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Encyclopedia > Royal Canadian Navy

For history after 1968, see Canadian Forces Maritime Command HMCS Bastion, flagship of the Canadian Navy. ...

Maritime Command
Components
Maritime Command
12 Wing
History
Royal Canadian Navy
Military History of Canada
Ships
Current Fleet
Historic Ships
Her Majesty's Canadian Ship
Bases
CFB Halifax (Atlantic)
CFB Esquimalt (Pacific)

The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) was the navy of Canada from 1911 until 1968 when the three Canadian armed services were unified to form the Canadian Forces. The modern Canadian navy has been known as Canadian Forces Maritime Command (MARCOM) since unification, but still refers to itself unofficially as the "navy" and maintains many RCN traditions. Since the Royal designation of the Canadian Navy was executed by a Royal Proclamation which has never been revoked, the Canadian Government and the Canadian Forces will be required to resume usage of the expression “Royal Canadian Navy”, if the expression “Canadian Navy” is used in any official capacity, Canadian Forces Maritime Command (MARCOM) is the naval service of the Canadian Forces, and as such, it is also the senior service of the Canadian Forces, following the tradition that comes from the Royal Navy. ... Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_Canada. ... Canadian Forces Maritime Command (MARCOM) is the naval service of the Canadian Forces, and as such, it is also the senior service of the Canadian Forces, following the tradition that comes from the Royal Navy. ... Canadian Forces Base Shearwater (CFB Shearwater) or Halifax/Shearwater Airport, (ICAO CYAW, IATA YAW), is a Canadian Forces base located in Eastern Passage, Nova Scotia on the eastern shore of Halifax harbour. ... Canadian soldiers advancing behind a tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge, one of Canadas greatest military victories. ... The following is a list of ships currently in service with the Canadian Forces Maritime Command as of 2005. ... This is a list of ships in the Canadian Navy. ... Her Majestys Canadian Ship (HMCS) is the English designation of any Canadian warship, as well as many major Canadian naval bases such as HMCS Discovery and all Sea Cadet Summer Training Centers like HMCS Quadra. ... Canadian Forces Base Halifax (CFB Halifax) is Canadas east coast navy base and home port to the Atlantic fleet. ... CFB Esquimalt is Canadas West Coast (Pacific) naval base. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the combined armed forces of Canada. ... HMCS Bastion, flagship of the Canadian Navy. ...


As Command-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces is vested in the Canadian Monarch,[1] ships of the Canadian Forces continue to be called "Her/His Majesty's Canadian Ship", but it is not correct to use the name "Royal Canadian Navy" or its abbreviation "RCN" in references to the Canadian navy after February 1, 1968. The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by King George V, November 21, 1921. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ...

Contents

History

Formation years

During the early years of the 20th century, there was growing discussion within the British Empire as to the role the Dominions would play in defence and foreign affairs. A key part of this discussion focused on naval issues. In Canada, it came down to a choice between two options. Either the young country could provide funds, support and manpower to the Royal Navy, or it could form its own navy. Canada chose the latter. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory. ... This article is about a journal. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


On March 29, 1909, George Foster introduced a resolution in the House of Commons calling for the establishment of a Canadian Naval Service. The resolution was not successful; however, on January 12, 1910, the government of Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier took Foster's resolution and introduced it as the Naval Service Bill. After third reading, the bill received royal assent on May 4, 1910, and became the Naval Service Act, administered by the Minister of Marine and Fisheries at the time. The official title of the navy was the Naval Service of Canada (also Canadian Naval Forces), and the first Director of the Naval Service of Canada was Rear-Admiral Charles Kingsmill (Royal Navy, retired), who was previously in charge of the Marine Service of the Department of Marine and Fisheries. March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (89th in leap years). ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... George Foster The Right Honourable Sir George Eulas Foster, KCB , PC (September 3, 1847 – December 30, 1931) was a Canadian politician and academic. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Sir Wilfrid Laurier, PC, GCMG, KC, BCL, DCL, LLD, DLitt, baptized Henri-Charles-Wilfrid Laurier (November 20, 1841 – February 17, 1919) was the seventh Prime Minister of Canada from July 11, 1896, to October 5, 1911. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Admiral Sir Charles E. Kingsmill (July 7, 1855 - July 15, 1935) was the first Director of the Canadian Naval Service (which later became the Royal Canadian Navy). ... The Department of Marine and Fisheries is a former department of the Government of Canada. ...


