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Encyclopedia > Rowing (sport)
A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. The rower on the left of the photo, or the bow of the boat is rowing "starboard" or "bowside". The rower on the right of the photo and closest to the stern of the boat is rowing "port" or "strokeside" .

Rowing is a sport in which athletes race against each other on river, lakes or on the ocean, depending upon the type of race and the discipline. The boats are propelled by the reaction forces on the oar blades as they are pushed against the water. The sport can be both recreational, focusing on learning the techniques required, and competitive where overall fitness plays a large role. It is also one of the oldest Olympic sports. In the United States, Australia and Canada, high school and collegiate rowing is sometimes referred to as crew.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1809x1206, 625 KB) The GB Pair (Toby Garbett & Rick Dunn) rowing at Henley Royal Regatta 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1809x1206, 625 KB) The GB Pair (Toby Garbett & Rick Dunn) rowing at Henley Royal Regatta 2004. ... In rowing, a coxless pair consists of a pair of rowers, each having one oar, one on the stroke side and one on the bow side. ... Two hatchet sculls. ... Physical fitness is an attribute required for service in virtually all military forces. ... Archery competition at the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics. ... Rowing is the oldest intercollegiate sport in the United States. ...

Contents

Basics

Toronto rowers in a coxed four.

While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing backwards (towards the stern), and uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward (towards the bow). This may be done on a river, lake, sea, or other large body of water. It is a demanding sport requiring strong core balance as well as physical strength and cardiovascular endurance.[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 162 pixelsFull resolution (3185 × 644 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 162 pixelsFull resolution (3185 × 644 pixel, file size: 1. ... {{dablink|For other meanings, see Stern (disambiguation). ... An oar is a tool used for Marine Propulsion. ... Rowlocks, also known as oarlocks, are pivoting crutches that support and guide the oars of a rowboat, acting to transfer some of the thrust to the boat. ... Bow of the Cruise ship Spirit of Endeavour The bows of lifeboat 17-31 (Severn class) in Poole Harbour, Dorset, England The bow (pronounced to rhyme with how) is a nautical term that refers to the forward part of the hull of a ship or boat, the point that is... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body of water. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains fairly consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition. These include endurance races, time trials, stake racing, bumps racing, and the side-by-side format used in the Olympic games. The many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in different regions of the world, and specific local requirements and restrictions. A head race is a type of rowing race. ... Corpus bumps Girton at the 2005 May Bumps in Cambridge A bumps race is a form of rowing race in which a number of boats chase each other in single file; each boat attempts to catch the boat in front without being caught by the boat behind. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The History of rowing is the tale of one of the oldest sports in the world. ...


There are two forms of rowing. In Sweep or Sweep-oar rowing, each rower has one oar, held in both hands. This is done in pairs, fours and eights. Each rower in a sweep boat is referred to either as "port" or "starboard", depending on which side of the boat the rower's oar extends to. In areas such as the UK, the port side is usually referred to as stroke side, and the starboard side as bow side; this applies even if the stroke oarsman is rowing on bow side and/or the bow oarsman on stroke side. Port is the nautical term (used on boats and ships) that refers to the left side of a ship, as perceived by a person facing towards the bow (the front of the vessel). ... A view of the Starboard side of the Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Ross Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel as perceived by a person on board the ship and facing the bow (front). ... Port is the nautical term (used on boats and ships) that refers to the left side of a ship, as perceived by a person facing towards the bow (the front of the vessel). ... A view of the Starboard side of the Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Ross Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel as perceived by a person on board the ship and facing the bow (front). ...


In sculling each rower has two oars (or sculls), one in each hand. Sculling is usually done without a coxswain, in quads, doubles or singles. The oar in the sculler's right hand extends to port (stroke side), and the oar in the left hand extends to starboard (bow side). A single scull is a rowing boat which is adapted for one person. ...


Anatomy of a stroke

The two fundamental reference points in the rowing stroke are the catch where the oar blade is placed in the water, and the extraction (also known as the 'finish' or the 'release') where the oar blade is removed from the water. The rower leans forward, and bends the legs, sliding forward in their seat. After the blade is placed in the water at the catch, they apply pressure to the oar while simultaneously sliding in their seat to extend their legs. The part where pressure is applied is called the drive phase of the stroke, which occurs after the blade is vertically placed in the water. Once the rower extracts the oar from the water, the recovery phase begins, setting up the rower's body for the next stroke.[3] The two fundamental reference points in the rowing stroke are the catch where the oar blade is placed in the water,[1] and the extraction (also known as the finish or the release) where the oar blade is removed from the water. ...


