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Encyclopedia > Royal Flying Corps
Royal Flying Corps
Royal Flying Corps roundel. The roundel was adopted by the Royal Flying Corps during the First World War. The roundel has been adopted by Commonwealth air forces, replacing the red circle with a national symbol
Founded 13 May 1912
Country United Kingdom
Branch British Army
Motto Per Ardua ad Astra
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Sir David Henderson
Lord Trenchard

The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of World War I. Image File history File links RAF-Roundel. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1912: Events First all-metal aircraft flies, the Tubavion monoplane built by Ponche and Maurice Primard in France. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Lieutenant General Sir David Henderson was born in 1862 and, following officer training at the Royal Military College Sandhurst, was commissioned into the British Army on 25 August 1882. ... Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard (February 3, 1873 - February 10, 1956) was the British Chief of the Air Staff during World War I, and was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Contents

Origin and Early History

Formed by Royal Warrant on 13 May 1912, the RFC superseded the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers. By the end of that year, it had 12 manned balloons and 36 biplane fighter aircraft. The RFC was intended to have had separate military and naval branches. The Royal Navy however was not keen on having naval aviation under the control of an Army corps and formed its own Royal Naval Air Service. is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers was the first flying unit of the British Military. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... Balloons, like greeting cards or flowers, are given for special occasions. ... Hs123 biplane. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Personnel of No 1 Squadron RNAS in late 1914 The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) was the air arm of the Royal Navy until near the end of World War I, when it merged with the British Armys Royal Flying Corps (RFC) to form the Royal Air Force. ...


The RFC's motto was Per ardua ad astra. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


The RFC's first fatal crash was on 5 July 1912 near Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain. Killed were Captain Eustace B. Loraine and his observer Staff-Sergeant R.H.V. Wilson. An order was issued after the crash stating "Flying will continue this evening as usual", thus beginning a tradition. is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... This article is about the plateau in southern England; Salisbury Plain is also an area on South Georgia Island. ...


Aircraft

Main article: List of aircraft of the Royal Flying Corps

RFC and RNAS aircraft used during the war included: This is a list of aircraft used by the Royal Flying Corps. ...