The act called for:

  • a permanent force
  • a reserve (to be called up in emergency)
  • a volunteer reserve (to be called up in emergency)
  • the establishment of a naval college

The British cruiser Rainbow was the first ship commissioned into Canada's navy on August 4, 1910, at Portsmouth, England. She arrived at Esquimalt, British Columbia, on November 7, 1910, and carried out fishery patrols and training duties on Canada's west coast. HMCS Rainbow C/S VDB was an Apollo-second class protected cruiser serving the RN and RCN. // Royal Navy Service Built for Britains Royal Navy by Palmers at Hebburn-On-Tyne in England, she was launched on the 25th of March 1891 as HMS Rainbow and entered service in... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the English city of Portsmouth. ... The Township of Esquimalt is a municipality at the southern tip of Vancouver Island, in British Columbia, Canada. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Another Royal Navy cruiser, HMS Niobe, became the second ship commissioned into the Canadian navy on September 6, 1910, at Devonport in England and arrived at Halifax Nova Scotia, on October 21, 1910Trafalgar Day. HMCS Niobe was a Diadem class cruiser built for the Royal Navy and served until 1920, patrolling in World War I and training the first generation of Canadian naval recruits. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Devonport in 1909, courtesy WW1 Archive Devonport Dockyard and the Hamoaze from the Rame Peninsula, Cornwall Her Majestys Naval Base (HMNB) Devonport (HMS Drake), is one of three operating naval bases in the Royal Navy. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Halifax skyline at night Halifax neighbourhoods and boundaries of former city in relation to Halifax Regional Municipality Halifax, founded in 1749, is a community and former city in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Trafalgar Day, 21 October, was widely commemorated by parades, dinners and other events throughout much of the British Empire in the 19th and early 20th century as a celebration of the victory won by Admiral Horatio Nelsons British fleet over the combined French and Spanish fleet at the Battle...


The Naval Service of Canada changed its name to Royal Canadian Navy on January 30, 1911, but it was not until August 29 that the use of "Royal" Canadian Navy was permitted by King George V. January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ...


Immediately before the First World War, the premier of British Columbia, in a fit of public spirit, purchased two submarines (CC1 and CC2) from a shipyard in Washington. The submarines had been built for the Chilean navy but the purchase had fallen through. On August 7, 1914, the Government of Canada purchased the boats from the Government of British Columbia, and they were consequently commissioned into the RCN. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 5th 944,735 km² 925,186 km² 19,549 km... HMCS CC-1 was a CC class submarine used by the Royal Canadian Navy. ... HMCS CC-2 was a CC class submarine used by the Royal Canadian Navy. ... “Washington State” redirects here. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


First World War

In May 1914 the Royal Naval Canadian Volunteer Reserve (RNCVR) was established and undertook a strength of 1200 men from three distinct geographic areas: (1) Atlantic, (2) Pacific, and (3) Lake (representing inland areas). 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Royal Navy Canadian Volunteer Reserve (RNCVR) was a naval reserve that was established on 14 May 1914. ...


After the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, London and Ottawa were planning to expand the RCN significantly, but it was decided that Canadian men would be permitted to enlist in either the Royal Navy or its Canadian counterpart, with many choosing the former. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ...


