Sunday. ... A division was until recently the usual term for the largest territorial subdivision of most British police forces, similar to a precinct in American city police departments, and is still used in some forces. ... Police authority - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... In the British Army, there have been two regiments titled the Royal Irish Regiment // Royal Irish Regiment The Royal Irish Regiment was formed in 1684 by the Earl of Granard from independent companies in Ireland. ...


Following an exhaustive inquiry into the disturbances in Northern Ireland carried out by the distinguished English judge Lord Scarman, the then Home Secretary, James Callaghan, called in Lord Hunt to assess and advise on the policing problem. He was assisted in this task by Sir Robert Mark, who later became Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, and Sir James Robertson, the then Chief Constable of Glasgow. The subsequent report, published on 3 October 1969, recommended a complete reorganization of the RUC, with the aim of both modernizing the force and bringing it into line with the other police forces in the UK. To do all of this, Callaghan asked Sir Arthur Young, Commissioner of the City of London Police, to be seconded for a year. Most importantly, Young's appointment began to long process of turning the RUC into a British police service. It resulted in the introduction of the British rank and promotion structure, the disbandment of the Ulster Special Constabulary, and the creation of a Police Authority representative of the whole community. The RUC Reserve was formed as an auxiliary police force, and all military-style duties were handed over to the newly formed Ulster Defence Regiment, which was under military command. Leslie George Scarman, Baron Scarman, PC (29 July 1911 – 8 December 2004) was a Law Lord (retired) and a cross bench member of the British House of Lords. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department, known as the Home Secretary, is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order (except in Scotland). ... The Right Honourable Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (March 27, 1912 – March 26, 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... Brigadier-General Rth Hon. ... The Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis (usually just referred to as the Metropolitan Police Commissioner or, more colloquially, as the Met Commissioner) is the head of the Metropolitan Police Service in London. ... The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) (commonly referred to by its former official name of the Metropolitan Police, or colloquially as The Met; often referred to in legislation as the Police of the Metropolis) is the Home Office (territorial) police force responsible for Greater London, England, with the exception of the... Chief Constable is the title given to the commanding officer of every territorial police force in the United Kingdom except the two responsible for Greater London. ... The City of Glasgow Police was probably the first professional police force in modern history. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Arthur Young (September 11, 1741 - April 20, 1820) was an English writer on agriculture, economics and social statistics. ... City Police Mounted Section officer The City of London Police is the police force responsible for the City of London. ... Most of the fifty-six UK Police forces use a standard set of ranks, listed here in ascending seniority. ... The Ulster Special Constabulary (USC) was a reserve force of the Royal Ulster Constabulary. ... Police authority - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... A CISCO Security auxiliary police officer stands guard beside an armoured truck while his colleagues deliver high-valued goods to and from commercial clients at Raffles Place, Singapore. ... The Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ...


Callaghan picked Young, a career policeman, because no other British policeman could match his direct experience of policing acutely unstable societies and of reforming gendarmeries. From 1943 to 1945, he was Director of Public Safety and Director of Security in the military government of Allied-occupied Italy. Later, he had been seconded to the Federation of Malaya at the height of the 'Emergency' (1952-1953) and to the crown colony of Kenya during Mau Mau (1954). A gendarmerie (pronounced ) is a military body charged with police duties among civilian populations. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... The Malayan Emergency was an insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malay Races Liberation Army against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... The Mau Mau Uprising was an insurgency by Kenyan rebels against the British colonial administration from 1952 to 1960. ...


The first deaths of the Troubles occurred in July 1969. 67-year old Francis McCloskey, a Catholic civilian, died on 14 July, a day after being beaten around the head with batons by RUC officers in Dungiven. The police had baton-charged a crowd leaving a dance hall after disturbances relating to an Orange Order parade in the town the day before. Samuel Devenny, another civilian, died on 17 July, as a result of a beating he had sustained in his home from the RUC in Derry in April. His teenage daughters were also beaten during the incident. In August 1969, the RUC killed the third and the first child victim of the troubles, in Belfast. Nine-year old Patrick Rooney was shot as he lay in bed by policemen firing from a moving truck The Troubles is a term used to describe two periods of violence in Ireland during the twentieth century. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... Dungiven (Dún Geimhín in Irish, Givens fort) is a large village in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, on the main Belfast to Derry road. ... The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organisation largely based in the province of Northern Ireland and in western Scotland but which has a worldwide membership. ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ...