Many technological advances took place. Planes became faster and more manoeuvrable, so they could attack enemy positions as well as scouting them. The invention of the interrupter gear allowed machine guns to be fired between the propeller blades. George Holt Thomas established the Aircraft Manufacturing Company (Airco) at The Hyde in Hendon, north London, England during 1912. ... The Airco DH.2 was a single-seat biplane pusher aircraft which operated as a fighter during the First World War. ... Airco DH.4 The Airco DH.4 was a British two-seat biplane day-bomber of the First World War. ... The Airco D.H.5 was a British World War I single-seat fighter aircraft specifically designed to replace the obsolete D.H.2 while retaining the earlier types good qualities, especially the good forward view. ... Three DH.9A in formation. ... Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century. ... The Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8 was a British two-seat general purpose aircraft built by Armstrong Whitworth during the First World War. ... Avro 504K. Avro was a British aircraft manufacturer, well known for planes such as the Avro Lancaster which served in World War II. One of the worlds first aircraft builders, A.V.Roe and Company was established at Brownsfield Mills, Manchester, England by Alliot Verdon Roe and his brother... This aircraft article has not been updated to WikiProject Aircrafts current standards. ... Bristol Aeroplane Company logo The Bristol Aeroplane Company (formerly British and Colonial Aeroplane Company) was a major British aircraft company which, in 1959, merged with several major British aircraft companies, to become the British Aircraft Corporation and later still part of British Aerospace, now BAE Systems. ... The Bristol F.2 Fighter was a two-seat biplane fighter and reconnaissance aircraft of World War I flown by the Royal Flying Corps. ... The Bristol F.2 Fighter was a two-seat biplane fighter and reconnaissance aircraft of World War I flown by the Royal Flying Corps. ... Handley Page logo The Handley Page Aircraft Company was founded by Frederick Handley Page in 1909 as the United Kingdoms first publicly traded aircraft manufacturing company. ... The Handley Page Type O was an early bomber aircraft used by Britain during World War I. At the time, it was the largest aircraft that had been built in the UK and one of the largest in the world. ... Martinsyde was a British aircraft and motorcycle manufacturer active from 1908 to 1923, based in Woking (with premises also in Brooklands). ... Aéroplanes Morane-Saulnier is a French aircraft manufacturer formed by Raymond Saulnier and the Morane Brothers in October 1911. ... RFC Morane-Saulnier Type N Bullet. ... Nieuport was a French aeroplane manufacturer founded in 1909 by Édouard de Nié Port. ... The Nieuport 17 was a biplane fighter aircraft manufactured by Nieuport, and prominent during the World War I era. ... The Nieuport 24 was a French biplane fighter aircraft during World War I designed by Gustave Delage as a replacement for the successful Nieuport 17. ... Nieuport 27 The Nieuport 27 was a French biplane fighter aircraft during World War I designed by Gustave Delage. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2a (Blériot Experimental) of No. ... The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.12 was a British single-seat aeroplane of The First World War designed by the Royal Aircraft Factory . ... F.E.2b in profile. ... The Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.8 was a British single-seat fighter of the First World War designed at the Royal Aircraft Factory. ... A Siddeley-Deasy-built R.E.8 The Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8 was a British two-seat biplane reconnaissance and bomber aircraft of the First World War. ... The Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5 was a British biplane fighter aircraft of the First World War. ... The Sopwith Aviation Company was a British aircraft company that designed and manufactured aeroplanes mainly for the British Royal Flying Corps, Royal Naval Air Service and later Royal Air Force in the First World War, most famously the Sopwith Camel. ... Sopwith 1½ Strutter The Sopwith 1½ Strutter was a British one or two-seat biplane multi-role aircraft of the First World War. ... The Sopwith Pup was a single seater biplane fighter aircraft used by Great Britain in the First World War. ... Sopwith Triplane Sopwith Triplane in the Aero Space Museum of Calgary. ... The Sopwith Camel Scout was a British World War I single-seat fighter aircraft that was famous for its maneuverability. ... This aircraft article has not been updated to WikiProject Aircrafts current standards. ... The Sopwith Snipe was a single-seat bi-plane fighter of the Royal Air Corps (RAC), designed and built by the Sopwith Aviation Company during the First World War and was arguably the definitive fighter of the Allied side by the end of World War I. // History The Snipe was... This article is about SPAD, the French aircraft manufacturer. ... The SPAD S.VII was the first of a series of highly successful biplane fighter aircraft produced by Société Pour LAviation et ses Dérivés during the First World War. ... SPAD S.XIII The SPAD S.XIII was a French biplane fighter aircraft of World War I, developed by Société Pour LAviation et ses Dérivés from the earlier highly successful SPAD S.VII. It was one of the most capable fighters of the war, and one... Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 2004. ... The Vickers F.B.5 Gunbus was the first operational British aircraft purpose-built for air-to-air combat, making it debatably the worlds first true fighter aircraft. ... Damaged propeller from a Sopwith Baby aircraft circa 1916/17 with evidence of bulletholes from a machine gun fired behind the propeller without an Interruptor. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Bases