Rowing Propulsion

Rowing is a cyclic (or intermittent) form of propulsion and in the quasi-steady state the motion of the system (rower, oars and boat) is repeated regularly. In order for this perfectly cyclic motion to be maintained the sum all the external forces on the system, averaged over the cycle, must be zero, so that the system as a whole does not accelerate. In that case the average drag (retarding) force on the system must equal the average propulsion force on the system. The drag forces consists of aerodynamic drag on the superstructure of the system (everything above the waterline) and the hydrodynamic drag on the submerged portion of the system. The propulsion forces are the forward reaction of the water on the oars while in the water. Of course the oar can be used to provide a drag force (a force acting against the forward motion) when the system is brought to rest.


Although the oar can be conveniently thought of as a lever with a "fixed" pivot point in the water, the blade moves sideways and sternwards through the water, so that the magnitude of the propulsion force developed is the result of a complex interaction between unsteady fluid mechanics (the water flow around the blade) and solid mechanics and dynamics (the handle force applied to the oar, the oar's inertia and bending characteristic, the acceleration of the boat and so on).


Distinction From Other Watercraft

Main article: Watercraft rowing

The distinction between rowing and other forms of water transport, such as canoeing or kayaking, is that in rowing the oars are held in place at a pivot point. This allows the oars to act as a lever of force, rather than a paddle. In flatwater rowing, the boat (also called a 'shell' or 'fine boat') is narrow to avoid drag, and the oars are attached to oarlocks at the end of outriggers extending from the sides of the boat.[4] These boats also have sliding seats to allow the use of the legs in addition to the body to move the oar and so move the boat. Rowing in the Amstel River by a student rowing club. ... An object moving through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ...


Fitness & Health

Rowing is one of the few non-weight bearing sports that exercises all the major muscle groups, including quads, biceps, triceps, lats, gluts and abdominal muscles. Rowing improves cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength. Rowing reduces fat but does not tend to build muscle in itself, though the associated weight training may do this. High-performance rowers tend to be tall and muscular: although extra weight does increase the drag on the boat, the larger athlete's increased power tends to be more significant. The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... Quads redirects here. ... Look up Biceps in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The triceps brachii muscle is a large three-headed skeletal muscle found in humans. ... The latissimus dorsi (plural: latissimi dorsi) is the large, flat, dorso-lateral muscle on the trunk, posterior to the arm, and partly covered by the spinotrapezius on its median dorsal region. ... Gluteus maximus The gluteal muscles are the three muscles that make up the human buttocks. ... The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... The magnitude of physical strength, often referred to as just strength, determines the ability of a person or animal to exert force on physical objects using muscles. ... This article is about strength training using weight (gravity) to generate resistance to contraction. ...


Rowing is a low impact activity with movement only in defined ranges, so that twist and sprain injuries are rare. However, the repetitive rowing action can put strain on knee joints, the spine and the tendons of the forearm, and inflammation of these are the most common rowing injuries. An x-ray of a human knee Grays Fig. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ...


History

Main article: History of rowing

Even since the earliest recorded references to rowing, the sporting element has been present. An Egyptian funerary inscription of 1430 BC records that the warrior Amenhotep (Amenophis) II was also renowned for his feats of oarsmanship. In the Aeneid, Virgil mentions rowing forming part of the funeral games arranged by Aeneas in honour of his father.[5] In the 13th century, Venetian festivals called regata included boat races among others.[6] The History of rowing is the tale of one of the oldest sports in the world. ... Aakheperure Great are the forms of Re Nomen Amenhotep Heka Iunu Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Heliopolis Horus name Ka Nakht Wer Pekhty Strong Bull, Great of Power Nebty name User Fau Sekha Em Wast Powerful of Splendour, Appearing in Thebes Golden Horus Ity Sekhemef em Tau Neb Who seizes... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...

The finish of the Doggett's Coat and Badge. Painting by Thomas Rowlandson.

The first known ‘modern’ rowing races, began from competition among the professional watermen that provided ferry and taxi service on the River Thames in London. Prizes for wager races were often offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies or wealthy owners of riverside houses.[7] During the Nineteenth Century these races were to become numerous and popular, attracting large crowds. Prize matches amongst professionals similarly became popular on other rivers throughout Great Britain in the Nineteenth Century, notably on the Tyne. The oldest surviving such race, Doggett's Coat and Badge was first contested in 1715 and is still held annually from London Bridge to Chelsea.[8] In America, the earliest known race dates back to 1756 in New York, when a pettiauger defeated a Cape Cod whaleboat in a race. [9] Image File history File links The finish of the Doggetts Coat and Badge rowing race. ... Image File history File links The finish of the Doggetts Coat and Badge rowing race. ... The Doggetts Coat and Badge is the prize for one of the oldest rowing races. ... Thomas Rowlandson (July 1756 - April 22, 1827) was an English caricaturist. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... A guild is an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of morality or conduct. ... Livery Companies are trade associations based in the City of London. ... The Doggetts Coat and Badge is the prize for one of the oldest rowing races. ...