During the fall of 1914, HMCS Rainbow patrolled the west coast of North America, as far south as Panama, although these patrols became less important following the elimination of the German naval threat in the Pacific with the December 1914 defeat of Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee's German East Asiatic Squadron off the Falkland Islands. Much of Rainbow's crew were posted to the east coast for the remainder of the war and by 1917 Rainbow was withdrawn from service. 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... HMCS Rainbow C/S VDB was an Apollo-second class protected cruiser serving the RN and RCN. // Royal Navy Service Built for Britains Royal Navy by Palmers at Hebburn-On-Tyne in England, she was launched on the 25th of March 1891 as HMS Rainbow and entered service in... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Graf is a German noble title equal in rank to a count (derived from the Latin Comes, with a history of its own) or a British earl (an Anglo-Saxon title derived from the Viking title Jarl). ... Maximilian von Spee Count (Graf) Maximilian Johannes Maria Hubert von Spee (22 June 1861 - 8 December 1914) was a German naval officer, born in Copenhagen, Denmark, who joined the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy) in 1878. ... The German East Asia squadron was a German Kaiserliche Marine (naval) cruiser squadron which operated mainly in the Pacific Ocean between the 1870s and 1914. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


It was in Esquimalt and Victoria that the only active use of the RNCVR took place, with the reserve being tasked to help man the HMCS Rainbow, C1, and C2. HMCS Rainbow C/S VDB was an Apollo-second class protected cruiser serving the RN and RCN. // Royal Navy Service Built for Britains Royal Navy by Palmers at Hebburn-On-Tyne in England, she was launched on the 25th of March 1891 as HMS Rainbow and entered service in... HMCS CC-1 was a CC class submarine used by the Royal Canadian Navy. ... HMCS CC-2 was a CC class submarine used by the Royal Canadian Navy. ...


The early part of the war also saw HMCS Niobe actively patrolling off the coast of New York City but returned to Halifax permanently in July 1915 when she was declared no longer fit for service and was converted to a depot ship. She was heavily damaged in the December 1917 Halifax Explosion. HMCS Niobe was a Diadem class cruiser built for the Royal Navy and served until 1920, patrolling in World War I and training the first generation of Canadian naval recruits. ... New York, NY redirects here. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... In 1917, the waterfront areas of the City of Halifax in Nova Scotia, Canada and its neighbouring community of Richmond, along with the waterfront area of the cross-harbour town of Dartmouth were devastated when the French Merchant ship Mont-Blanc, charted by the French government to carry munitions, collided...


HMCS C1 and HMCS C2 spent the first three years of the war patrolling the Pacific; however, the lack of German threat saw them reposted to Halifax in 1917. With their tender, HMCS Shearwater, they became the first warships to transit the Panama Canal flying the White Ensign (the RCN's service flag). Arriving in Halifax on October 17, 1917, they were declared unfit for service and never patrolled again, being scrapped in 1920. HMCS CC-1 was a CC class submarine used by the Royal Canadian Navy. ... HMCS CC-2 was a CC class submarine used by the Royal Canadian Navy. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... HMCS Shearwater was a commissioned sloop of the Royal Canadian Navy and was one of the many Canadian ships to serve in World War I or World War II. Shearwater was originally commissioned HMS Shearwater for the Royal Navy. ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


On September 5, 1918 the Royal Canadian Naval Air Service (RCNAS) was formed with a main function to carry out anti-submarine operations using flying boat patrol aircraft. The U.S. Navy's Naval Air Station Halifax, located on the eastern shores of the harbour at Eastern Passage, Nova Scotia, was acquired but following the November 11, 1918 Armistice, the RCNAS was discontinued. September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Boeing 314 A flying boat is an aircraft that is designed to take off and land on water, in particular a type of seaplane which uses its fuselage as a floating hull (instead of pontoons mounted below the fuselage). ... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... The Naval Air Station Halifax was a U.S. Navy airbase that was obtained by the Royal Canadian Naval Air Service. ... Eastern Passage is mid-sized community on Nova Scotias Eastern Shore. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ...


Canada's wartime naval shipbuilding policies were not considered a success, having only delivered a cruiser and two destroyers.