On 11 October 1969, Constable Victor Arbuckle was shot by loyalists on Belfast's Shankill Road during serious rioting in protest at the recommendations of the Hunt Report. He became the first police fatality of The Troubles. In August 1970, two young constables, Donaldson and Millar, died when an abandoned car they were examining near Crossmaglen exploded. They became the first victims of the re-organized Provisional IRA campaign. October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years). ... Shankill is an area in Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... Crossmaglen (Crois Mhic Lionnáin in Irish) is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland, near the border with the Republic of Ireland. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all...


In March 1972, the Government of Northern Ireland resigned and the parliament was prorogued. Northern Ireland subsequently came under direct rule from Westminster with its own Secretary of State, who had overall responsibility for security policy. 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1972 calendar). ... The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the home rule legislature created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which existed from June 7, 1921 to March 30, 1972, when it was suspended. ... A prorogation is the period between two sessions of a legislative body. ... The Secretary of State for Northern Ireland is the British cabinet minister who has responsibility for the government of Northern Ireland. ...


In June 1978, three RUC officers were charged with kidnapping a Catholic priest (in ahoghill) in retaliation for the kidnapping of another RUC man by the IRA.


In August 1979, the United States State Department halted a shipment of arms that the British government had purchased on behalf of the RUC. This was an indication of US disapproval of the RUC's role in the conflict, and was a source of friction between the US and British governments. The RUC eventually bought the arms it wanted from Germany. The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ...


Starting in late 1982, a number of IRA and INLA men who were enroute to commit terrorist acts were shot dead by the RUC, usually at checkpoints. The constant and prolonged nature of these incidents led to accusations of a shoot-to-kill policy by the RUC. The British government set up the Stalker Inquiry to investigate. In September 1983, four officers were charged with murder as a result of the inquiry, although all were subsequently found not guilty. The acronym IRA may refer to: Irish Republican Army See also List of IRAs Irish Republican Army, the self-proclaimed Army of the Irish Republic that fought the Irish War of Independence against British rule, 1916 - 1921 Irish Republican Army (1922-1969): Originally the Anti-Treaty or Republican side in... The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) was formed on 8 December 1974 as the military wing of the Irish Republican Socialist Movement (a political wing, the Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP), was formed the same day) by Seamus Costello and other activists who had left or been forced out of... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... The Stalker/Sampson inquiry The Stalker Affair began in Northern Ireland on 11 November 1982 when three unarmed men were shot dead by members of a special RUC anti-terrorist unit just outside Lurgan. ...


In May 1986 John Hermon, then Chief Constable, publicly accused Unionist politicians of "consorting with paramilitary elements." Anger at the Anglo-Irish Agreement led to unionists attacking over 500 homes, of Catholics and RUC officers. 150 RUC families were forced to move as a result of the intimidation. Sir John Hermon was the Chief Constable of Royal Ulster Constabulary from 1980-1989. ... Chief Constable is the title given to the commanding officer of every territorial police force in the United Kingdom except the two responsible for Greater London. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organised in a military fashion. ... The Anglo-Irish Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which aimed to bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great...


In 1998 Chief Constable Ronnie Flanagan said in a television interview that he was unhappy with any RUC officers belonging to the Orange Order or any of the other loyal orders. While the RUC refused to give any details on how many officers were members of the Order, 39 RUC officers are listed on the Order's Roll of Honour (of Orangemen killed in the conflict). If this is was a representative cross-section, it would mean 13% of the force were members of the Orange Order. Many officers were suspended for taking part in protests of banned or rerouted marches. 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organisation largely based in the province of Northern Ireland and in western Scotland but which has a worldwide membership. ...


The size of the RUC increased on several occasions. At its height, there were 8,500 regular police officers supported by about 5,000 full-time and part-time reserve officers, making it the second largest force in the United Kingdom after the Metropolitan Police in London. The direction and control of the RUC was in the hands in the Chief Constable, who was assisted by two Deputy Chief Constables and nine Assistant Chief Constables. For operational purposes, Northern Ireland was divided into twelve Divisions and 39 Sub-Divisions. RUC ranks, duties, conditions of service and pay were generally in line with those of police forces in Great Britain. London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... A division was until recently the usual term for the largest territorial subdivision of most British police forces, similar to a precinct in American city police departments, and is still used in some forces. ...


Awards for gallantry since 1969 included 16 George Medals, 103 Queen's Gallantry Medals, 111 Queen's Commendations for Brave Conduct and 69 Queen's Police Medals. Between 1969 and 1994, 195 RUC and 101 RUC Reserve members were killed and over 7,000 injured as a result of the security situation in Northern Ireland. The George Medal was created by Britains King George VI on 24 September 1940. ... The Queens Gallantry Medal was instituted on the 20th of June 1974 to replace the British Empire Medal with oakleaves. ... The Queens Police Medal is awarded to police officers in the United Kingdom for distinguished service or gallantry. ...