Amateur competition in England began towards the end of the Eighteenth Century. Documentary evidence from this period is sparse, but it is known that the Monarch Boat Club of Eton College and the Isis Club of Westminster School were both in existence in the 1790s. The Star Club and Arrow Club in London for gentlemen amateurs were also in existence before 1800. At the University of Oxford bumping races were first organised in 1815 when Brasenose College and Jesus College boat clubs had the first annual race[10] while at Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827.[11] Brasenose won Oxford University's first Head of the River and claim to be the oldest established boat club in the world. The Boat Race between Oxford University and Cambridge University first took place in 1829, and was the second intercollegiate sporting event (following the first Varsity Cricket Match by 2 years). The interest in the first Boat Race and subsequent matches led the town of Henley to begin hosting an annual regatta in 1839.[12] The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, near Windsor in England, north of Windsor Castle, and... For other uses, see Westminster School (disambiguation). ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Brasenose College (in full: The Kings Hall and College of Brasenose) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... and of the Jesus College College name Jesus College in the University of Oxford of Queen Elizabeths Foundation Named after Jesus Christ Established 1571 Sister college Jesus College, Cambridge Principal The Lord Krebs JCR President Paolo Wyatt Undergraduates 340 MCR President Jahan Zahid Graduates 160 Location Turl Street, Oxford... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... Boat race redirects here. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Founded in 1818, Leander Club is the world's oldest public rowing club.[13] The second oldest club which still exists is the Der Hamburger und Germania Ruder Club which was founded 1836 and marked the beginning of rowing as an organized sport in Germany.[14] During the Nineteenth Century, as in England, wager matches in North America between professionals became very popular attracting vast crowds. The Detroit Boat Club was established as the first rowing exclusive club in 1839 in the US.[15][16] In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University.[15] The Harvard-Yale Regatta is the oldest intercollegiate sporting event in the United States,[15][17] having been contested every year since 1852 (excepting interruptions for wars). The Leander Club is based in Henley-on-Thames, and is the oldest rowing club in the world. ... Der Hamburger und Germania Ruder Club is a rowing club in Hamburg, Germany. ... The Detroit Boat Club, established in 1839, is the oldest sport rowing club in the United States. ... Yale redirects here. ... Yales Blade The Harvard-Yale Boat Race or Harvard-Yale Regatta is an annual rowing race between Yale and Harvard universities. ...


FISA

FISA, the “Fédération Internationale des Sociétés d’Aviron” in French (or the English equivalent International Federation of Rowing Associations) was founded by representatives from France, Switzerland, Belgium, Adriatica (now a part of Italy) and Italy in Turin on June 25, 1892.[18] It is the oldest international sports federation in the Olympic movement.[19] The Fédération Internationale des Sociétés dAviron, or FISA for short, is the International Rowing Federation which is the governing body for international Rowing. ... The History of Adria & Adriatica as watch trade marks for Swiss Watches is closely associated with the Belle Epoque period through the Montilier Watch Co, established in 1852 in Montilier, close to Morat / Murten, at the foot of the Watch Valley, Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ...


FISA first organised a European Rowing Championships in 1893.[18] An annual World Rowing Championships was introduced in 1962.[20][21] Rowing has also been conducted at the Olympic Games since 1900 (cancelled at the first modern Games in 1896 due to bad weather). The European Rowing Championships was an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The 1900 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, were held in 1900 in Paris, France. ... The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, were celebrated in 1896 in Athens, Greece. ...


Equipment

Racing shells stored in a boathouse (Picture taken on August 2000, in the Tel Aviv Rowing Club, Israel).

Download high resolution version (1024x768, 479 KB)This is a picture I took August 20th, 2000 of a boathouse in Israel This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 479 KB)This is a picture I took August 20th, 2000 of a boathouse in Israel This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Boathouse Row on the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia, USA. Rowing boats stored inside a boathouse in Israel. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ...

Boats

Main article: Racing shell

Racing boats (often called "shells") are long, narrow, and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag to a minimum. They usually have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent roll and yaw and to increase the effectiveness of the rudder. University of Vermont 8-oar shell In watercraft, a racing shell (also referred to as just a fine boat(UK) or just shell) is an extremely narrow, and often disproportionately long, rowing boat specifically designed for racing or exercise. ...


Originally made from wood, shells are now almost always made from a composite material (usually carbon-fibre reinforced plastic) for strength and weight advantages. FISA rules specify minimum weights for each class of boat so that no individual will gain a great advantage from the use of expensive materials or technology. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. ... ...


There are several different types of boats. They are classified using:

  • Number of rowers. In all forms of modern competition the number is either 1, 2, 4, or 8.
  • Position of coxswain. Boats are either coxless ("straight"), bow-coxed (also called bowloaders), or stern-coxed.