Inter-war Period

Following a draw-down in the RCN after the war, the RCN undertook to find a mission and found it in taking over many of the civilian responsibilities of the Marine Service of the Department of Transport, and during the 1920s the RCN was threatening to become a civilian service. The Department of Transport, also referred to as Transport Canada, is the department within the government of Canada which is responsible for developing regulations, policies and services of transportation in Canada. ... The 1920s is a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ...


On January 31, 1923, the RNCVR was replaced by the Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve (RCNVR) The initial authorized strength of the RCNVR was 1,000 all ranks. Twelve Canadian cities (Calgary, Charlottetown, Edmonton, Halifax, Hamilton, Ottawa, Prince Rupert, Quebec City, Regina, Saint John, Saskatoon and Vancouver) were earmarked for divisions of “Half-Company” strength, i.e. 50 men, all ranks. Three larger cities (Toronto, Montreal and Winnipeg) were ordered to man to a “Company” strength, which was 100, all ranks. The first commission was given, on 14 March 1923, to Lieutenant Frank Meade, who established a Company sized detachment in Montreal. By the end of 1923, twelve units had been formed. January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... {{year nav|1939 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve (RCNVR) was a naval reserve force of the Royal Canadian Navy, which replaced the Royal Navy Canadian Volunteer Reserve (RNCVR). ...


On May 22, 1931, the RCN underwent a major facelift when the first custom-built RCN ships, destroyers HMCS Saguenay and HMCS Skeena, were commissioned at Portsmouth, England. May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... This article is about the English city of Portsmouth. ...


Still, by the 1930s, the RCN, along with its sister services, were starved of funding and equipment. However, this decade saw the RCN begin its rebuilding, as Ottawa joined London, Paris, and Washington in a growing apprehension of the ramifications of Nazi Germany's rearmament and the adventurism of Italy and Japan. By the outbreak of war in September 1939, the RCN still had only six destroyers and a handful of smaller ships. The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D... National Socialism redirects here. ... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ...


Second World War

The RCN expanded greatly during the Second World War and following the end of the war was the third-largest navy in the world, behind the United States and the United Kingdom.[citation needed] Although it showed its inexperience at times during the early part of the war, a navy made up of men from all across the country, including many who had never before seen a large body of water, proved capable of exceeding the expectations of its allies. By the end of the Battle of the Atlantic (1939-1945), the RCN was the primary navy in the northwest sector of the Atlantic Ocean and was responsible for the safe escort of innumerable convoys and the destruction of many U-boats — an anti-submarine capability that the RCN would build upon during the post-war. Similarly, a massive building program (for a nation of only 11 million) saw corvettes, frigates, and other escort vessels built in shipyards on both coasts and on the Great Lakes. Added to this were aircraft carriers, cruisers, destroyers, and various auxiliary ships. In addition, the Royal Canadian Naval Air Service was reborn with the use of anti-submarine patrols on both coasts conducted with PBY Canso flying boats. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina (until 1943) Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Percy W. Nelles Leonard W. Murray Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate but larger than a coastal patrol craft. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Four aircraft carriers, (front-to-back) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... PBY Catalina was the United States Navy designation for an American and Canadian-built flying boat of the 1930s and 1940s. ...


As the end of the war against Germany approached, attention focused on Japan. At the end of 1944, some RCN ships were deployed with the British Pacific Fleet, joining the many Canadian personnel already serving with the Royal Navy in the Pacific War. Ottawa was also laying plans to expand the RCN's capabilities beyond its anti-submarine orientation. The war in the Pacific was expected to culminate with a massive invasion of Japan itself, and this would need a different navy than that required in the Atlantic. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The British Pacific Fleet (BPF) was a multinational Allied naval force which saw action against Japan during World War II. The fleet was comprised mainly of British Commonwealth naval vessels. ... Combatants China (from 1937) Việt Minh ((from 1941) United States of America (from 1941) United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (from 1941) British India (1941) Commonwealth of Australia (1941) Free France (1941) Philippines (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) Soviet Union (from 1945) Peoples... Anti-submarine warfare (ASW or in older forms A/S) is a branch of naval warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft or other submarines to find, track and then damage or destroy enemy submarines. ...