RAF Halton is one of the larger Royal Air Force (RAF) stations in the United Kingdom, located near the village of Halton, Buckinghamshire. ... RAF Wyton is a Royal Air Force station near St. ... Waddington-based Hawker-Siddeley (now BAE Systems) Nimrod R.1 RAF Waddington is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire England. ... RAF Northolt (IATA: NHT, ICAO: EGWU) is a Royal Air Force station in the London Borough of Hillingdon, in North West Greater London, England. ... RAF Marham is a Royal Air Force station in Norfolk, England. ... RAF Shawbury is a Royal Air Force station near Shrewsbury, Shropshire. ... McDonnell Douglas F-15C-42-MC Eagle Serial 86-0175 taxis for takeoff RAF Lakenheath (IATA: LKZ, ICAO: EGUL) is a NATO airfield located near Lakenheath in Suffolk, England. ... RAF Mona is a Royal Air Force station on the island of Anglesey, Wales. ... Andover Airfield is a former Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force station now used by the Army Air Corps. ... Bicester Airfield, formerly RAF Bicester, is an airfield on the outskirts of the English town of Bicester. ... London Biggin Hill Airport (IATA: BQH, ICAO: EGKB), formerly RAF Biggin Hill, is an airport at Biggin Hill in London Borough of Bromley, England. ... Catterick airfield first opened in 1914 as a Royal Flying Corps aerodrome with the role of training pilots and to assist in the defence of the North East of England. ... RAF Detling Station Crest, with motto: DARE TO BE WISE RAF Detling was a station of the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) in World War I and the Royal Air Force (RAF) in World War II. Situated 600 feet above sea level, it is located near Detling, a village about... For the Rugby Football Club, see Doncaster R.F.C. See also Doncaster Aerodrome // In 1909, Doncaster and specifically Doncaster Racecourse was chosen as the venue for an airshow, after the worlds first air display in Rheims in 1908. ... RAF Elsham Wolds shown within Lincolnshire Memorial dedicated to those lost on operations Plaque adjacent to Ulceby War Memorial Surviving J-Type hanger RAF Elsham Wolds is a former Royal Air Force station in England, operating in both World War I and World War II. It is located just to... RAF Finningley was a Royal Air Force station near Doncaster, South Yorkshire, partly within the traditional county boundaries of Nottinghamshire and partly in the West Riding of Yorkshire. ... RAF Hemswell was an airfield used by RAF Bomber Command for 35 years. ... Norwich International Airport (IATA: NWI, ICAO: EGSH) also just Norwich Airport, is an airport 2. ... RAF Hornchurch was an airfield in the south of Hornchurch in what is now the London Borough of Havering. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hendon Aerodrome was an aerodrome in north London, England and between 1908 and 1968 was an important centre for aviation. ... RAF Hemswell was an airfield used by RAF Bomber Command for 35 years. ... RAF Kenley (or Kenley Aerodrome) was a station of the Royal Flying Corps in World War I and the RAF in World War II. Its active phase commenced in 1917 and ceased in 1959 when Fighter Command left the aerodrome for good. ... RAF Manston was a Royal Air Force station, now known as Kent International Airport. ... North Weald Airfield (IATA: N/A, ICAO: EGSX) is an operational airfield, near the village of North Weald Bassett in Epping Forest, Essex. ... RAF Molesworth is a Royal Air Force base located near Molesworth, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom with a history dating back to 1917. ... RAF Upper Heyford was a Royal Air Force station located north-west of Bicester near the village of Upper Heyford, Oxfordshire, England. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... RAF West Malling was a Royal Air Force station near West Malling in Kent, England. ... Martlesham Heath Airfield - 9 July 1946. ...

Royal Flying Corps of Canada

  • Camp Borden - Canada 1917-1918 - Royal Flying Corps of Canada
  • Armour Heights Field - Canada 1917-1918 (pilot training, School of Special Flying to train instructors)
  • Leaside Aerodrome - Canada 1917-1918 (Artillery Cooperation School)
  • Long Branch Aerodrome - Canada 1917-1918
  • Curtiss School of Aviation - flying-boat station at Hanlan's Point on Toronto Island 1915-1918; main school and hanger facilities at Long Branch
  • Trethewey Airfield (Trethewey Model Farm), North Toronto, Ontario
  • Deseronto Airfield, Deseronto, Ontario - pilot training
  • Camp Mohawk and Camp Rathbun (Tyendinaga Indian Reserve) near Belleville, Ontario - pilot training
  • Armament School in Hamilton, Ontario
  • Beamsville Camp, Ontario - School of Aerial Fighting

Canadian Forces Base Borden (also CFB Borden or 16 Wing Borden) is a Canadian Forces Base located in Borden, Ontario. ... Armour Heights Field was home to a Royal Flying Corps airfield near Toronto, Canada during World War I, and was one of three in the area. ... Like Armoury Heights Field, Leaside was a RFC airfield during World War I. Opened 1917 by Royal Flying Corps (later as Royal Air Force) for the duration of the war. ... Lon Branch in west end Toronto was opened for use in 1917, but closed 1919. ... Belleville (2006 population 48,821, metropolitan population 91,518)[1] is a city located at the mouth of the Moira River on the Bay of Quinte in southeastern Ontario, Canada, in the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. ...