Although sculling and sweep boats are generally identical to each other (except having different riggers), they are referred to using different names: The coxswain (pronounced cox-ən; often called the cox) is the person in charge of a boat, particularly its navigation and steering. ... A bowloader is a crew shell (a type of boat used in sport rowing) in which the coxswain lies semi-supine in the bow, as opposed to the normal seated position at the stern. ...

  • Sweep: straight pair (or coxless pair) (2-), coxed pair (2+), straight four (or coxless four) (4-), coxed four (4+), eight (8+) (always coxed)
  • Sculling: single (scull) (1x), double (scull) (2x), triple (scull) (3x) (very rare), quad (or quadruple) (scull) (4x), octuple (scull) (8x) (always coxed, and mainly for juniors and exhibition)

With the smaller boats, specialist versions of the shells for sculling can be made lighter. The riggers in sculling apply the forces symmetrically to each side of the boat, whereas in sweep oared racing these forces are staggered alternately along the boat. The sweep oared boat has to be stiffer to handle these unmatched forces, so consequently requires more bracing and is usually heavier - a pair (2-) is usually a more robust boat than a double scull (2x) for example, and being heavier is also slower when used as a double scull. In theory this could also apply to the 4x and 8x, but most rowing clubs cannot afford to have a dedicated large hull which might be rarely used and instead generally opt for versatility in their fleet by using stronger shells which can be rigged for either sweep rowing or sculling. The symmetrical forces also make sculling more efficient than rowing: the double scull is faster than the coxless pair, and the quadruple scull is faster than the coxless four.


Many adjustments can be made to the equipment to accommodate the physiques of the crew. Collectively these adjustments are known as the boat's rigging.

Two hatchet sculls. The "blades" are at the top and the handles at the bottom of the picture.

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1390x1853, 688 KB) A set of Croker sculling oars. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1390x1853, 688 KB) A set of Croker sculling oars. ...

Steering

Single and double sculls are steered by the scullers pulling harder on one side or the other. In other boats there is a rudder, controlled by the cox, if present, or by one of the crew. In the latter case the rudder cable is attached to the toe of one of their shoes which can pivot about the ball of the foot, moving the cable left or right. The steersman may row at bow, who has the best vision when looking over their shoulder, or on straighter courses stroke may steer, since they can point the stern of the boat at some landmark at the start of the course. On international courses landmarks for steersmen, consisting of two aligned poles, are provided. Stern-mounted steering oar of an Egyptian riverboat depicted in the Tomb of Menna (c. ...


Oars

Main article: Oar (sport rowing)

Oars are used to propel the boat. They are long (250–300 cm) poles with one flat end about 50 cm long and 25 cm wide, called the blade. Classic oars were made out of wood, but modern oars are made from synthetic material, the most common being carbon fiber. Two hatchet sculls. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ...


An oar is often referred to as a "blade" in the case of sweep oar rowing and as a "scull" in the case of sculling. A sculling oar is shorter and has a smaller blade area than the equivalent sweep oar. The combined blade area of a pair of sculls is however greater than that of a single sweep oar, so the oarsman when sculling is working against more water than when rowing sweep-oared. He is able to do this because the body action in sculling is more anatomically efficient.

See also: List of rowing blades

This is a list blade images of national teams, rowing clubs, schools and universities. ...

Indoor rowing

A row of ergometers
Main article: indoor rower

Ergometer rowing machines (colloquially ergs or ergo) simulate the rowing action and provide a means of training on land when waterborne training is restricted, and of measuring rowing fitness. Ergometers do not simulate the lateral balance challenges, the exact resistance of water, or the exact motions of true rowing including the sweep of the oar handles. For that reason ergometer scores are generally not used as the sole selection criterion for crews, and technique training is limited to the basic body position and movements. However, this action can still allow a comparable workout to that experienced on the water. A row of Concept2 Indoor rowers. ... A row of Concept2 Indoor rowers. ... A row of Concept2 Model C indoor rowers An indoor rower is a machine used to simulate the action of watercraft rowing for the purpose of exercise or training for rowing. ...


Indoor rowing has become popular as a sport in its own right with numerous indoor competitions (and the annual World Championship CRASH-B Sprints in Boston) during the winter off-season. [22] The CRASH-B Sprints is the world championship for indoor rowing raced over 2,000 m on Concept2 indoor rowers. ... For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ...


Boat Storage and Boathouses

Racing boats, usually together with oars, riggers, and other equipment for rowing, are stored in specially designed storage areas — or boathouses. These usually consist of a long two story building, in which the boats are stored on 'racks' (horizontal metal [usually] bars) on the ground floor with a large door at one end which most probably leads out to a pontoon on the river or lakeside. Other equipment is stored around the boats. Upstairs there is usually a gym, bar, an area for relaxation, etc. or very rarely more storage (due to difficulties transporting cumbersome rowing equipment upstairs).