Britain was nearly bankrupt after five and a half years of war and was looking to shrink its military somewhat, especially since the United States was now the dominant power in the Pacific. With this in mind, the RCN and the Royal Australian Navy were to receive many ships considered surplus to the RN's needs, with the end goal being a powerful Commonwealth fleet of Australian, British, Canadian, and New Zealand ships alongside the United States Navy. As in World War I, the war ended before these plans came to fruition. With the dropping of two nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan's will to fight evaporated. The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as The Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states all of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom, except for Mozambique and the United Kingdom itself. ... A rare occurance of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Citizens of Hiroshima walk by the A-Bomb Dome, the closest building to have survived the citys atomic bombing. ...


With the end of the war, the RCN stopped expanding. A planned transfer of two light aircraft carriers from the Royal Navy, HMCS Warrior and HMCS Magnificent was slowed, and when Warrior was found to be unsuitable for a North Atlantic winter, she was sent to the west coast and the next year was replaced by Magnificent, with Warrior being given back to the RN. Canada still had two light cruisers, HMCS Ontario and HMCS Uganda (later HMCS Quebec), a number of Tribal-class and other destroyers, and a mass of frigates, corvettes, and other ships, the majority of which were mothballed by 1947. HMS Warrior (R31) (later CVL20) was a Colossus-class aircraft carrier, of the Royal Navy. ... HMCS Magnificent was an aircraft carrier of the Royal Canadian Navy, in service from 1946 to 1956. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... HMCS ONTARIO - Sea Cadet Summer Training Centre and former ship of the Royal Canadian Navy Category: ... HMS Uganda (C66), was a Second World War-vintage Royal Navy Colony class cruiser. ... The Royal Navy developed two Tribal classes of destroyers: Tribal class destroyer (1905) Tribal class destroyer (1936) The Canadian Navy developed a class of destroyers in the 1970s which was to be called the Tribal class but under the current lead-ship designation convention is known as the Iroquois class. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


"Mutinees" in 1949

In the late winter of 1949, the RCN was shaken by three almost simultaneously cases of mass insubordination variously described as "Incidents" or "Mutinees":

  • On February 26, when the destroyer HMCS Athabaskan was on a fuelling stop at Manzanillo, Mexico, ninety Leading Seamen and below — constituting more than half the ship's company — locked themselves in their messdecks, and refused to come out until getting the captain to hear their grievances.
  • On March 15, in another destroyer — HMCS Crescent, at Nanjing, China — eighty-three junior ratings held a similar protest.
  • On March 20, thirty-two aircraft handlers on the carrier HMCS Magnificent, then on fleet manoeuvres in the Caribbean, briefly refused an order to turn to morning cleaning stations.

As noted by Dr Richard Gimblett, researcher and himself a retired naval officer[2] the respective captains in all three cases acted with great sensitivity, entering the messes for an informal discussion of the sailors' grievances and carefully avoided using the term "mutiny," which could have had severe legal consequences for the sailors involved. Specifically, the captain of the Athabaskan, while talking with the disgruntled crew members, is known to have placed his cap over a written list of demands, which could have been used as legal evidence of a mutiny, and pretended not to notice it. HMCS Athabaskan (R79) was the second destroyer of the Canadian Navy to bear that name. ... Manzanillo could refer to Manzanillo, Cuba Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico Manzanillo, Panama This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... HMCS Crescent was a Canadian C class destroyer, launched on 20 July 1944. ...   (Chinese: 南京; Romanizations: NánjÄ«ng (Pinyin), Nan-ching (Wade-Giles), Nanking (Postal map spelling)) is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu Province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ... HMCS Magnificent was an aircraft carrier of the Royal Canadian Navy, in service from 1946 to 1956. ... West Indian redirects here. ...


