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Encyclopedia > Royal Proclamation of 1763
A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 "Proclamation line" is the border between the red and the pink areas.
A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 "Proclamation line" is the border between the red and the pink areas.

The Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War. The purpose of the proclamation was to establish Britain's vast new North American empire, and to stabilize relations with Native Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier. The Proclamation in essence forbade colonists of the thirteen colonies from settling or buying land west of the Appalachian Mountains. The colonists were angry because many already had land in that area. Additionally, the Proclamation gave the Crown a monopoly in land bought from Native Americans. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (620x800, 121 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (620x800, 121 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... George III redirects here. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... North American redirects here. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ...

Contents

Native land

One of the biggest problems confronting the British Empire in 1763 was maintaining peace with Native Americans who lived on the land acquired from France in the Treaty of Paris. Many of these people—primarily in the Great Lakes region—had a long and close relationship with France, and were dismayed to find that they were now under British sovereignty. Pontiac's Rebellion (1763–1766) was an unsuccessful effort by Native Americans to prevent Great Britain from occupying the land previously claimed by France. The Proclamation of 1763 had been in the works before Pontiac's Rebellion, but the outbreak of the conflict hastened the process. British officials hoped the proclamation would reconcile the various tribes to British rule and thus help to prevent future hostilities. The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... The Great Lakes states of the U.S. are colored red in this map. ... Combatants British Empire American Indians Commanders Jeffrey Amherst, Henry Bouquet Pontiac, Guyasuta Strength ~3,000 soldiers[1] ~3,500 warriors[2] Casualties 450 soldiers killed, 2,000 civilians killed or captured, 4,000 civilians displaced ~200 warriors killed, possible additional war-related deaths from disease Pontiacs Rebellion was a...


The proclamation created a boundary line, or "The Proclamation Line", between the British colonies on the Atlantic coast and American Indian lands (called the Indian Reserve) west of the Appalachian Mountains. The proclamation line was not intended to be a permanent boundary between white and Native American lands, but clearly states the land has neither been ceded or sold by the natives. The British planned this to be a temporary boundary which could be extended further west in an orderly manner as the British recognized that it was "essential to [their] Interest, and the security of the Colonies". The proclamation outlawed private purchase of tribal land, which had often created problems in the past; instead, all future land purchases were to be made by Crown officials "at some public Meeting or Assembly of the said Indians". Furthermore, British colonists were forbidden to move beyond the line and settle on native lands, and colonial officials were forbidden to grant lands without royal approval. The proclamation gave the Crown a monopoly on all future land purchases from the various tribes. Map of the United States portion of the territory in 1775 after Quebec laid claim to the land north of the Ohio River. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ...


According to historian Colin Calloway, "scholars disagree on whether the proclamation recognized or undermined tribal sovereignty" (p. 93). The language of the proclamation made it clear that the British still believed that all native lands ultimately belonged to the Crown. However, the proclamation established the important precedent that the indigenous population had certain rights to the lands they occupied—in the past, by contrast, the Crown had granted lands without regard to native claims, though the affected tribes had no input into the Proclamation.


Almost immediately, many British colonists and land speculators objected to the proclamation boundary, since there were already many settlements beyond the line (some of which had been temporarily evacuated during Pontiac's War), as well as many existing land claims yet to be settled. Indeed, the proclamation itself called for lands to be granted to British soldiers who had served in the French and Indian War or Seven Years' War. Prominent American colonists joined with land speculators in Britain to lobby the government to move the line further west. As a result, the boundary line was adjusted in a series of Indian treaties. The Treaty of Fort Stanwix and the Treaty of Hard Labor (both 1768) and the Treaty of Lochaber (1770) opened much of what is now West Virginia and Kentucky to British settlement. Two different treaties between Native Americans and European-Americans were signed at Fort Stanwix, which was located near present-day Rome, New York. ... On Oct. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


Organization of new colonies

Besides regulating colonial expansion, the proclamation dealt with the management of newly ceded French colonies. It established government for four areas: Province of Quebec, West Florida, East Florida, and Grenada. All of these were granted the ability to elect general assemblies under a royally appointed governor or a high council, which could then create laws and ordinances specific to the area in agreement with British and colonial laws. In the meantime, the new colonies enjoyed the same rights as native-born Englishmen, something that British colonists had been fighting over for years. An even bigger affront to the British colonies was the establishment of both civil and criminal courts complete with the right to appeal--but those charged with violating the Stamp or Sugar Act were to be tried in admiralty court, where the defendant was considered guilty until he or she could prove his or her innocence. Province of Quebec (COLONIAL PERIOD, 1763-1791) Great Britain acquired Canada by the Treaty of Paris (1763) when King Louis XV of France and his advisors chose to keep the territory of Guadeloupe for its valuable sugar crops instead of New France, which was viewed as a vast, frozen wasteland... This article is about the region. ... Map of East and West Florida in 1810. ... The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. ... The Sugar Act (citation 4 Geo. ... Admiralty courts, also known as maritime courts, are courts exercising jurisdiction over all maritime contracts, torts, injuries and offences. ...