Competition

Rowers may take part in the sport for their leisure or they may row competitively. There are different types of competition in the sport of rowing. In the U.S. all types of races are referred to as "regattas" whereas this term is only used in the UK for head-to-head races which take place in the summer season. Time trials occur in the UK during the winter, and are referred to as Head races.


Rowing is unusual in the demands it places on competitors. The standard world championship race distance of 2,000 metres is long enough to have a large endurance element, but short enough (typically 5.5 to 7.5 minutes) to feel like a sprint. This means that rowers have some of the highest power outputs of athletes in any sport. At the same time the motion involved in the sport compresses the rowers' lungs, limiting the amount of oxygen available to them. This requires rowers to tailor their breathing to the stroke, typically inhaling and exhaling twice per stroke, unlike most other sports such as cycling where competitors can breathe freely. The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation) The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Police officer on a bicycle Cycling is a means of transport, a form of recreation and a sport. ...


Side by Side

Most races that are held in the spring and summer feature side by side racing also called a regatta - all the boats start at the same time from a stationary position and the winner is the boat that crosses the finish line first. The number of boats in a race typically varies between two (which is sometimes referred to as a 'dual race') to six, but any number of boats can start together if the course is wide enough. A regatta is a boat race or series of boat races. ...


The standard length races for the Olympics and the World Rowing Championships is 2,000 m long, 1,500 m for U.S. High School races and 1,000 m for Masters rowers (rowers older than 27). However the race distance can and does vary from 'dashes' or 'sprints', which may be 500 m long, to races of marathon or ultra-marathon length races such as the 'Tour du Léman' in Switzerland which is 160 km, [23] and the 2 day, 185 km Corvallis to Portland Regatta[24] held in Oregon, USA. In the UK, regattas are generally between 500 m and 2,000 m long. The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ...


Two traditional non-standard distance races are the annual Boat Race between Oxford and Cambridge and the Harvard-Yale Boat Race which cover courses of approximately four miles (roughly 6.5 km). The Henley Royal Regatta is also raced upon a non-standard distance at 1 mile, 550 yards (2,112 meters). Boat Race Logo Exhausted crews at the finish of the 2002 Boat Race The Boat Race is a rowing race between the rowing clubs of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... This article is about the city in England. ... The Yale-Harvard Boat Race is an annual rowing race between Yale and Harvard universities. ... A race taking place at Henley Regatta 2004 Henley Royal Regatta is a rowing event held every year on the river Thames by the town of Henley-on-Thames, England. ...


In general, multi-boat competitions are organized in a series of rounds, with the fastest boats in each heat qualifying for the next round. The losing boats from each heat may be given a second chance to qualify through a repechage. The World Rowing Championships offers multi-lane racing in heats, finals and repechages. At Henley Royal Regatta two crews compete side by side in each round, in a straightforward knock-out format, with no repechages. Repechage (French, pronounced re-pe-shage, literally re-fishing) is a practice amongst ladder competitions that allows participants that failed to meet qualifying standards by a small margin to continue to the next round. ... The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... A race taking place at Henley Regatta 2004 Henley Royal Regatta is a rowing event held every year on the river Thames by the town of Henley-on-Thames, England. ... A single-elimination tournament, also called a knockout or sudden death tournament, is a type of tournament where the loser of each match is immediately eliminated from winning the championship or first prize in the event. ...

Two crews racing in Lagan Head of the River. The closer boat is being overtaken by the boat on the far side.

Image File history File linksMetadata Laganhead. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Laganhead. ... The River Lagan is a major river in Northern Ireland which runs 40 miles (60 km) from the Slieve Croob mountain in County Down to Belfast where it enters Belfast Lough, an inlet of the Irish Sea. ...

Head races

Main article: Head race

Head races are time trial / processional races that take place from autumn (fall) to early spring (depending on local conditions). Boats begin with a rolling start at intervals of 10-20 seconds, and are timed over a set distance. Head courses usually vary in length from 2,000 m to 12,000 m, though there are longer races such as the Boston Rowing Marathon. A head race is a type of rowing race. ... A head race is a type of rowing race. ... In many racing sports an athlete (or occasionally a team of athletes) will compete in a time trial against the clock to secure the fastest time. ... This article is about the temperate season. ... With regards to time, an interval is the duration between two events or occurrences of similar events. ... The Boston Rowing Marathon is an event taking place on the third Sunday of September annually in Lincolnshire, England. ...