Still, the Canadian government of the time — the early years of the Cold War — felt apprehensive of "The Red Menace," especially since the naval sailors' discontent coincided with a Communist-inspired strike in the Canadian merchant marine (also, one of the incidents occurred in a country — China — where the local Communists were in the fast process of winning a civil war and gaining power). For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Some factual claims in this article need to be verified. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Defence Minister Brooke Claxton appointed Rear-Admiral Rollo Mainguy, Flag Officer Atlantic Coast, to head a commission of inquiry. The Mainguy Report — described by Dr Gimblett as "a watershed in the Navy's history, whose findings, recommendations and conclusions remain a potent legacy" — concluded that no evidence was found of Communist influence or of collusion between the three crews. The Honorable Brooke Claxton, D.C.M., K.C., B.C.L., LL.D. (b. ...


The "General Causes Contributing to [the] Breakdown of Discipline" noted by the commission included:

  • Collapse of the Divisional System of personnel management;
  • Failure to provide Welfare Committees for the airing of petty grievances, which led to sailors informally adopting a kind of equivalent to a sit down strike;
  • Frequent changes in ships' manning and routines with inadequate explanation;
  • A deterioration in the traditional relationship between officers and petty officers;
  • The absence of a distinguishing Canadian identity in the Navy.

The last issue — an assertion of "an uncaring officer corps harbouring aristocratic British attitudes inappropriate to Canadian democratic sensitivities" — went beyond the question of sailors' morale and touched on the basic identity of the Canadian Navy and indeed, on the national identity of Canada as a whole.


It was to have ramifications in the process undertaken in later decades, painful to many of the officers concerned, of deliberately cutting off many of the British traditions in such areas as ensigns and uniforms.[3]


Cold War

The Cold War and the formation of NATO saw the RCN halt its contraction and begin expanding again. Several World War II vintage ships saw action in the Korean War, including "exciting but dangerous" shore bombardment and North Korean train destruction missions. The growing Soviet submarine threat in the 1950s saw a new class of anti-submarine destroyer escorts (DDEs), the St. Laurent class, designed. The RCN also pioneered several innovative ship designs, one of the more notable being the "rounded" upper part of the hull which helps drain seawater from the upper decks during the extremely rough conditions of the North Atlantic and Pacific oceans — it has also been said that this rounded upper hull would assist in cleaning radiation from a ship in the event of coming in contact with fallout from a nuclear explosion. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Soviet redirects here. ... // Recovering from World War II and its aftermath, the economic miracle emerged in West Germany and Italy. ... The class destroyer was the first major class of warship designed and built in Canada. ... It has been suggested that Nuclear explosive be merged into this article or section. ...


Following the seven St. Laurent DDEs, the Restigouche and Mackenzie DDE classes were built with seven and four vessels respectively. In the early 1960s the St. Laurent DDEs were upgraded to destroyer-helicopter (DDH) vessels to accommodate the new CH-124 Sea King anti-submarine helicopters. The RCN was the first navy in the world to pioneer the use of ship-borne helicopters on small surface ships, such as destroyers and frigates, in the rough waters of the North Atlantic and Pacific. Recovery of helicopters to a wildly pitching flight deck was aided with the RCN invention of the "Bear Trap" — a cable-assisted winching system which hauled a helicopter, while operating at full power, to the deck in all manner of conditions. RCN also was an early pioneer in various forms of ship-borne sonar, both passive and active. These innovations resulted in their NATO allies giving RCN an expanded anti-submarine role throughout the North Atlantic. The class destroyer was the first major class of warship designed and built in Canada. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ...