Legacy

The influence of the Royal Proclamation of 1763 on the coming of the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) has been variously interpreted. Many historians argue that the proclamation ceased to be a major source of tension after 1768, since the aforementioned treaties opened up extensive lands for settlement. Others have argued that colonial resentment of the proclamation contributed to the growing divide between the colonies and the Mother Country. This article is about military actions only. ...


In the United States, the Royal Proclamation of 1763 ended with the American Revolutionary War, because Great Britain ceded the land in question to the United States in the Treaty of Paris (1783). Afterwards, the U.S. government also faced difficulties in preventing frontier violence, and eventually adopted policies similar to those of the Royal Proclamation. The first in a series of Indian Intercourse Acts was passed in 1790, prohibiting unregulated trade and travel in Native American lands. Additionally, the U.S. Supreme Court case Johnson v. M'Intosh (1823) established that only the U.S. government, and not private individuals, could purchase land from Native Americans. Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... The Indian Intercourse Acts were several acts passed by the United States Congress regulating commerce between American Indians and non-Indians and restricting travel by non-Indians onto Indian land. ... Holding Native Americans have no claim to land in the United States. ...


The Royal Proclamation continued to govern the cession of aboriginal land in British North America, especially Upper Canada and Rupert's Land. The proclamation forms the basis of land claims of aboriginal peoples in Canada – First Nations, Inuit, and Métis. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 is thus mentioned in section 25 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... This article is about the trading territory. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, SAMPA: [meti], in French: [metis] or, [mEtIs]) are an ethnic group of the Canadian prairies and Ontario. ... Section Twenty-five of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the first section under the heading General in the Canadian constitutions Charter, and like other sections within the General sphere, it aids in the interpretation of rights elsewhere in the Charter. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ...


The High Court of Australia, in the 1992 decision of Mabo v Queensland (No 2) , determined that under the Proclamation of 1763, "all the Lands and Territories lying to the Westward of the Sources of the Rivers which fall into the Sea from the West and North West as aforesaid," included the whole of Australia. This decision stems from the fact that Australia was not settled by the English until 1770. Terms of settlement are still outstanding in this case.[citation needed] High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ... Mabo v Queensland (No 2) (commonly known as Mabo) is a landmark Australian court case which was decided by the High Court of Australia on June 3, 1992. ...


See also

Elizabethton is a city in and the county seat of Carter County, Tennessee, United States. ... The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake... French settlements and forts in the Illinois Country in 1763, showing U.S. current state boundaries. ...

References

  • Abernethy, Thomas Perkins. Western Lands and the American Revolution. Originally published 1937. New York: Russell & Russell, 1959.
  • Calloway, Colin. The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America. Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-19-530071-8.

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

Further reading

  • Roth, Christopher F. (2002) "Without Treaty, without Conquest: Indigenous Sovereignty in Post-Delgamuukw British Columbia." Wicazo Sa Review, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 143-165.

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Royal Proclamation of 1763
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Royal Proclamation of 1763 - MSN Encarta (967 words)
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued by King George III to establish a basis of government administration in the N American territories formally ceded by France to Britain...
Royal Proclamation of 1763, British proclamation that established boundaries and governments for the American colonies that Britain acquired from France and Spain after the French and Indian War (1754-1763).
The proclamation required settlers to withdraw from the newly established Indian territory and barred traders from entering the region unless they first obtained a license from the governor of one of the colonies.
Royal Proclamation of 1763 (1110 words)
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued by King George III to establish a basis of government administration in the N American territories formally ceded by France to Britain in the Treaty of PARIS, 1763, following the SEVEN YEARS' WAR.
The Royal Proclamation thereby established the British Crown as the essential central agent in the transfer of Indian lands to colonial settlers.
Although these regions had been specifically designated in 1763 as outside the jurisdictional framework put in place by the Royal Proclamation, Canadian government officials recognized that the native peoples of the newly annexed territory had the same rights to their unceded ancestral lands as Indians in the UC area prior to the negotiation of treaties.
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