The oldest, and arguably most famous, head race is the Head of the River Race, founded by Steve Fairbairn in 1926 which takes place each March on the river Thames in London, United Kingdom. Head racing was exported to the United States in the 1950s, and the Head of the River Charles Regatta held each October on the Charles River in Boston, Massachusetts, USA is now the largest rowing event in the world. Crews racing under Hammersmith Bridge at HORR 2005 The Head of the River Race (HORR) is a rowing race held annually on the Thames in London from Mortlake to Putney. ... Steve Fairbairn (born 25 August 1862 in Melbourne, Australia, died 16 May 1938) was a rower and an influential and notoriously tough rowing coach, notably at Jesus College, Cambridge, Thames Rowing Club and London Rowing Club in the early decades of the 20th century. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Kennedy School womens team outside the Weld Boathouse preparing to row the Head of the Charles in 1996, though that year the race was cancelled due to bad weather. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... Boston redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


These processional races are known as 'Head Races', because, as with bumps racing, the fastest crew is awarded the title 'Head of the River' (as in 'head of the class'). It was not deemed feasible to run bumps racing on the Tideway, so a timed format was adopted and soon caught on.


Time trials are sometimes used to determine who competes in an event where there is a limited number of entries, for example the qualifying races for Henley Royal Regatta, and "rowing on" and "getting on" for the Oxford and Cambridge Bumps races respectively. Corpus bumps Girton at the 2005 May Bumps in Cambridge A bumps race is a form of rowing race in which a number of boats chase each other in single file; each boat attempts to catch the boat in front without being caught by the boat behind. ...


Bumps races

Main article: Bumps race

A third type of race is the bumps race, as held in Oxford (known as Torpids and Eights Week), Cambridge (known as the Lent Bumps and the May Bumps), between the London medical schools (the United Hospitals Bumps) on the Tideway and at Eton College and Shrewsbury School (which are the only schools in Britain to continue this tradition). In these races, crews start lined up along the river at set intervals, and all start at the same time. The aim is to catch up with the boat in front, and avoid being caught by the boat behind. If a crew overtakes or makes physical contact with the crew ahead, a bump is awarded. As a result damage to boats and equipment is common during bumps racing. To avoid damage the cox of the crew being bumped may concede the bump before contact is actually made. The next day, the bumping crew will start ahead of any crews that have been bumped. Bumps races take place over several days, and the positions at the end of the last race are used to set the positions on the first day of the races the next year. Oxford and Cambridge Universities hold bumps races for their respective colleges twice a year, and there are also Town Bumps races in both cities, open to non-university crews. Oxford's races are organised by City of Oxford Rowing Club[25] and Cambridge's are organised by the Cambridgeshire Rowing Association. Bumps races are very rare in the United States. Corpus bumps Girton at the 2005 May Bumps in Cambridge A bumps race is a form of rowing race in which a number of boats chase each other in single file; each boat attempts to catch the boat in front without being caught by the boat behind. ... Corpus bumps Girton at the 2005 May Bumps in Cambridge A bumps race is a form of rowing race in which a number of boats chase each other in single file; each boat attempts to catch the boat in front without being caught by the boat behind. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... At Oxford University, Torpids is one of two bumping races held in the year, the other being Eights. ... At Oxford University, Eights Week constitutes the main intercollegiate rowing event of the year, and happens in May. ... This article is about the city in England. ... 1st & 3rd Trinity 1st Women about to overbump Girton in the womens 1st division on day 3 of the 2005 Lent Bumps The Lent Bumps (also Lent Races, Lents) are a set of rowing races held on the River Cam in Cambridge. ... 1st & 3rd Trinity II about to bump Caius II to go top of the 2nd division on day 2 of the 2005 May Bumps The May Bumps (also May Races, Mays) is a rowing race held on the River Cam in Cambridge. ... Downstream from Teddington Lock, the Thames is subject to tides and is known as the Tideway. This stretch of the Thames is just under 160 km long. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, near Windsor in England, north of Windsor Castle, and... Shrewsbury School (formally known as King Edward VI Grammar School, Shrewsbury) is an independent school, located in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England. ... The Cambridgeshire Rowing Association (CRA) is based in Cambridge, UK. It is the administrative body for non-college rowing in Cambridge and since 1868 has organised races such as the CRA Bumps as well as looking after the interests of local rowing by providing facilities and regular meetings to discuss...


Stake races

The stake format was often used in early American races. Competitors line up at the start, race to a stake, moored boat, or buoy some distance away, and return. The 180° turn requires mastery of steering. These races are popular with spectators because one may watch both the start and finish. Usually only two boats would race at once to avoid collision. The Green Mountain Head Regatta continues to use the stake format but it is run as a head race with an interval start.[26] A similar type of racing is found in UK coastal rowing, where a number of boats race out to a given point from the coast and then return fighting rough water all the way.


World championships and Olympics

Rowing at the Olympic Games

The Olympic Games are held every four years, where only select boat classes are raced (14 in total): Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2291x1418, 404 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2291x1418, 404 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... Rowing has been contested since the 1900 Summer Olympics. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...