Following the construction of these vessels throughout the 1950s, RCN was able to retire all remaining World War II-era vessels. HMCS Magnificent stopped being used as an active carrier by the mid-1950s and was used as a vehicle transport during Canada's peacekeeping response to the 1956 Suez Crisis, before being paid off and replaced by HMCS Bonaventure, a more modern aircraft carrier which was subsequently updated with an angled flight deck. The RCNAS used stations at HMCS Shearwater and HMCS Patricia Bay to operate carrier-based fighter aircraft (including the British propeller-driven Seafire (a naval derivative of the famous Spitfire) and Sea Fury and the American F2H Banshee, the RCN's only jet fighter) as well as coastal patrol aircraft. // Recovering from World War II and its aftermath, the economic miracle emerged in West Germany and Italy. ... // Recovering from World War II and its aftermath, the economic miracle emerged in West Germany and Italy. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2,900 WIA 2... HMCS Bonaventure was the last aircraft carrier in the Royal Canadian Navy. ... Canadian Forces Base Shearwater (CFB Shearwater) is a Canadian Forces base located in Eastern Passage, Nova Scotia on the eastern shore of Halifax harbour. ... Seafire F XVII SX336 (Kennet Aviation) The Seafire was a naval version of the Supermarine Spitfire, specially adapted for operation from aircraft carriers. ... The Supermarine Spitfire was an iconic British single-seat fighter used primarily by the RAF and many Allied countries through the Second World War and into the 1950s. ... Hawker Sea Furies in Canadian Navy livery. ... F2H-2 Banshee The McDonnell F2H Banshee was a military carrier-based jet fighter aircraft, used by the US Navy from 1951 to 1959 and by the Royal Canadian Navy from 1955 until 1962. ...


The RCN also conducted experiments with the fastest warship ever built, the 60-knot maximum speed HMCS Bras d'Or. HMCS Bras dOr (FHE 400) was a Canadian naval hydrofoil built in 1960-1967 to test the feasibility of an ocean-going hydrofoil for use in anti-submarine warfare. ...


Unification

On February 1, 1968, the Royal Canadian Navy was merged with the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Canadian Army to form the unified Canadian Forces. The naval forces were restructured as Canadian Forces Maritime Command (MARCOM). February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) was the air force of Canada from 1924 until 1968 when the three branches of the Canadian military were merged into the Canadian Forces. ... Canadian Forces Land Force Command (LF) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Armed Forces. ... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the combined armed forces of Canada. ... HMCS Bastion, flagship of the Canadian Navy. ...


For many of the serving naval personnel, the transition - giving up the old ensigns, and even more the adoption of army-type ranks and green uniforms instead of the distinctive naval ones - was a very painful process. Researcher Alan Filewood recalls:[4]

I grew up in a navy family; my father was a regular force officer who had risen from the lower deck, and he was himself the son of a petty officer who had come to Canada as one of the British Royal Navy crews that brought Canada's first warships to this country in 1911 and elected to stay to build the RCN. Growing up in a naval family, I was imbued with the traditions of a service that prided itself on its British roots.

I recall vividly the day the armed forces paraded in Ottawa to witness the lowering of the old service ensigns and the raising of the new. My mother was a naval vet, a former WREN, and at this transformative moment of national symbolism, she wept; with the lowering of the White Ensign something disappeared from her history. Sometime later my father came home demoralized in his new army-style uniform with an army rank. Like many other naval officers, he retired soon thereafter.

Distinctive Environmental Uniform (DEU) introduced

In the mid-1980s the CF reintroduced Distinctive Environmental Uniforms (DEU's) for the three commands of the Armed Forces. This did not re-form the RCN, but new uniforms broadly similar to the former RCN (except for the other ranks' "square rig") were authorised. MARCOM personnel had already unofficially been using rank titles corresponding to the former RCN aboard ship and in "naval environments" since soon after unification but the new uniforms formalised a return to RCN rank titles, though unification insignia remained; i.e., officers' rank insignia did not have a "curl," and a Chief Petty Officer retained the insignia of a CF Chief Warrant Officer.


Ensigns and jacks

Final version of the Blue Ensign worn as a jack by the Royal Canadian Navy until 1965.
Final version of the Blue Ensign worn as a jack by the Royal Canadian Navy until 1965.