World War I

Recruiting poster

The RFC was responsible for manning observation balloons on the Western front. For the first half of the war, the French air force vastly outnumbered the RFC, and accordingly did more fighting. Despite the primitive aircraft, aggressive leadership by commander Hugh Trenchard in a continual offensive stance operationally led to many brave fighting exploits and high casualties - over 700 in 1916, the rate worsening thereafter, until the RFC's nadir in April 1917 ; dubbed 'Bloody April'. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 489 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 1715 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 489 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 1715 pixel, file size: 1. ... Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World Wars to describe the contested armed frontier between lands controlled by Germany to the East and the Allies to the West. ... Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard (February 3, 1873 - February 10, 1956) was the British Chief of the Air Staff during World War I, and was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... During the First World War, the month of April 1917 was known as Bloody April by the Allied air forces. ...


Action with the British Expeditionary Force

At the start of World War I, numbers 2, 3, 4 and 5 squadrons were equipped with aeroplanes, whilst the 1st Squadron was equipped with balloons. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... Once upon a time, there was a place called Mount Olympus, which was far up in the sky on a mountain. ...


The RFC's first casualties of World War I were before the Corps even arrived in France. Lt Robert R. Skene and Air Mechanic Ray Barlow were killed on 12 August 1914 when their probably overloaded plane crashed on the way to rendezvous with the rest of the RFC near Dover. Skene had been the first Englishman to do a loop in an airplane. August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... , Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port/town. ...


On 13 August 1914 2, 3, and 4 squadrons, comprising 60 machines, departed Dover for the British Expeditionary Force in France. The 5th Squadron joined them a few days later. The aircraft took a route across the English Channel from Dover to Boulogne. They then followed the French coast to the Bay of the Somme before travelling inland by following the river to Amiens. When the BEF moved forward to Maubeuge the RFC accompanied them. is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... , Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port/town. ... The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to France and Belgium in World War I and British Forces in Europe from 1939–1940 during World War II. The BEF was established by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War in case the... No. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: (IPA: ), the sleeve) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... Boulogne is the name of several communes in France: Boulogne in the Vendée département Boulogne-Billancourt, in the Hauts-de-Seine département Boulogne-sur-Mer, in the Pas_de_Calais département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Somme is a French département, named after the Somme River, located in the north of France. ... Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... Maubeuge is a town and commune of northern France, in the département of Nord, situated on both banks of the Sambre, here canalized, 234 miles by railway southeast of Valenciennes, and about 2 m. ...


On 19 August the Corps undertook its first action of the War with two of its aircraft performing aerial reconnaissance. The mission was not a great success. In order to save weight each aircraft carried a pilot only instead of the usual pair of pilot and observer. Because of this, and poor weather, both of the pilots lost their way and only one was able to complete his task. August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ...


Four days later on 23 August 1914 the RFC found itself in the midst of the Battle of Mons and two days after that the Corps gained its first air victory. On 25 August Lt C.W. Wilson and Lt C.E.C. Rabagliati forced down a German Etrich Taube which had approached their aerodrome while they were refueling their Avro. Another RFC machine landed by the German one and the RFC observer chased the German pilot into some nearby woods. is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Sir John French Alexander von Kluck Strength 4 divisions 8 divisions Casualties 1,600 5,000 (estimate) The Battle of Mons (Dutch name for Mons is Bergen) was the first major action of the British Expeditionary Force in World War I. // Following the surrender... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rumpler Taube is a pre-World War I monoplane aircraft, and the first mass produced military plane in Germany. ...


After the British retreat from Mons, the Corps fell back to the Marne where in September they the RFC proved its worth by identifying von Kluck's First Army's left wheel against the exposed French flank. This information was significant as the First Army's manoeuvre allowed French forces to make an effective counter-attack. Marne is a department in north-eastern France named after the Marne River which flows through the department. ... Alexander Heinrich Rudolph von Kluck (May 20, 1846 - October 19, 1934) was a German general during World War I. He was born in Münster, Westphalia. ... The German First Army (German: ) was a World War I and World War II field army. ...