  • Men: quad scull, double scull, single scull, eight, straight four, and straight pair
  • Lightweight Men: straight four and double scull
  • Women: quad scull, double scull, single scull, eight, and straight pair
  • Lightweight Women: double scull

At the end of each year, the FISA holds the World Rowing Championships with events in 23 different boat classes. Athletes generally consider the Olympic classes to be "premier" events and are more interested in rowing in these at the World Championships. During Olympic years only non-Olympic boats compete at the World Championships. The Fédération Internationale des Sociétés dAviron, or FISA for short, is the International Rowing Federation which is the governing body for international rowing. ... The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ...


Rules of Racing

There are many differing sets of rules governing racing and these are generally defined by the governing body of the sport in a particular country. In the UK this is the Amateur Rowing Association, Australia this is Rowing Australia and the U.S USRowing Sets the rules. In international competition the rules are set out by the world governing body FISA. The rules may vary slightly but are generally very similar. The main notable difference between ARA rules and FISA rules is that coxes are not required to wear buoyancy aids in international events governed by FISA, whereas they are required to wear one at all times under the ARA rules. The Amateur Rowing Association (ARA) is the governing body in the United States of Rowingdom for the sport of rowing. ... Rowing Australia (RA) is the governing body for the sport of rowing in Australian. ... ...


The crew

In all boats, with the exception of single sculls, each rower is numbered in sequential order, low numbers at the bow, up to the highest at the stern. The person seated on the first seat is called the bowman, or just 'bow', whilst the rower closest to the stern is called the 'strokeman' or just 'stroke'. There are some exceptions to this - UK coastal rowers, and in France, Spain, and Italy rowers number from stern to bow. In all boats, with the exception of single sculls, each rower is numbered in sequential order from the bow to the stern. ...


In addition to this, certain crew members have other titles and roles. In an 8+ the stern pair are responsible for setting the stroke rate and rhythm for the rest of the boat to follow. The middle four (sometimes called the "engine room" or "power house") are usually the less technical, but more powerful rowers in the crew, whilst the bow pair are the more technical and generally regarded as the pair to set up the balance of the boat. They also have most influence on the line the boat steers.


In most levels of rowing there are different weight classes - typically "open" or "heavyweight" and lightweight (discussed below). Competitive rowing favours tall, muscular athletes due to the additional leverage height provides in pulling the oar through the water as well as the explosive power needed to propel the boat at high speed. Open or heavyweight rowers of both sexes tend to be very tall, broad-shouldered, have long arms and legs as well as tremendous cardiovascular capacity and very low body fat ratios. Olympic or International level heavyweight male oarsmen are typically anywhere between 6'3" and 6'9" (190 cm to 206 cm) tall with most being around 6'6" (198 cm) and weighing approximately 225 lb (102 kg) with about 6 to 7% body fat. Heavyweight women are slightly shorter at around 6'1" (180 cm) and lighter than their male counterparts.


Lightweights

Main article: Lightweight rowing

Unlike most other non-combat sports, rowing has a special weight category called lightweight (Lwt for short). According to FISA, this weight category was introduced "to encourage more universality in the sport especially among nations with less statuesque people". The first lightweight events were held at the World Championships in 1974 for men and 1985 for women. Lightweight rowing was added to the Olympics in 1996. In rowing, lightweight (Lwt for short) is a special category where limits are placed on the maximum weight of competitors. ... The 1996 Summer h Olympics, formally known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and informally known as the Centennial Olympics, were held in 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. ...


At international level the limits are:

  • Men: Crew average 70 kg (154 lb) - no rower over 72.5 kg (160 lb)
  • Women: Crew average 57 kilograms (125 lb) - no one over 59 kg (130 lb)

Olympic lightweight boat classes are limited to: Kg redirects here. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • Mens double (LM2x)
  • Mens four (LM4-)
  • Women's double (LW2x)

Women

For most of its history, rowing has been a male dominated sport. Although rowing's roots as a sport in the modern Olympics can be traced back to the original 1896 games in Athens, it was not until the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal that women were allowed to participate — well after their fellow athletes in similar sports such as swimming, athletics, cycling, and canoeing. The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, were celebrated in 1896 in Athens, Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were celebrated in 1976 in Montreal, Quebec. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ... Police officer on a bicycle Cycling is a means of transport, a form of recreation and a sport. ... Canoeing is the recreational or sporting activity of paddling a canoe or kayak. ...


Despite its male domination, women's rowing can be traced back to the early 1800s, and an image of a women's double scull race made the cover of Harper's Weekly in 1870. In 1927, the first rowing event for women between Oxford and Cambridge was held. For the first few years it was an exhibition, and it later became a race. Teresa Bagioli Sickles confession, 1859 Harpers Weekly (A Journal of Civilization) was an American political magazine based in New York City. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ...