Patten Report

In February 1994, Amnesty International published a report which stated there was "mounting evidence" of collusion between the security forces and loyalist paramilitaries. David Trimble, Nobel Peace Prize co-winner and leader of the Ulster Unionist Party, admitted that Northern Ireland in the past had been a "cold house for Catholics". The Belfast Agreement produced a wholescale reorganisation of inter-community, governmental and policing systems, including a power-sharing executive with David Trimble and the nationalist SDLP's Seamus Mallon (later replaced by new party leader Mark Durkan) as co-chairmen. The perceived bias, and the clear lack of Catholics and nationalists, in the RUC meant that as part of the Good Friday Agreement (1998) there was a fundamental policing review. The review was headed by Chris Patten, a former Hong Kong Governor and British Conservative Minister under Margaret Thatcher, and published in September 1999. It recommended a wholesale reorganisation of policing, with the Royal Ulster Constabulary being renamed the Police Service of Northern Ireland, and a greater drive to recruit Catholic recruits and should adopt a new crest and cap badge. The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) was introduced in November 2001 (full title: The Police Service of Northern Ireland (incorporating the Royal Ulster Constabulary GC). As part of the change, the police service dropped the word 'Royal' from everyday usage and adopted a new badge that included the crown, the harp, and the shamrock - the symbols used by the RUC and RIC - each with an identification with one or other community. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated like the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ... Amnesty International logo Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international, non-governmental organization with the stated purpose of promoting all the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international standards. ... In the study of economics, collusion takes place within an industry when rival companies cooperate for their mutual benefit. ... The Lord Trimble William David Trimble, Baron Trimble of Lisnagarvey (born 15 October 1944) is a Northern Irish politician who served as leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) and the first First Minister of Northern Ireland. ... The Nobel Peace Prize Medal featuring a portrait of Alfred Nobel Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party ) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland, which formed its government between 1921 and 1972 and was supported by most unionists throughout the Troubles. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major step in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... Seamus Mallon, MP Seamus Mallon (born on 17 August 1936) is a Northern Irish politician and former Deputy Leader of the nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party. ... John Mark Durkan (born 1960) is a Roman Catholic nationalist politician in Northern Ireland and the leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ... Lord Patten of Barnes The Right Honourable Christopher Francis Patten, Baron Patten of Barnes, CH, PC (born 12 May 1944) is a prominent British Conservative politician. ... The Conservative Party is one of the two largest political parties in the United Kingdom and the most successful party in political history based on election victories. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ...


George Cross

Two years before its reorganisation, the RUC was awarded the George Cross for bravery in dealing with terrorist threat, a rarely awarded honour which had only been awarded collectively once before, to the Island of Malta. George Cross The George Cross (GC) is the highest Commonwealth decoration awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry not in the face of the enemy and is equal to the Victoria Cross. ... George Cross The George Cross (GC) is the highest Commonwealth decoration awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry not in the face of the enemy and is equal to the Victoria Cross. ...


The Stevens Inquiry & collusion with loyalist paramilitaries

On 18 April 2003 as part of the third report into collusion between Loyalist paramilitaries, RUC, and British Army, Sir John Stevens published an Overview and Recommendations document (Stevens 3).[1] Stevens intention was to make recommendations which arose from serious shortcomings he had sofar identified in all three Enquiries.[2] April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... On April 16, 2003, Sir John Stevens released an interim version of the Stevens Report, the result of an official British government investigation. ... In general, a loyalist is an individual who is loyal to the powers that be. ... Sir John Stevens (born October 21, 1942) was Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police from 2000 until 2005. ...


The third Stevens Inquiry began in 1999, and referred to his previous reports when making his recommendations. Stevens began his report by saying:

"My Enquiries have highlighted collusion, the wilful failure to keep records, the absence of accountability, the withholding of intelligence and evidence, and the extreme of agents being involved in murder. These serious acts and omissions have meant that people have been killed or seriously injured."[3]

Stevens third inquiry focused in detail on only two of the murders in which collusion is alleged; the murder of Brian Adam Lambert in 1987 & the murder of Pat Finucane in 1989. Stevens 3 also included investigation into a small number of related agent case histories, agents known as Covert Human Intelligence Sources (CHIS). This included looking into allegations made by members of the Force Research Unit (FRU), and some of the activities of Ulster Defence Association (UDA) assets William Alfred Stobie and Brian Nelson. Patrick Finucane (born 1949)[1] was a Belfast solicitor murdered by loyalist paramilitaries on February 12, 1989, for defending members of the IRA in court (Finucane had also defended suspected loyalists in his career). ... The Force Research Unit is alleged to be a covert military intelligence organization established by the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence under the British Armys Special Intelligence Wing (SIW). ... The UDA flag in the town center of Ahoghill, County Antrim. ...


