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Encyclopedia > Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

The Palm House
State Party United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, iv
Reference 1084
Region Europe and North America
Inscription History
Inscription 2003  (27th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.
Biology Portal
England Portal

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, usually referred to simply as Kew Gardens, are extensive gardens and botanical glasshouses between Richmond and Kew in southwest London, England. The director is Professor Stephen D. Hopper, who succeeded Professor Sir Peter Crane. The Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew is also the name of the organisation that runs Kew Gardens and Wakehurst Place gardens in Sussex. It is an internationally important botanical research and education institution with 700 staff and an income of £44 million for the year ended 31 March 2006.[1] Royal Botanical Gardens might refer to: Royal Botanical Gardens, Ontario in Canada. ... Kew Gardens is the name of several places: Kew Gardens is a commonly-used name for the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, London, United Kingdom Kew Gardens is the name of a park in The Beaches neighborhood of Toronto, Ontario, Canada Kew Gardens is also the name of a neighborhood... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2223x1518, 639 KB) The Palm House (built 1844-1848) at Kew Gardens, London, England. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... Richmond is a suburb and the principal settlement of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south west London, England. ... Kew is a place in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in South West London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Stephen Donald Hopper (born 1951) is a Western Australian botanist, specialising in conservation biology and vascular plants. ... Professor Sir Peter Crane is the Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, London. ... Wakehurst Place Garden is a garden located in Ardingly, West Sussex in southern England. ... This article refers to the historic county in England. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

Kew Gardens originated in the exotic garden at Kew Park formed by Lord Capel of Tewkesbury. It was enlarged and extended by Princess Augusta, the widow of Frederick, Prince of Wales, for whom Sir William Chambers built several garden structures. One of these, the lofty Chinese pagoda built in 1761 still remains. George III enriched the gardens, aided by William Aiton and Sir Joseph Banks. The old Kew Park (by then renamed the White House), was demolished in 1802. The "Dutch House" adjoining was purchased by George III in 1781 as a nursery for the royal children. It is a plain brick structure now known as Kew Palace. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (November 30, 1719-February 8, 1772) was Princess of Wales from May 8, 1736 to March 31, 1751. ... The Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (Frederick Louis; 1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eldest son of George II. He was born into the House of Hanover and, under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick... The central courtyard of Chambers Somerset House in London. ... A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia This article is about the building style. ... George III redirects here. ... William Aiton (1731 - February 2, 1793) was a Scottish botanist. ... For clothing store, see JoS. A. Bank Clothiers. ... Three buildings at Kew, which is now a western suburb of London, have been known as Kew Palace. ...


In 1840 the gardens were adopted as a national botanical garden. Under Kew's director, William Hooker, the gardens were increased to 30 hectares (75 acres) and the pleasure grounds, or arboretum, extended to 109 hectares (270 acres), and later to its present size of 120 hectares (300 acres). Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ... Sir William Jackson Hooker (July 6, 1785 - August 12, 1865) was an English botanist. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... This article is about a type of botanical garden. ...


The Palm House was built by architect Decimus Burton and iron-maker Richard Turner between 1844 and 1848, and was the first large-scale structural use of wrought iron. The structure's panes of glass are all hand-blown. The Temperate house, which is twice as large as the Palm House, followed later in the 19th century. It is now the largest Victorian glasshouse in existence. The Palm House at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew A Palm House is a Greenhouse that is specialised for the growing of palms and other tropical and sub tropical plants. ... Decimus Burton (30 September 1800 - 14 December 1881) was a prolific English architect and garden designer, particularly associated with projects in the classical style in London parks, including buildings at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and London Zoo, and with the layout and architecture of the seaside towns of Fleetwood... Richard Turner (1798-1881) was an Irish iron-founder and manufacturer of glasshouses, born in Dublin. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ...


Kew was the location of the successful effort in the 19th century to propagate rubber trees for cultivation outside South America. This does not cite any references or sources. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

Princess of Wales Conservatory
Princess of Wales Conservatory

The year 1987 saw the opening of Kew's third major conservatory, the Princess of Wales Conservatory (opened by Princess Diana in commemoration of her predecessor Augusta's associations with Kew),[2] which houses 10 climate zones. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 258 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 413 pixel, file size: 289 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 258 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 413 pixel, file size: 289 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Metadata This... Camilla Mountbatten-Windsor, the current Princess of Wales. ... Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances Mountbatten-Windsor, née Spencer) (1 July 1961–31 August 1997), commonly, but incorrectly, known as Princess Diana, was for fifteen years the wife of HRH The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. ... Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (November 30, 1719-February 8, 1772) was Princess of Wales from May 8, 1736 to March 31, 1751. ...


In October 1987 Kew Gardens lost hundreds of trees in the Great Storm of 1987. Satellite image of the powerful storm The Great Storm of 1987 occurred on October 15 and 16, 1987, when an unusually strong weather system caused hurricane force winds to hit much of the south of England. ...


