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Encyclopedia > Royal Society
The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only).
The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only).

The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a learned society for science that was founded in 1660 and claims to be the oldest such society still in existence. Although a voluntary body, it serves as the academy of sciences of the United Kingdom (in which role it receives £30 million annually from the UK Government). It is a member organisation of the Science Council. The Royal Society may refer to : Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, United Kingdom Royal Society for Asian Affairs, United Kingdom Royal Society for Protection of Nature, Bhutan Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature, Jordan Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, United Kingdom Royal... The Royal Society in London, 2004-04-20. ... The Royal Society in London, 2004-04-20. ... A learned society is a society that exists to promote an academic discipline or group of disciplines. ... The Science Council is the umbrella body for scientific professional institutes and learned societies in the UK. Together, the member organisations represent over 400,000 scientists. ...


The Royal Society of Edinburgh (founded 1783) is a separate Scottish body. The Royal Irish Academy (founded 1785) is a separate Irish body. The Royal Society of Edinburghs Building on the corner of George St. ... The Royal Irish Academy (RIA) is one of Irelands premier learned societies and cultural institutions. ...

Contents

History

The Royal Society was founded in 1660, only a few months after the Restoration of King Charles II, by members of one or two either secretive or informal societies already in existence. The Royal Society enjoyed the confidence and official support of the restored monarchy. The "New" or "Experimental" form of philosophy was generally ill-regarded by the Aristotelian (and religious) academies, but had been promoted by Sir Francis Bacon in his book The New Atlantis. King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... It has been suggested that Idols of the mind be merged into this article or section. ... Columbus Santa Maria, by Eertvelt The New Atlantis is a utopian novel written by Francis Bacon in 1626. ...


Robert Boyle refers to the "Invisible College" as early as 1646. A founding meeting was held at the premises of Gresham College in Bishopsgate on 28 November 1660, immediately after a lecture by Sir Christopher Wren, at that time Gresham Professor of Astronomy. At a second meeting a week later, Sir Robert Moray, an influential Freemason who had helped organize the public emergence of the group, reported that the King approved of the meetings. The Royal Society continued to meet at the premises of Gresham College and at Arundel House, the London home of the Dukes of Norfolk, until it moved to its own premises in Crane Court in 1710. [1] Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sir Thomas Greshams grasshopper crest is used as a symbol of the College Gresham College is an unusual institution of higher learning off Holborn in central London. ... Looking north from a pedestrian bridge across Bishopsgate Bishopsgate, in the heart of Londons financial district. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Robert Moray (? - July 4,1673) was the son of Sir Mungo Murray. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk holding the baton of the Earl Marshal. ...


A formal Royal Charter of incorporation passed the Great Seal on 15 July 1662, creating "The Royal Society of London", with Lord Brouncker as the first President, and Robert Hooke was appointed as Curator of Experiments in November 1662. A second Royal Charter was sealed on 23 April 1663, naming the King as Founder and changing the name to "The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge". A Royal Charter is a charter given by a monarch to legitimize an incorporated body, such as a city, company, university or such. ... The Great Seal of the Realm is a British institution by which the monarch can authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... William Brouncker, 2nd Viscount Brouncker (1620–5 April 1684) was an English mathematician. ... The President of the Royal Society (PRS) is the elected head of the Royal Society of London. ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1663 (MDCLXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The motto of the Royal Society, "Nullius in Verba" (Latin: "On the words of no one"), signifies the Society's commitment to establishing the truth of scientific matters through experiment rather than through citation of authority. Although this seems obvious today, the philosophical basis of the Royal Society differed from previous philosophies such as Scholasticism, which established scientific truth based on deductive logic, concordance with divine providence and the citation of such ancient authorities as Aristotle. A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ...