Stevens used the following criteria as a definition of collusion while conducting his investigation:

  • The failure to keep records or the existence of contradictory accounts which could limit the opportunity to rebut serious allegations.
  • The absence of accountability which could allow acts or omissions by individuals to go undetected.
  • The withholding of information which could impede the prevention of crime and the arrest of suspects.
  • The unlawful involvement of agents in murder which could imply that the security forces sanction killings.[4]

Stephens also pointed out that his investigation had been obstructed:

"Throughout my three Enquiries I recognised that I was being obstructed. This obstruction was cultural in its nature and widespread within parts of the Army and the RUC. I am confident that through the investigative efforts of my Enquiry team, I have managed to overcome it and achieve the overall objectives of my Enquiry."[5]

Stevens, in the Conclusion's section of the document stated:

"I have uncovered enough evidence to lead me to believe that the murders of Patrick Finucane and Brian Adam Lambert could have been prevented. I also believe that the RUC investigation of Patrick Finucane’s murder should have resulted in the early arrest and detection of his killers.

I conclude there was collusion in both murders [Brian Adam Lambert's & Finucane's] and the circumstances surrounding them. Collusion is evidenced in many ways. This ranges from the wilful failure to keep records, the absence of accountability, the withholding of intelligence and evidence, through to the extreme of agents being involved in murder.

My three Enquiries have found all these elements of collusion [above] to be present. The co-ordination, dissemination and sharing of intelligence were poor. Informants and agents were allowed to operate without effective control and to participate in terrorist crimes. Nationalists were known to be targeted but were not properly warned or protected. Crucial information was withheld from Senior Investigating Officers. Important evidence was neither exploited nor preserved."[6]

Noted in the report was that as a result of the Stevens 3 inquiries and up to the date of publication there had been 144 arrests with 94 peoeple convicted, along with 57 separate reports submitted to the Northern Ireland Director of Public Prosecutions.


Reaction to Stevens 3

The SDLP leader Mark Durkan responded to the report by saying he was "shocked but not surprised". He also said:

Nationalists have an equal right to life. None of the security forces vindicated it. . . This represents a betrayal of the nationalist community.[citation needed]

The SDLP demanded to know how much former chief constables of the RUC knew about the collusion. During the time period under investigation Sir Hugh Annesley and Sir Ronnie Flanagan both filled senior management positions in the RUC including the office of chief constable. The SDLP also demanded to know how much then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Tom King and British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher knew of the activities. Sir Ronnie Flanagan GBE (born March 25, 1949) was the Chief Constable of the Police Service of Northern Ireland since its creation in 2001 to 2002, and had been Chief Constable of its predecessor, the Royal Ulster Constabulary, since 1996. ... The Secretary of State for Northern Ireland is the British cabinet minister who has responsibility for the government of Northern Ireland. ... Thomas Jeremy King, Baron King of Bridgwater, PC (born June 13, 1933), is a British Conservative politician who was Member of Parliament for Bridgwater in Somerset, from 1970 until 2001. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ...


Nationalists continue to demand a full public sworn inquiry into the events with proven collusion like the Finucane murder, and all cases where collusion has been alleged. David Trimble, the leader of the Ulster Unionist Party, called for a parliamentary inquiry into the collusion. The Lord Trimble William David Trimble, Baron Trimble of Lisnagarvey (born 15 October 1944) is a Northern Irish politician who served as leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) and the first First Minister of Northern Ireland. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party ) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland, which formed its government between 1921 and 1972 and was supported by most unionists throughout the Troubles. ...


It is notable that the new first Chief Constable of the PSNI, Hugh Orde, before his appointment, served at a senior level within the Stevens Inquiry team. He has insisted that the errors and the collusion within the RUC documented in the Stevens Report (the third issued by Sir John Stevens) will not be allowed to happen under the new police service. Sir Hugh Stephen Orde OBE is the Chief Constable of the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). ...