Sir John French's (the British Expeditionary Force commander) first official dispatch on 7 September included the following: "I wish particularly to bring to your Lordships' notice the admirable work done by the Royal Flying Corps under Sir David Henderson. Their skill, energy, and perseverance has been beyond all praise. They have furnished me with most complete and accurate information, which has been of incalculable value in the conduct of operations. Fired at constantly by friend and foe, and not hesitating to fly in every kind of weather, they have remained undaunted throughout. Further, by actually fighting in the air, they have succeeded in destroying five of the enemy's machines." The Earl of Ypres John Denton Pinkstone French, 1st Earl of Ypres, KP, GCB, OM, GCVO, KCMG, PC (28 September 1852–22 May 1925) was a British Field Marshal, the first commander of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in World War I. Biography Born in Ripple in Kent, the son... The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to France and Belgium in World War I and British Forces in Europe from 1939–1940 during World War II. The BEF was established by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War in case the... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Later in September, during the First Battle of the Aisne which followed, the RFC made use of wireless telegraphy to assist with artillery targeting and took aerial photographs for the first time.[1] Combatants Britain, France Germany Commanders Sir John French, Louis Franchet dEsperey, Michel-Joseph Maunoury, Joseph Joffre Alexander von Kluck, Karl von Bülow, Josias von Heeringen Strength Two French armies and the BEF Three German armies Casualties Unknown Unknown The First Battle of the Aisne was the Allied follow...


Basing at Saint-Omer

As the War moved into the period of the mobile warfare commonly called the Race to the Sea, the Corps moved forward again. On 8 October 1914 the RFC arrived in Saint-Omer and a headquarters was established at the aerodrome next to the local racecourse. Over the next few days the four aeroplane squadrons arrived and for the next four years Saint-Omer was a focal point for all RFC operations in the field. Although most squadrons only used Saint-Omer as a transit camp before moving on to other locations, the base grew in importance as it increased its logistic support to the Corps. Course of the Race to the Sea showing dates of encounters and highlighting the significant battles. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Saint-Omer, a town and commune of Artois in northern France, sous-préfecture of the Pas-de-Calais département, 42 miles west-north-west of Lille on the railway to Calais. ...


Later events

Early in the war RFC aircraft were marked with Union Flags on the wings. The aircraft were often fired upon by ground forces because the markings were mistaken for the crosses on German aircraft. To prevent this the RFC adopted the familiar roundel and tail cockade markings from the French, though with the colours in reverse order. Flag Ratio: 1:2 The Union Flag (also known as the Union Jack; see discussion below) is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ...


One of the initial and most vital uses for RFC aircraft was spotting for artillery fire. The results of the artillery fire were easy enough for the pilot to observe, the problem was communicating any necessary corrections to the firing battery. The standard method was for the flier to write a note and drop it to the ground where it could be recovered. The RFC pioneered experiments with radio transmitters in their aircraft. Unfortunately the transmitters of the time weighed 75 pounds and filled an entire seat in the cockpit. This meant that the pilot had to fly the aircraft, navigate, observe the fall of the shells and transmit the results by morse code by himself. Also, the radios in the aircraft could not receive so the pilots could not be sent any instructions or questions from the ground. This work was originally done by a special Wireless Flight which was attached to No. 4 Squadron RFC. Eventually this flight was expanded into No. 9 Squadron under Hugh Dowding. Hugh Caswell Tremenheere Dowding, 1st Baron Dowding G.C.B., G.C.V.O., C.M.G. (24 April 1882 - 15 February 1970) was a British officer in the Royal Air Force. ...


A more unusual mission for the RFC was the delivery of spies to behind enemy lines. The first such mission took place on the morning of 13 September 1915 and was not a success. The plane crashed, the pilot and spy were badly injured and they were both captured. (Two years later however the pilot, Captain T.W. Mulcahy-Morgan, escaped and returned to England.) Later missions were more successful. In addition to delivering the spies the RFC was also responsible for keeping the spies supplied with the carrier pigeons that were used to send reports back to base. In 1916 a Special Duty Flight was formed as part of the Headquarters Wing to handle these and other unusual assignments. is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...


On 13 January 1917, RFC Captain Clive Collett made the first British military parachute jump from a heavier-than-air craft. The jump, from 600 feet, was successful but the higher authorities in the RFC and the Air Board were opposed to the issuing of parachutes to aeroplane pilots. It was felt at the time that a parachute might tempt a pilot to abandon his aircraft in an emergency rather than continuing the fight. It was not until 16 September 1918 that the order was issued for all single seater aircraft to be fitted with parachutes. January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Many pilots initially joined the RFC from their original regiments by becoming an observer. There was no formal training for observers until 1917 and many were sent on their first sortie with only a brief introduction to the aircraft from the pilot. Once certified as fully qualified the observer was awarded the coveted half-wing brevet. Once awarded this could not be forfeited so it essentially amounted to a decoration. Originally in the RFC, as in most early air forces, the observer was in command of the aircraft while the pilot just 'drove' the machine. This was found to be less effective in combat than having the pilot in charge. Observers were usually taught only enough piloting to be able to land their aircraft in case the pilot was killed or wounded. It was very common for experienced observers to be selected for pilot training.