Historical philosophy and significance

The Royal Society imagined a network across the globe as a public enterprise, an "Empire of Learning", and strove to remove language barriers within the Sciences. The Royal Society was dedicated to the free flow of information and encouraged communication. Boyle, in particular, began the practice of reporting his experiments in great detail so that others could replicate them, unlike previous alchemists. Sir Isaac Newton was a practising alchemist and his assistant, J. T. Desaguliers, a demonstrator for the Royal Society, was a prominent Freemason and Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England. During the eighteenth century, masonic lodges in France became conduits for circulating scientific texts which could not be made available publicly (see John Toland). While the proceedings of the Royal Society reported for instance Chinese alchemists' immortality potions as fact, the Royal society did actually put the superstitions current to rigorous testing, for instance placing a spider on a table and sprinkling a circle of salt around it; on the theory that it could not walk across the salt. The spider promptly left the circle, thus disproving that myth. For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... The unpublished work of Isaac Newton included much that would now be classified as occult studies. ... John Theophilus Desaguliers (13 March 1683 – 29 February 1744) was a natural philosopher born in France. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... The Premier Grand Lodge of England was founded on 24 June 1717 and it existed until 1813 when it united with the Antient Grand Lodge of England to create the United Grand Lodge of England. ... John Toland (November 30, 1670 - March 11, 1722) Very little is known about his true origins other than the fact that he was born in Ardagh on the Inishowen Peninsula, a predominantly Catholic and Irish speaking region, in north west Ulster. ...


Reform

In 1821 Humphry Davy became president and marked a shift in membership towards practising scientists, rather than gentlemen and amateurs. The Industrial Revolution and the needs of business had alerted society to the demand for a professional body for leading scientists. However, the Society's royal charter guaranteed the Fellows an unfettered right to elect to Fellowship whoever they chose and regulation of the number of new members and their scientific qualifications became a pressing concern. In 1823, a committee was established to review the statutes of the Society but it was only in 1827 that the question of membership was considered. James South succeeded in establishing a committee to "consider the best means of limiting the members admitted to the Royal Society, as well as to make such Suggestions on that subject as may seem to them conducive to the Welfare of the Society." However, the committee, chaired by William Hyde Wollaston and comprising South, Davies Gilbert, John Herschel, Thomas Young, Charles Babbage, Francis Beaufort and Henry Kater, had little impact when it reported.[1] Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet, FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... A Royal Charter is a charter given by a monarch to legitimize an incorporated body, such as a city, company, university or such. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sir James South (October 1785 – October 19, 1867) was a British astronomer. ... William Hyde Wollaston William Hyde Wollaston FRS (August 6, 1766 – December 22, 1828) was an English chemist and physicist who is famous for discovering two chemical elements and for developing a way to process platinum ore. ... The Davies-Gilbert family is one of Britains most prestigious families. ... John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English mathematician and astronomer. ... There have been several well-known people named Thomas Young, including: Thomas Young, 16th century archbishop of York Thomas Young, M.A., Master of Jesus College, Cambridge 1644-50 Thomas Young (1773-1829), scientist Thomas Young VC, the recipient of the Victoria Cross Thomas Young, the Baptist Evangelist from Piedmont... Babbage redirects here. ... Sir Francis Beaufort (May 7, 1774 - December 17, 1857) was a British naval officer and hydrographer and was born in Ireland. ... Henry Kater (April 16, 1777 – April 26, 1835), English physicist of German descent, was born at Bristol. ...


A new crisis was precipitated when Davy resigned as president in July 1827. Gilbert canvassed Sir Robert Peel as a new president. Peel had been been an important political intermediary in establishing the Royal Medals, but many were appalled at the prospect of a political, rather than scientific, president. In the face of a deadlock, Davies took the presidency for the remainder of the year but was then succeeded by the nonscientists the Duke of Sussex and then the Marquess of Northampton.[1] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Royal Medals of the Royal Society of London were established by King George IV. They were further supported with certain changes to their conditions, by King William IV and Queen Victoria. ... Portrait of Prince Augustus Frederick by Louis Gauffier Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex (27 January 1773 – 21 April 1843), was the sixth son of King George III of the United Kingdom and his consort, Queen Charlotte. ... Spencer Joshua Alwyne Compton, 2nd Marquess of Northampton (2 January 1790-17 January 1851) was a British nobleman and patron of science and the arts. ...


In 1846, the Society established a Charters Committee "with a view to obtaining a supplementary Charter from the Crown", and a particular remit to consider the membership issue. When he was elected to the Council that year, William Robert Grove was co-opted to the committee, his experience in both science and law making him particularly qualified. The committee recommended:[1] 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ... Sir William Robert Grove (1811 – 1896) was a British chemist born in Swansea in Wales. ...