Chief Officers

The chief officer of the Royal Irish Constabulary was its Inspector-General (the last of whom, Sir Thomas J. Smith served from 11 March 1920 until partition in 1922). Between 1922 and 1969 the position of Inspector-General of the RUC was held by five officers, the last being Sir Arthur Young, who was seconded for a year from the City of London Police to implement the Hunt Report and disarm the 'B' Specials. Under Young, who eschewed the RUC's military mindset in favour of a civilian approach similar to that held in the rest of the UK, the title was changed to Chief Constable. Young and six others held the job until the RUC was renamed. The final incumbent, Sir Ronnie Flanagan, became the first Chief Constable of the PSNI. Inspector General is a fact finding officer whose responsibility is to investigate charges of corruption, fraud, waste and abuse and other complaints regarding government officials. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... City Police Mounted Section officer The City of London Police is the police force responsible for the City of London. ... Chief Constable is the title given to the commanding officer of every territorial police force in the United Kingdom except the two responsible for Greater London. ...

  • Lt. Col. Sir Charles Wickham, from June 1922.
  • Sir Richard Pim, from August 1945.
  • Sir Albert Kennedy, from January 1961.
  • J.A. Peacock, from February 1969.
  • Sir Arthur Young, from November 1969.
  • Sir Graham Shillington, from November 1970.
  • Sir James Flanagan, from November 1973.
  • Sir Kenneth Newman, from May 1976.
  • Sir John Hermon, from January 1980.
  • Sir Hugh Annesley, from June 1989.
  • Sir Ronnie Flanagan, from October 1996.

Colonel Sir Arthur Edwin Young, KBE, CMG, CVO, KPM (born 1907) was the Commissioner of the City of London Police from 1950 to 1971. ... James L. Flanagan is an electrical engineer, and is Rutgers vice president for research. ... Sir Kenneth Leslie Newman, GBE, QPM (born 1926 in Sussex, England) was Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police from 1982 to 1987 and Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary from 1976 to 1980. ... Sir John Hermon was the Chief Constable of Royal Ulster Constabulary from 1980-1989. ... Sir Ronnie Flanagan GBE (born March 25, 1949) was the Chief Constable of the Police Service of Northern Ireland since its creation in 2001 to 2002, and had been Chief Constable of its predecessor, the Royal Ulster Constabulary, since 1996. ...

References

  1. ^ Overview and Recommendations document for Stevens 3 is available in PDF format here.
  2. ^ For a chronology of the Stevens Inquiries and surrounding events see BBC News 17 April 2003 available here.
  3. ^ Stevens 3 Overview and Recommendations document Page 3
  4. ^ Conclusions section of Stevens 3 Overview and Recommendations document Page 16
  5. ^ Stevens 3 Overview and Recommendations document Page 13
  6. ^ Conclusions section of Stevens 3 Overview and Recommendations document Page 16

April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ...

See also

The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ... The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was one of Irelands two police forces in the early twentieth century, alongside the Dublin Metropolitan Police. ... The Dublin Metropolitan Police was formed in 1836, after twenty years of attempts to create an effective policing force in Ireland Rural policing in Ireland began when Chief Secretary for Ireland, Robert Peel created the Peace Preservation Force in 1816. ... A member of the motorcycle unit of the Garda Síochána. ... On April 16, 2003, Sir John Stevens released an interim version of the Stevens Report, the result of an official British government investigation. ... The British police are a group of similar but independent police services which operate in the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... This article deals with the issue of a shoot-to-kill policy during The Troubles in Northern Ireland. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Royal Ulster Constabulary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3403 words)
To Irish nationalists, the RUC was seen as the security arm of a state that lacked legitimacy and to which they refused to give their allegiance.
However, IRA attacks on Catholics who joined the RUC, and the perception that the police force was "a Protestant force for a Protestant people" meant that Catholic participation in the Royal Ulster Constabulary always remained disproproportionally small in terms of the Catholic percentage of the overall Northern Irish population.
The chief officer of the Royal Irish Constabulary was its Inspector-General (the last of whom, Sir Thomas J. Smith served from 11 March 1920 until partition in 1922).
Royal Irish Constabulary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1315 words)
The loyalty of the constabulary during the rising was rewarded by Queen Victoria granting the force the prefix 'royal' and the right to use the insignia of the Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick.
The Royal Irish Constabulary presided over a marked decline in crime in the country with the rural unrest of the early nineteenth century and its secret organizations and crimes such as unlawful armed assembly being succeeded by public drunkenness and minor property crimes (excluding the Land War of 1879-82).
In January 1922 it was agreed to disband the RIC, replacing it with the Garda Síochána in the Free State and the Royal Ulster Constabulary in Northern Ireland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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