On 6 July 1917, Manfred von Richthofen in a German Albatros DV was wounded in the head and forced to land near Wervicq. The victory was credited to RFC Captain Donald Cunnell of No 20 Squadron. is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... “Red Baron” redirects here. ... The Albatros D.V was a fighter aircraft used by the Luftstreitkräfte (Imperial German Air Service) during the First World War. ... The Royal Aircraft Factory FE2d fighter Donald Charles Cunnell (born December 1893 at Norwich, Norfolk, England, died 12 July 1917 near Wervicq, Belgium, was a British World War I fighter pilot. ... No. ...


Eleven RFC members received the Victoria Cross during World War I. Initially the RFC did not believe in publicising the victory totals and exploits of their Aces. Eventually however, public interest and the newspapers' demand for heroes lead to this policy being abandoned, with the likes of Captain Albert Ball raising morale back in the UK. The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour in the face of the enemy to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. ... The Red Baron, Manfred von Richthofen, perhaps the most famous ace of all. ... Albert Ball, standing in front of a Caudron G.3. ...


Before the Battle of the Somme (1916) the RFC mustered 421 aircraft, with four kite-balloon squadrons and fourteen balloons. These made up four brigades, which worked with four British armies. The RFC drew on men from across the British Empire including South Africa, Canada and Australia. Some Americans joined the RFC before the USA became a combatant. Eventually Canadians made up nearly a third of RFC aircrew. Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Training

In 1917, the American, British, and Canadian Governments agreed to join forces for training. Between April 1917 and January 1919, Camp Borden in Ontario hosted instruction on flying, wireless, air gunnery and photography, training 1,812 RFC Canada pilots and 72 for the United States. It now hosts the largest training wing of the Canadian Forces. Training also took place at several other Ontario locations. 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Sherman tank displayed outside of Waterloo Officers Mess at CFB Borden Canadian Forces Base Borden (also CFB Borden) is a Canadian Forces Base located in Borden, Ontario. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada. ...


During winter 1917-18, RFC instructors trained with the Signal Corps of the U.S. Army on three airfields accommodating about six thousand men, at Camp Taliaferro near Fort Worth, Texas. Training was hazardous; 39 RFC officers and cadets died in Texas. Eleven remain there, reinterred in 1924 at a Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery where a monument honours their sacrifice. The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Camp Taliaferro was a World War I flight training centre run by the U.S. Army Signal Corps in the Fort Worth, Texas area. ... Nickname: Motto: Where the West Begins Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: , Country United States State Texas Counties Tarrant and Denton Government  - Mayor Michael J. Moncrief Area  - City  298. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Azmak Cemetery, near Suvla Bay, Turkey, contains the graves of some of the soldiers who died during the Gallipoli Campaign. ...


Commanders in the field

The following had command of the RFC in the field:

[2] Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Lieutenant General Sir David Henderson was born in 1862 and, following officer training at the Royal Military College Sandhurst, was commissioned into the British Army on 25 August 1882. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Major-General Right Honourable Sir Frederick Hugh Sykes (1877–1954) was an English statesman and politician. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lieutenant General Sir David Henderson was born in 1862 and, following officer training at the Royal Military College Sandhurst, was commissioned into the British Army on 25 August 1882. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Bust depicting Marshal of the Royal Air Force the Viscount Trenchard Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard (February 3, 1873 - February 10, 1956) was the British Chief of the Air Staff during World War I, and was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir John Maitland Salmond was born on 17 July 1881. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Amalgamation

On 17 August 1917, General Jan Smuts presented a report to the War Council on the future of air power. Because of its potential for the 'devastation of enemy lands and the destruction of industrial and populous centres on a vast scale', he recommended a new air service be formed that would be on a level with the Army and Royal Navy. is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Jan Smuts Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM, CH, ED, KC, FRS (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman, military leader, and philosopher. ...