In July 2003, the gardens were put on the list of World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


Kew Gardens today

The lake next to the Palm House at Kew
The lake next to the Palm House at Kew

Kew Gardens is a leading center of botanical research, a training ground for professional gardeners and a visitor attraction. In 2005 Kew received 1.48 million visitors, which was the most since 1949 and is the largest number for any paid entry garden in the United Kingdom.[3] The gardens are mostly informal, with a few formal areas. There are conservatories, a herbarium, a library and eating places. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 120 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 599 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 120 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 599 pixel, file size: 1. ... A university school of music or college of music, or academy of music or conservatoire (British English) — also known as a conservatory (American English) or a conservatorium (Australian English) — is a higher education institution dedicated to teaching the art of music, including the playing of musical instruments, musical composition, musicianship... In Botany, a herbarium is a collection of preserved plants or plant parts, mainly in a dried form. ...


Herbarium

Kew is important as a seedbank. It co-sponsors the Millennium Seed Bank Project inside the Wellcome Trust Millennium Building at Wakehurst Place in Sussex. Seedbanks store seeds as a source for planting in case seed reserves elsewhere should be destroyed. ... Bixa orellana seeds Ravenala madagascariensis seeds The Millennium Seed Bank Project is an international conservation project coordinated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ... Wakehurst Place Garden is a garden located in Ardingly, West Sussex in southern England. ...


With the Harvard University Herbaria, and the Australian National Herbarium, they co-operate in the IPNI database to produce an authoritative source of information on botanical nomenclature. Harvard redirects here. ... In Botany, a herbarium is a collection of preserved plants or plant parts, mainly in a dried form. ... The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) is a database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of all seed plants. ... Botanical nomenclature Plants are given formal names, governed by the ICBN. Within the limits set by the ICBN there is a separate set of rules, the ICNCP, for those plants in cultivation that require separate recognition, so-called cultivars. ...

The Temperate House. This greenhouse has twice the floor area of the Palm House and is the world's largest surviving Victorian glass structure
The Temperate House. This greenhouse has twice the floor area of the Palm House and is the world's largest surviving Victorian glass structure

Despite unfavourable growing conditions (atmospheric pollution from London, dry soils and low rainfall) Kew remains one of the most comprehensive plant collections in Britain. In an attempt to expand the collections away from these unfavourable conditions, Kew has established two out-stations, at Wakehurst Place in Sussex, a National Trust property, and (jointly with the Forestry Commission) Bedgebury Pinetum in Kent, the latter specialising in growing conifers. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1221, 581 KB) The Temperate House at Kew Gardens was partially built 1860-1863, work then stopped for financial reasons and the building was completed 1895-1898. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1221, 581 KB) The Temperate House at Kew Gardens was partially built 1860-1863, work then stopped for financial reasons and the building was completed 1895-1898. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... This article is about precipitation. ... Wakehurst Place Garden is located in Ardingly in West Sussex in southern England. ... This article refers to the historic county in England. ... The standard of the National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as The National Trust, is a British preservation organization. ... The Forestry Commission (established in 1919) is a non ministerial Government Department responsible for forestry in Great Britain. ... Bedgebury Pinetum (the National Pinetum) is a 1. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ...


Library and archives

The library and archives at Kew are one of the largest botanical collections in the world, with over half a million items, including books, botanical illustrations, photographs, letters and manuscripts, periodicals, and maps. The Jodrell Library was recently merged with the Economic Botany and Mycology Libraries and all are now housed together in the Jodrell Laboratory.


Transport

The nearest combined rail and London Underground station is Kew Gardens station (District Line and London Overground) to the east of the gardens. The London Underground is an underground railway system - also known as a rapid transit system - that serves a large part of Greater London, United Kingdom and some neighbouring areas. ... Kew Gardens station is a London Underground and National Rail station in south west London. ... The District Line is a line of the London Underground, coloured green on the Tube map. ... London Transport Portal London Overground[1] is a train operating company owned by Transport for London (TfL). ...


Bus routes: 65 and 391 London Buses route 65 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, United Kingdom. ... London Buses route 391 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, United Kingdom. ...


Attractions

Guided Walks

Free tours of the gardens are conducted by trained volunteers and leave from Victoria Gate at 11am and 2pm every day (except Christmas Day).


Vehicular Tour

Kew Explorer is a gas-powered 72-seater people mover that takes a circular route around the gardens. A commentry is provided by the driver and there are several stops. Tickets cost £3.50.


Pagoda

The Pagoda
The Pagoda

In a corner of Kew Gardens stands the Great Pagoda (by William Chambers), erected in the year 1762, from a design in imitation of the Chinese Ta. The lowest of the ten octagonal storeys is 49 feet (15 metres) in diameter. From the base to the highest point is 163 feet (50 metres). Pagoda at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Pagoda at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia This article is about the building style. ...


Each storey finishes with a projecting roof, after the Chinese manner, originally covered with ceramic tiles and adorned with large dragons; these were reputedly[citation needed] sold by George IV to settle his debts. The walls of the building are composed of brick. The staircase, 253 steps, is in the centre of the building. The Pagoda was closed to the public for many years, but reopened for the summer months in 2006. Renovation is under way for permanent opening to the public to celebrate Kew's 250th birthday in 2009.