  • Election of Fellows on one day only each year. There had previously been four elections which made the thorough appraisal of candidates difficult;
  • Number of new Fellows limited to fifteen per year; and
  • Thorough consideration of scientific qualifications of candidates.

However, the Society sought the opinion of the Attorney General and Solicitor General who held that it would not be lawful to limit the membership under the current charter. It was Grove who resolved the deadlock by proposing that a limited intake of fifteen be proposed by the council to the Fellows for election, effectively limiting the new membership. Grove facilitated the adoption of the new rules against opposition from the amateurs and from some professionals who regretted any weakening of links with the political establishment. During the 1870s, membership of the Society fell to about 500.[1] Her Majestys Attorney General for England and Wales, usually known as the Attorney General, is the chief legal adviser of the Crown in England and Wales. ... Her Majestys Solicitor General for England and Wales, often known as the Solicitor General, is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, and the deputy of the Attorney General, whose duty is to advise the Crown and Cabinet on the law. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ...


Current activities and significance

  • Funding scientific research. This is the largest area of expenditure for the Society, costing around £30 m each year. [2] The flagship scheme is the University Research Fellowship which funds early careers scientists, with approximately 300 in post at any time. [3] Other schemes include the Royal Society Research Professorships to be awarded to world leading scientists based in the UK such as Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys FRS and international schemes to encourage foreign collaboration. The majority of grants are paid from the Society's Parliamentary Grant in Aid although some are funded by private donors such as BP and the Wolfson Foundation.
  • Publishing (see later).
  • Providing science advice, including science and mathematics education. High profile reports have recently been produced on nanotechnology and the use of non-human primates in research.
  • Science in Society programme to increase public interest in science. Activities include public lectures, discussion meetings and the annual Summer Science Exhibition (in London and Glasgow).

Professor Sir Alec John Jeffreys, FRS, (born in 9 January 1950 at Luton in Bedfordshire) is a British geneticist, who developed techniques for DNA fingerprinting and DNA profiling. ... This article is about the corporation named BP. For other uses, see BP (disambiguation). ... The Wolfson Foundation is a registered charity based in London, UK. It was established in 1955 and aims to support the arts, education, health, humanities, research, science and technology. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...

Publications

The Royal Society publishes seven, high quality peer-reviewed journals covering: biological and physical sciences; history and philosophy of science; and cross-disciplinary research at the interface between the physical and life sciences. The list includes the world's longest running scientific journal, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

Cover of Cover the first volume of , published in 1665 The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or Phil. ... Cover of Proceedings of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society of London. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Journal of the Royal Society Interface is an international journal publishing articles from the interface between the physical sciences, including mathematics, and the life sciences. ... The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, (formerly known as Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society), is a journal published by the Royal Society of London. ... Obituary for World War I death An obituary is a notice of the death of a person, usually published in a newspaper, written or commissioned by the newspaper, and usually including a short biography. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Governance

The Society is governed by its Council of Trustees, which is chaired by its President. The members of Council and the President are elected from its Fellowship.


Fellowship

As with many learned societies, the Society's governance structure is based on its Fellowship. Fellows are elected annually by the existing Fellowship for their "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge including mathematics, engineering science and medical science". Fellows must be citizens or ordinarily resident of the Commonwealth or Republic of Ireland, otherwise they may be elected as a Foreign Member. A learned society is a society that exists to promote an academic discipline or group of disciplines. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


Fellows are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. Up to 44 new fellows are elected each year by ballot of the existing fellows of the Society based on a shortlist drawn up by Council and its 10 Sectional Committees. The Society's statutes state that candidates for election must have made "a substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science". Post-nominal letters also called Post-nominal initials or Post-nominal titles are letters placed after the name of an individual to indicate that that individual holds a position, educational degree, accreditation, office, or honour. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ...