Surprisingly, Trenchard was opposed to a new service[citation needed]. He had always felt that the purpose of the RFC was to support the Army (and the RNAS the Navy) and was worried that a new service wouldn't provide the same level of tactical battle field support. He was also concerned about the careers of the pilots. Because of the high demands on RFC pilots many of them became burned out and were unable to continue in combat. Since pilots were seconded to the RFC from other regiments they could return to those units once they were no longer able to fly. In a separate service this would no longer be an option.


The formation of the new service however would make the underutilised men and machines of the RNAS available for action across the Western Front.


On 1 April 1918, the RFC and the RNAS were amalgamated to form a new service, the Royal Air Force. The RAF was under the control of the new Air Ministry. By 1919 the RAF had 4,000 combat aircraft and 114,000 people. For a short period after amalgamation, pre-RAF ranks such as Lieutenant and Major continued to exist. For this reason some early RAF gravestones show ranks which no longer exist in the modern RAF. A typical example of this is James McCudden's grave. is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the United Kingdom Government, established in 1918 with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the (then newly formed) Royal Air Force. ... McCuddens grave. ...


Some members of the RFC

Militarily prominent

Alfred Clayburn Atkey (August 16, 1894 - February 10, 1971) was a Canadian First World War pilot. ... Lt. ... Albert Ball, standing in front of a Caudron G.3. ... The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour in the face of the enemy to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. ... Air Marshal William Avery Billy Bishop VC CB DSO & Bar MC DFC ED (8 February 1894 – 11 September 1956) was a Canadian First World War flying ace, officially credited with 72 victories, the highest number for a British Empire pilot. ... The Red Baron, Manfred von Richthofen, perhaps the most famous ace of all. ... The Royal Aircraft Factory FE2d fighter Donald Charles Cunnell (born December 1893 at Norwich, Norfolk, England, died 12 July 1917 near Wervicq, Belgium, was a British World War I fighter pilot. ... “Dowding” redirects here. ... Fighter Command was one of three functional commands that dominated the public perception of the RAF for much of the mid-20th century. ... Combatants United Kingdom Including combatants from:[1] Poland New Zealand Canada Czechoslovakia Belgium Australia South Africa France Ireland United States Jamaica Palestine Rhodesia Germany Including combatants from Italy Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Strength 754 single-seat fighters 149 two-seat fighters 560 bombers 500 coastal 1,963 total... Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet GCB OBE AFC RAF (April 13, 1892 - April 5, 1984), commonly known as Bomber Harris by the press, and often within the RAF as Butcher Harris[1], was commander of RAF Bomber Command and later a Marshal of... Bomber Command badge RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAFs bomber forces. ... Lanoe Hawker Major Lanoe George Hawker, VC, DSO (December 30, 1890 â€“ November 23, 1916) was a World War I English fighter pilot. ... Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory KCB, DSO and Bar (11 July 1892 - 14 November 1944) was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force in World War II and the highest-ranking British officer to die in the war. ... McCuddens grave. ... George E. H. McElroy (May 14, 1893-July 31, 1918) was a leading scout pilot of the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force during World War I. Born in Dublin, McElroy joined the Royal Irish Regiment in 1914 and was gassed while serving in France. ... Major Donald MacLaren of 46 Sqn in RCAF uniform. ... Major Edward Corringham Mick Mannock, VC, DSO and Two Bars, MC and Bar (24 May 1887 – 26 July 1918) was a British First World War flying ace and posthumous recipient of the Victoria Cross. ... John Moore-Brabazon in a Voisin in 1909 John Cuthbert Moore-Brabazon, 1st Baron Brabazon of Tara (8 February 1884 - 17 May 1964) was a British aviation pioneer. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, soldier in the British Army, orator, and strategist, and is studied as part of the modern British and world history. ... Air Chief Marshal Sir Keith Rodney Park GCB, KBE, MC, DFC, DCL (June 15, 1892 - February 6, 1975) was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force in World War II. // Early Life and Army Career Park was born near Auckland, New Zealand. ... RAF Air Chief Marshal Charles Portal (left) and Polish Commander in Chief Władysław Sikorski (right) visit an airbase of the 300th Polish Bomber Squadron in England. ... Sir Henry Thomas Tizard (1885 - 1959) was a British scientist and inventor. ... The Aeronautical Research Committee was a UK government committee established in 1919 in order to coordinate aeronautical research and education following World War I. Its scope was both military and civil applications. ... Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard (February 3, 1873 - February 10, 1956) was the British Chief of the Air Staff during World War I, and was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force (RAF). ...