On March 3, 1911, the RCN was authorized the use of the White Ensign, which remained the main identifying flag of the navy for the next 54 years. At the same time, the Canadian Blue Ensign was designated the jack of the RCN. However, because naval tradition dictates that the jack is worn at the ship's bow only when docked or on "dress ship" occasions, HMC ships normally had no distinctly Canadian flags when under way, the White Ensign being identical to the Royal Navy's ensign. Because of this, a tradition developed of painting a green maple leaf on ships' funnels to mark the ship as Canadian. Image File history File links Canadian_Blue_Ensign. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Blue_Ensign. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... The White Ensign. ... The Canadian Red Ensign. ...


When British and Canadian foreign policies began to diverge in the 1950s (highlighted by the two countries' different roles in the Suez Crisis), having an ensign identical to the Royal Navy's became less satisfactory. In 1961, a policy of wearing the Canadian Red Ensign from the masthead (in addition to the Canadian Blue Ensign at the jack staff when appropriate, and the White Ensign at the ensign staff) was established. On February 15, 1965, the White, Blue, and Red ensigns were all replaced by the new National Flag of Canada, the Maple Leaf flag. Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2,900 WIA 2... The Canadian Red Ensign, this design was used from 1957 until 1965. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 (1965-Present) The National Flag of Canada (), popularly known as the Maple Leaf Flag (French: lUnifolié the one-leaved), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre, featuring a red stylized 11-pointed maple leaf. ...


Film and books

Corvette K -225 is a 1943 film starring Randolph Scott. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Howard Hawks (May 30, 1896 – December 26, 1977) was an American film director, producer and writer of the classic Hollywood era. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Dutch playwright, novelist and occasional social critic, Jan de Hartogs historical memorial The Hospital (1964), which exposed the horrid conditions of Houstons charity hospital in the 1960s, led to significant reforms of that citys indigent healthcare system. ... The Captain was a magazine for young boys, published monthly in the United Kingdom in the early 1900s. ...

See also

This is a list of ships in the Canadian Navy. ... This is a list of shore-based facilities operated by the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) from its creation in 1911 until unification into the Canadian Armed Forces on February 1, 1968. ...

External links

Haze gray and underway is a United States Navy saying that refers to surface ships in arduous duty at sea, rather than aircraft carriers or submarines, or naval units in ceremonial roles or in port. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Constitution Act, 1867
  2. ^ Dr Richard Gimblett, Research Fellow with Dalhousie University's Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, "Dissension in the Ranks, 'Mutinies' in the Royal Canadian Navy" [1]
  3. ^ Alan Filewood, "Theatre, Navy and The Narrative of 'True Canadianism'", in "Theatre Research in Canada", Vol. 13 No. 1&2 (Spring/Fall 1992) [2].
  4. ^ Alan Filewood, "Theatre, Navy and The Narrative of 'True Canadianism'", in "Theatre Research in Canada", Vol. 13 No. 1&2 (Spring/Fall 1992) [3].

  Results from FactBites:
 
Royal Canadian Navy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2188 words)
By the end of the Second Battle of the Atlantic, the RCN was the primary navy in the northwest sector of the Atlantic Ocean and was responsible for the safe escort of innumerable convoys and the destruction of many U-boats—an anti-submarine capability that the RCN would build upon during the post-war.
A planned transfer of two light aircraft carriers from the Royal Navy, HMCS Warrior and HMCS Magnificent was slowed, and when Warrior was found to be unsuitable for a North Atlantic winter, she was sent to the west coast and the next year was replaced by Magnificent, with Warrior being given back to the RN.
On March 3, 1911, the RCN was authorized the use of the White Ensign, which remained the main identifying flag of the navy for the next 54 years.
Canadian Forces Maritime Command - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1821 words)
MARCOM is the descendant of the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) which was Canada's naval service from the navy's foundation in 1910 until 1 February 1968.
After 1968, the RCN was merged with the army and air force to form the Canadian Armed Forces.
In 1998, the Canadian government made a deal with the United Kingdom to acquire four mothballed, but state-of-the-art Upholder-class diesel-electric submarines that were made surplus by the Royal Navy's decision to operate only nuclear-powered submarines such as the Trafalgar-class boats.
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