There are two additional categories: Royal Fellow, for a member of the Royal family to be admitted, and Honorary Fellow, for someone who has "rendered signal service to the cause of science, or whose election would significantly benefit the Society by their great experience in other walks of life". A maximum of forty-four Fellows, six Foreign Members and one Honorary Fellow may be elected each year. [6]


Foreign Member of the Royal Society is an honorary position within the Royal Society. It is a position at the same rank as a Fellow of the Royal Society to which scientists from outside the Commonwealth and the Republic of Ireland may be elected. Someone elected a Foreign Member may use the post-nominal letters ForMemRS.


Prior to the creation of the position of Honorary Fellow in 2000, people distinguished in other walks of life would sometimes be elected as Fellows; examples of this are the British Prime Ministers Benjamin Disraeli, Winston Churchill, Clement Attlee, and Margaret Thatcher. A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... “Churchill” redirects here. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1945 to 1951. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first (and, to date, only) woman to hold either post. ...


Council and Officers

The Fellowship elects twenty-one members of Council, the governing body and trustees of the society. The chair of the council is the President of the Royal Society, currently Martin Rees. There are four other titled posts, variously referred to as Vice-Presidents, Secretaries and Officers: the Treasurer, the Foreign Secretary, the Physical Secretary and the Biological Secretary. The current holders of these posts are respectively David Wallace, Lorna Casselton, Martin J. Taylor, and David Read. [7] [8] The Right Honourable Martin John Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow, FRS (born 23 June 1942) is a professor of astronomy. ... David Wallace (physicist) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Professor Lorna Casselton FRS is Emiritus Professor of Fungal Genetics in the Department of Plant Science at University of Oxford. ... Martin J. Taylor FRS, is professor of pure mathematics at the University of Manchester and before that UMIST where he was appointed to a chair after moving he moved from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1986. ... Professor David Read FRS is Emiritus Professor of Plant Science in the Department of Animal and Plant Sciences at University of Sheffield. ...


A selected list of Presidents

Mace of the Royal Society, granted by Charles II
Mace of the Royal Society, granted by Charles II

Royal Society mace, granted by Charles II. Copyright © 2004 Kaihsu Tai. ... Royal Society mace, granted by Charles II. Copyright © 2004 Kaihsu Tai. ... The President of the Royal Society (PRS) is the elected head of the Royal Society of London. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax (April 16, 1661 - May 19, 1715) was Chancellor of the Exchequer, poet, statesman, and Earl of Halifax. ... John Somers, 1st Baron Somers (4 March 1651–26 April 1716), was Lord Chancellor of England under King William III. He was born near Worcester, the eldest son of John Somers, an attorney in large practice in that town, who had formerly fought on the side of the Parliament... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, PRS (13 February 1743 – 19 June 1820) was an English naturalist, botanist and science patron. ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet, FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex (27 January 1773-21 April 1843), was the sixth son of King George III of the United Kingdom and his consort, Queen Charlotte. ... Lord Rosse William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse KP (June 17, 1800 – October 31, 1867) was born in Monkstown, County Cork and was an Irish astronomer. ... Joseph Dalton Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, GCSI, OM, FRS, MD (June 30, 1817 – December 10, 1911) was an English botanist and traveller. ... Thomas Henry Huxley FRS (4 May 1825 Ealing – 29 June 1895 Eastbourne, Sussex) was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Sir George Gabriel Stokes, 1st Baronet (13 August 1819–1 February 1903) was an Irish mathematician and physicist, who at Cambridge made important contributions to fluid dynamics (including the Navier-Stokes equations), optics, and mathematical physics (including Stokes theorem). ... William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, OM, GCVO, PC, PRS, FRSE, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a British mathematical physicist, engineer, and outstanding leader in the physical sciences of the 19th century. ... Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, OM , FRS (5 April 1827 – 10 February 1912) was an English surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. ... William Huggins Sir William Huggins, OM , FRS (February 7, 1824 – May 12, 1910) was a British astronomer. ... See also Rayleigh fading Rayleigh scattering Rayleigh number Rayleigh waves Rayleigh-Jeans law External links Nobel website bio of Rayleigh About John William Strutt MacTutor biography of Lord Rayleigh Categories: People stubs | 1842 births | 1919 deaths | Nobel Prize in Physics winners | Peers | British physicists | Discoverer of a chemical element ... Sir Joseph John Thomson Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940), often known as J. J. Thomson, was an English physicist, the discoverer of the electron. ... // Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 - 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a nuclear physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. ... Sir William Henry Bragg OM, Cantab, OKW (Westward, Cumbria, England July 2, 1862 – March 10, 1942) was an English physicist and chemist, educated at King Williams College, Isle of Man, and Trinity College, Cambridge. ... Sir Henry Hallett Dale (June 9, 1875 - July 23, 1968) was an English scientist. ... Robert McCredie Bob May, Baron May of Oxford, OM, AC, FRS (born 8 January 1936 in Australia) is a cross-bench member of the British House of Lords and was President of the Royal Society from 2000 to 2005. ... Professor Martin Rees Martin John Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow, FRS (born 23 June 1942) is a professor of astronomy. ...