Otherwise prominent

Osbert Guy Stanhope Crawford (28 October 1886–November 28, 1957) was an English archaeologist and a pioneer in the use of aerial photographs for deepening archaeological understanding of the landscape. ... Part of an Ordnance Survey map at 1 inch to the mile scale from 1945 Ordnance Survey (OS) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom government. ... Sir Charles Galton Darwin. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Sir John Berry Jack Hobbs (born 16 December 1882 in Cambridge, England, died 21 December 1963 in Hove, Sussex) played cricket for Surrey and England. ... W. E. Johns (February 5, 1893 - 21 June 1968) was an English pilot and writer of adventure stories, best known as the creator of the ace pilot and adventurer Biggles. ... John Edward Lennard-Jones (October 27, 1894 - November 1, 1954) was a mathematician who held a chair of theoretical physics at Bristol University, and then a chair of theoretical science at Cambridge University. ... Cecil Arthur Lewis (March 29, 1898 – January 27, 1997) was a British fighter pilot who flew in World War I. Author of the aviation classic Sagittarius Rising (inspiration for the movie Aces High), Lewis joined the Royal Flying Corps in 1915, after lying about his age. ... Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley, 6th Baronet (November 16, 1896 – December 3, 1980), was a British politician known principally as the founder of the British Union of Fascists. ... The flag of the British Union of Fascists showing the Flash and Circle symbolic of action within unity The British Union of Fascists (BUF) was a political party of the 1930s in the United Kingdom. ... Mick OBrien was a football manager, who took the helm at Ipswich Town for the 1936/1937 season. ... Sir William Samuel Stephenson, CC , MC , DFC (January 23, 1897 – January 31, 1989) was a Canadian soldier, airman, businessman, inventor, spymaster, and the senior representative of British intelligence for the entire western hemisphere during World War II. Stephenson is best-known by his wartime intelligence codename of Intrepid. ... The British Security Coordination was authorized by Winston Churchill in 1940 as a highly secret organization in New York to supervise the activities of the British intellignece service -- MI5, Special Operations Executive, the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), & the Political Warfare Executive -- in the Western hemisphere. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... Francis Peabody Magoun (January 6, 1895 – June 5, 1979) was an American British Royal Flying Corps Lieutenant, who served in the First World War and became an ace on October 28, 1918. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... George Morgan Garro-Jones was elected Liberal MP for Hackney South in 1924, gaining the seat from Labour. ... Vernon and Irene Castle were a husband-and-wife team of ballroom dancers of the early 20th century. ...

In fiction

See also

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Army Air Corps is a component of the British Army. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The RCAF Roundel is based on that of the British Royal Air Force with a maple leaf, a symbol of Canada in the centre. ... The RCAF Roundel is based on that of the British Royal Air Force with a maple leaf, a symbol of Canada in the centre. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada-1868-Red. ... The Royal Canadian Naval Air Service (RCNAS) was established in 1918 in response to the Royal Canadian Navys recommendation that defensive air patrols be established off Canadas Atlantic coast to protect shipping from U-boats. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada-1868-Red. ... Personnel of No 1 Squadron RNAS in late 1914 The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) was the air arm of the Royal Navy until near the end of World War I, when it merged with the British Armys Royal Flying Corps (RFC) to form the Royal Air Force. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The RAAF Roundel is based on that of the British Royal Air Force, with the central circle replaced by a Kangaroo, a symbol of Australia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The South African Army is the army of South Africa. ... Image File history File links South_Africa_Red_Ensign. ... The South African Air Force roundel The South African Air Force (SAAF) (Afrikaans: Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag) is the air force of South Africa. ... Image File history File links South_Africa_Red_Ensign. ...

External links

References

  • Barker, Ralph (2002). The Royal Flying Corps in World War I. Robinson. ISBN 1-84119-470-0. 
  • Drew, George A. (1930). Canada's Fighting Airmen. MacLean. 

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