During the Second World War a hole in each floor was cut so there was a hole running down the inside from top to bottom. Model bombs were then dropped to test the way that they fell. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Chokushi-Mon

Standing near the Pagoda there is a replica of part of a Japanese temple. Built in 1910, it is a copy of the Karamon (Chinese gate) of Nishi Hongan-ji in Kyoto.


Sackler Crossing

The Sackler Crossing bridge made of granite and bronze was opened in May 2006. Designed by Buro Happold and John Pawson, it crosses the lake and is named in honour of philanthropists Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler. // View of the Great Court Buro Happold is a professional services firm providing engineering consultancy, design, planning, project management and consulting services for all aspects of buildings, infrastructure and the environment. ... John Pawson is a contemporary British architect and designer associated with minimalism. ...


Museums and gallery

Chilean Wine Palm at Kew, the world's tallest indoor plant.
Chilean Wine Palm at Kew, the world's tallest indoor plant.

Near the Palm House is a building known as "Museum No. 1" which was designed by Decimus Burton and opened in 1857. Its aim was to illustrate mankind's dependence on plants, housing Kew's economic botany collections including tools, ornaments, clothing, food and medicines. The building was refurbished in 1998. The upper two floors are now an education centre and the ground floor houses the "Plants+People" exhibition which highlights the variety of plants and the ways that people use them. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1648x2227, 822 KB) Chilean Wine Palm Jubaea chilensis in the Temperate House at Kew Gardens, London. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1648x2227, 822 KB) Chilean Wine Palm Jubaea chilensis in the Temperate House at Kew Gardens, London. ... Binomial name Jubaea chilensis (Molina) Baill. ... Decimus Burton (30 September 1800 - 14 December 1881) was a prolific English architect and garden designer, particularly associated with projects in the classical style in London parks, including buildings at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and London Zoo, and with the layout and architecture of the seaside towns of Fleetwood...


The Marianne North Gallery was built in the 1880s to house the paintings of Marianne North, an MP's daughter who travelled to North and South America and many parts of Asia to paint plants. The gallery has 832 paintings. Marianne North (October 24, 1830 - August 30, 1890), English naturalist and flower-painter, was born at Hastings, the eldest daughter of a Norfolk landowner, descended from Roger North. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Following the Japan 2001 festival, Kew acquired a Japanese wooden house called a minka. It was originally erected in around 1900 in a suburb of Okazaki. Japanese craftsmen reassembled the framework and British builders who had worked on the Globe Theatre added the mud wall panels. Machiya are traditional wooden townhouses found throughout Japan and typified in the historical capital of Kyoto. ... The word Okazaki can refer to several things: Okazaki, Aichi – a city in Japan. ... This article is about the Globe Theatre of Shakespeare (commonly known as Shakespeares Globe Theatre). ...


Until March 2008, there is a major exhibition of 28 Henry Moore sculptures. The Nash Conservatory contains a display of some of Moore's found objects, maquettes, photos and quotes.


Compost heap

Kew has the largest compost heap in the world, made from green waste from the gardens. The compost is used in the gardens. An active compost heap, steaming on a cold winter morning. ...


See also

360° view of the gardens around the Japanese Gate at Kew.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Joseph Dalton Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, GCSI, OM, FRS, MD (June 30, 1817 – December 10, 1911) was an English botanist and traveller. ... The Palm House in the Royal Botanic Gardens The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh is both a scientific institution and a tourist attraction. ... The Irish National Botanic Gardens are located in Glasnevin, 5 km north-west of Dublin city centre, Ireland. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ 2006 Annual Report, pages 2 and 22
  2. ^ Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Augusta, Princess of Wales. Retrieved October 6, 2005.
  3. ^ Kew Annual Report and Accounts for the Year Ended 31 March 2006, page 9.

is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 51°28.480′N, 0°17.728′W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (957 words)
Kew Gardens originated in the exotic garden at Kew Park formed by Lord Capel of Tewkesbury, enlarged and greatly extended by Princess Augusta, the widow of Frederick, Prince of Wales, for whom Sir William Chambers built several garden structures of which the lofty Chinese pagoda from 1761 remains.
Under Kew's new director, William Hooker, the gardens were increased to 30 ha (75 acres) and the pleasure grounds, or arboretum, extended to 109 ha (270 acres), and later to its current size of 120 ha (300 acres).
Kew was the location of the successful effort in the 19th century to propagate rubber trees for cultivation outside South America.
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew - definition of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in Encyclopedia (494 words)
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew are extensive gardens and botanical glasshouses between Richmond upon Thames and Kew in southwest London.
They originated in the exotic garden at Kew House formed by Lord Capel of Tewkesbury, enlarged and greatly extended by Princess Augusta, the widow of Frederick, Prince of Wales, for whom Sir William Chambers erected several garden structures, of which the lofty Chinese pagoda erected in 1761 remains.
Under Kew's new director, William Hooker, the gardens were increased to 30 ha (75 acres), and the pleasure grounds, or arboretum, extended to 109 ha (270 acres), and later to its current size of 121 ha.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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