Permanent Staff

The Society's 15 Sections are administered by the permanent staff, led by the Executive Secretary, Stephen Cox CVO. The Executive Secretary is supported by the Senior Managers of the Society:

  • Mr. Ian Cooper, Director of Finance and Operations
  • Dr. Peter Collins, Director of Science Policy
  • Dr. David Stewart Boak, Director of Communications

Awards

The Society awards 10 medals, 7 prizes (which it terms awards) and 9 prize lectureships variously annually, biennially or triennially, according to the terms of reference for each award. The Society also runs The Aventis Prizes for Science Books. The Aventis Prizes for Science Books is an annual award for the previous years best general science writing and best science writing for children, sponsored by the Aventis Foundation. ...


Medals and Prize lectures are awarded to scientists in honour of the excellence of their science. Only Fellows can make nominations, which are assessed by committees of Fellows which recommends to the Society's Council who should receive them. Nominees do not have to be Fellows. Recipients of Medals and Prize Lectures receive a struck medal, a scroll, and an honorarium from the Society's private funds. Prize lecturers are required to give a public lecture. [9].


The Prizes often have the word Award in their title, and are open to nomination from all. They have a variety of assessment criteria and selection process. Some, such as the Michael Faraday Prize, require the recipient to give a public lecture, whereas others, such as the Kohn Award, provide funds for the recipient to undertake a project. The Michael Faraday Prize is a science award given annually by the Royal Society. ...


A full list of recipients is on the Awards section of the Society's website.


Awards

The Michael Faraday Prize is a science award given annually by the Royal Society. ... The Microsoft European Science Award (or European Science Award or Microsoft Award) is an award/prize given by the Royal Society in London. ...

Medals

  • Buchanan Medal (for achievements in medicine)
  • Copley Medal (for work in any field of science)
  • Darwin Medal (for work in the broad area of biology in which Charles Darwin worked)
  • Davy Medal (for work in any branch of chemistry)
  • Gabor Medal (for work in biology, especially in genetic engineering and molecular biology)
  • Hughes Medal (for work in the physical sciences, particularly electricity and magnetism)
  • Leverhulme Medal (for work in pure or applied chemistry or engineering)
  • Royal Medals (for the two most important contributions to the advancement of Natural Knowledge)
  • Rumford Medal (for work in the fields of heat or light)
  • Sylvester Medal (for the encouragement of mathematical research)

The Buchanan Medal is a medal of the Royal Society awarded for achievements in medicine. ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for work in any field of science, the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... The Darwin Medal is given by the Royal Society on even years to a biologist or a husband and wife team of biologists. ... The Davy Medal is a bronze medal that has been awarded annually by the Royal Society in London since 1887. ... The Gabor Medal is a medal of the Royal Society, normally awarded for acknowledged distinction of work in biology, especially in genetic engineering and molecular biology. ... The Hughes Medal, named after microphone inventor David Edward Hughes, is one of several medals awarded by the Royal Society, Englands reigning academy of science. ... The Leverhulme Medal of the Royal Society first awarded in 1960 to mark the tricentenary of the society at the instigation of the Leverhulme Trust. ... In 1796, Benjamin Thompson, known as Count Rumford, gave $5000 separately to the Royal Society of London and the other by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences to give awards every two years for outstanding scientific research on heat or light. ... The Sylvester Medal is a bronze medal awarded every three years by the Royal Society for the encouragement of mathematical research. ...

Prize lectures

The Bakerian Lecture is a prize lecture of the Royal Society, the Societys most prestigious lecture on physical sciences. ... The Francis Crick Lecture is prize lecture of the Royal Society established in 2003 with an endowment from Sydney Brenner. ... The Croonian Lecture is a prestigous lectureship given at the invitation of the Royal Society or the Royal College of Physicians. ... The Ferrier Lecture is a Royal Society lectureship given triennially (in years divisible by three). ... The Leeuwenhoek Lecture is a prize lecture of the Royal Society given annually on the subject of microbiology. ...

Selected bibliography

The coat-of-arms of the Royal Society as a stained-glass window. The motto is 'Nullius in verba'.
The coat-of-arms of the Royal Society as a stained-glass window. The motto is 'Nullius in verba'.

Sylva can refer to: Sylva, North Carolina, a town in the United States The Sylva River, in Russia Carmen Sylva, better known as Elizabeth of Romania Buddy De Sylva (1895 - 1950), U.S. songwriter This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... John Evelyn. ... Hookes drawing of a flea Micrographia is a historical book by Robert Hooke, detailing the then twenty-eight year-old Hookes observations through various lenses. ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or , is the oldest scientific journal printed in the English-speaking world, and was only three months shy of being the oldest in the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Download high resolution version (362x678, 95 KB)Royal Society coat-of-arms. ... Download high resolution version (362x678, 95 KB)Royal Society coat-of-arms. ...

Timeline

  • 1640s — informal meetings
  • November 28, 1660 — Royal Society founded at Gresham College
  • 1661 — name first appears in print, and library presented with its first book
  • 1662 — first Royal Charter gives permission to publish
  • 1663 — second Royal Charter
  • 1665 — first issue of Philosophical Transactions
  • 1666 — Fire of London causes move to Arundel House until 1673, then returns to Gresham College [10]
  • 1669 — third Royal Charter; original proposal would have made Chelsea College the permanent home of the Society, but the site became Chelsea Hospital instead
  • 1710 — acquires its own home in Crane Court
  • 1780 — moves to premises at Somerset House provided by the Crown[11]
  • 1847 — changed election criteria so that future Fellows would be elected solely on the merit of their scientific work
  • 1850 — Parliamentary Grant-In-Aid commences, of £1,000, to assist scientists in their research and to buy equipment.
  • 1857 — moved to Burlington House in Piccadilly
  • 1967 — moved to present location on Carlton House Terrace

is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Sir Thomas Greshams grasshopper crest is used as a symbol of the College Gresham College is an unusual institution of higher learning off Holborn in central London. ... A Royal Charter is a charter given by a monarch to legitimize an incorporated body, such as a city, company, university or such. ... The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or , is the oldest scientific journal printed in the English-speaking world, and was only three months shy of being the oldest in the world. ... The Great Fire of London was a major fire that swept through the City of London from September 2nd to September 5th, 1666, and resulted more or less in the destruction of the city. ... Arundel House was the town house of the Bishops of Bath and Wells, during the Middle Ages. ... Chelsea College of Art and Design (North Block). ... Figure Court of Royal Hospital Chelsea The Royal Hospital Chelsea is a retirement home and nursing home for British soldiers who are unfit for further duty due to injury or old age, located in the Chelsea region of central London. ... Burlington House is a courtyard building off Picadilly in London. ... Piccadilly is a major London street, running from Hyde Park Corner in the west to Piccadilly Circus in the east. ... The East Terrace soon after completion. ...

See also

Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... A learned society is a society that exists to promote an academic discipline or group of disciplines. ... The following is a list of professional bodies in the United Kingdom. ... The British Academy is the United Kingdoms national academy for the humanities and the social sciences. ... The British Association or the British Association for the Advancement of Science or the BA is a learned society with the object of promoting science, directing general attention to scientific matters, and facilitating intercourse between scientific workers. ... The Royal Institution of Great Britain was set up in 1799 by the leading British scientists of the age, including Henry Cavendish and its first president George Finch, the 9th Earl of Winchilsea, for diffusing the knowledge, and facilitating the general introduction, of useful mechanical inventions and improvements; and for... The Royal Society 1660 Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783 Royal Irish Academy 1785 Royal Society of Literature 1820 Royal Society of Chemistry 1972 formed from the Chemical Society (founded 1841), the Society for Analytical Chemistry (founded 1874), the Royal Institute of Chemistry (founded 1877) and the Faraday Society (founded 1903... . ... The first issue of Science Abstracts was published in January 1898. ... A gentleman scientist was a scientist with a private income who could pursue scientific study independently as he wished without excessive external financial pressures, in the days before large-scale government funding was available, up to the Victorian era, especially in England. ... The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution, based in London. ... The Academy of Medical Sciences is the United Kingdoms national academy of medical sciences. ...

In fiction

The early Royal Society is satirised in Jonathan Swift's 1726 novel Gulliver's Travels when the eponymous protagonist visits the flying island of Laputa. 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... First Edition of Gullivers Travels Gullivers Travels (1726, amended 1735), officially Vol. ... Uros island Floating islands are a common natural phenomenon that are found in many parts of the world. ... For other uses, see Laputa (disambiguation). ...


The early days of the Royal Society also form the backdrop for the events of Neal Stephenson's Baroque cycle of novels — Quicksilver, The Confusion and The System of the World. Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer, known primarily for his science fiction works in the postcyberpunk genre with a penchant for explorations of society, mathematics, currency, and the history of science. ... Quicksilver by Neal Stephenson is the first volume of his series The Baroque Cycle. ... The Confusion is a novel by Neal Stephenson. ... The System of the World, a novel by Neal Stephenson, forms the third volume in The Baroque Cycle. ...


The founding members of the Royal Society (such as Robert Boyle) are used as secondary characters in the historical mystery novel An Instance of the Fingerpost, published in 1997 by English writer and art historian Iain Pears. Purposes of the organization and membership are discussed in parts of the novel, and a days proceedings forms an integral part of the story. Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... An Instance of the Fingerport is a 1997 novel by Iain Pears. ... Iain Pears (born in 1955) is an English mystery writer. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d >Crowther, J. G. (1965). Statesmen of Science. London: Cresset Press, 93-97. 

Bibliography

  • Purver, Margery; Bowen, E. J. (1960). The Beginning of the Royal Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press. OCLC 9381245. 
  • Gleick, James (2004). Isaac Newton. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 1-4000-3295-4. OCLC 55696750. 
  • Sir Harold Hartley (ed.) (1960). The Royal Society: Its Origins and Founders. London: Royal Society. OCLC 813245. 
  • Rousseau, George (1981). The Letters and Private Papers of Sir John Hill, 1714-1775. New York: AMS Press. ISBN 0-404614728. OCLC 8111658. 
  • Sprat, Thomas; Abraham Cowley [1667] (2003-02-01). The history of the Royal-Society of London for the improving of natural knowledge. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-2867-9. OCLC 63174140. 
  • Lomas, Robert (2002). Freemasonry and the Birth of Modern Science. Gloucester, Mass.: Fair Winds Press. ISBN 1592330118. OCLC 52158257. 
  • Homes of the Royal Society. The Royal Society (nd). Retrieved on 2005-12-15.

Edmund John Bowen FRS. British Chemist (1898 - 1981). ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... James Gleick (August 1, 1954– ) is an author, journalist, and biographer, whose books explore the cultural ramifications of science and technology. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Thomas Sprat (1635 – May 20, 1713), English divine, was born at Beaminster, Dorset, and educated at Wadham College, Oxford, where he held a fellowship from 1657 to 1670. ... Abraham Cowley (1618 - July 28, 1667), English poet, was born in the city of London late in 1618. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Robert Lomas is a British writer, Business studies academic and amateur historian. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Royal Society - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1313 words)
The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as the Royal Society, claims to be the oldest learned society still in existence, founded in 1660.
A formal Royal Charter of incorporation passed the Great Seal on 15 July 1662, creating "The Royal Society of London", with Viscount William Brouncker as the first President, and Robert Hooke was appointed as Curator of Experiments in November 1662.
Desaguliers, a demonstrator for the Royal Society, was a prominent Freemason.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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