In 1954, the first women's events were added to the European Rowing Championships. In 1988, the first Henley Women's Regatta was held. On April 27 1997, one of the last bastions of rowing was breached when, at an Extraordinary General Meeting, Leander Club voted to admit women as members. This rule met a condition imposed by UK Sport and qualified Leander to receive a £1.5 million grant for refurbishment from the Lottery Sports Fund.[27] The European Rowing Championships was an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... Henley Womens Regatta is a rowing regatta held at Henley-on-Thames, England. ... The Leander Club is based in Henley-on-Thames, and is the oldest rowing club in the world. ... UK Sport is the United Kingdoms organization for directing the development of sport within the home countries. ...


At international level, women's rowing traditionally has been dominated by Eastern European countries, such as Romania, Russia, and Bulgaria, although other countries such as Germany, Netherlands, Canada, and New Zealand often field competitive teams. The United States also has often had very competitive crews, and in recent years these crews have become even more competitive given the surge in women's collegiate rowing due to title IX. Because Title IX mandates equal money spent on men's and women's sports, rowing is particularly useful due to the extremely high costs of equipment per athlete. Therefore, many schools open a rowing program only to women to financially counteract the prevalence of men's sports. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Rowing is the oldest intercollegiate sport in the United States. ...


Adaptive athletes

Main article: Adaptive rowing

Adaptive rowing is a special category of races for those with physical disabilities. Under FISA rules there are 4 boat classes for adaptive rowers; mixed (2 men and 2 women) LTA (Legs, Trunk, Arms), mixed (1 man and 1 woman) TA (Trunk and Arms), and men's and women's A (Arms only). Events are held at the World Rowing Championships and are also due to take place at the 2008 Summer Paralympics.[28] Adaptive rowing is a special category of races for those with physical disabilities. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... See also: 2008 Summer Olympics The 2008 Summer Paralympic Games, the thirteenth Paralympics, will be held in Beijing, China from September 6 - 17, 2008. ...


Terminology and Event nomenclature

Rowing events use a systematic nomenclature for the naming of events, so that age, gender, ability and size of boat can all be expressed in a few numbers and letters. The first letter to be used is 'L' or 'Lt' for lightweight. If absent then the crew is open weight. This can be followed by either a 'J' or 'B' to signify junior (under 19 years) or under 23 years respectively. If absent the crew is open age (the letter 'O' is sometimes used). Next is either an 'M' or 'W' to signify if the crew are men or women. Then there is a number to show how many athletes are in the boat (1,2,4 or 8). An 'x' following the number indicates a sculling boat. Finally either a + or - is added to indicate whether the boat is coxed or coxswainless. In competitive rowing, the following specialized terms are important in the corresponding aspects of the sport: // In competitive rowing events, abbreviations are used for different boat classes. ...


Some events will use an experience rating to separate races. In the UK boats are classed as "Elite" (or "Open"), "Senior 1/2/3/4" or "Novice", depending on the number of wins the athletes have accumulated. Masters events use age ranges to separate crews of older rowers.


Examples:

  • M8+ or 8+ men's eight (Always coxed. Sometimes written as 8o for "8-oared".)
  • W4- women's coxless four (or "straight four")
  • LM2- lightweight men's coxless pair
  • BM1x men's single sculls under age 23
  • JW4x junior women's quad
  • Masters WC2x masters women's double sculls with average crew age between 43-49
  • Mixed Masters 8+ coxed eight with 4 women and 4 men as rowers and a coxswain of either gender

See also

  • Single Scull
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Rowing

A single scull is a rowing boat which is adapted for one person. ... A Cornish pilot gig, a six crew boat returning from a race at Falmouth in Cornwall. ... Rowing is the oldest intercollegiate sport in the United States. ... University rowing in the United Kingdom began when it was introduced to Oxford in the late 1700s. ... Boat race redirects here. ... Yales Blade The Harvard-Yale Boat Race or Harvard-Yale Regatta is an annual rowing race between Yale and Harvard universities. ... The Fédération Internationale des Sociétés dAviron, or FISA for short, is the International Rowing Federation which is the governing body for international Rowing. ... The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... The Rowing World Cup is an international rowing competition organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... The World Rowing Junior Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ...

References

  1. ^ Crew - definition (html). TheFreeDictionary. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  2. ^ Introduction (html). Basic Rowing Physiology. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  3. ^ British Rowing Technique (html). The Amateur Rowing Association. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  4. ^ Resistance (html). Basic Physics of Rowing. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  5. ^ Burnell, Richard; Page, Geoffrey (1997). The Brilliants: A History of the Leander Club. Leander Club. ISBN 0 9500061 1 4. 
  6. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary (html). Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  7. ^ Burnell, Richard; Page, Geoffrey (1997). The Brilliants: A History of the Leander Club. Leander Club. ISBN 0 9500061 1 4. 
  8. ^ DOGGETT'S COAT & BADGE RACE (html). Guildhall Library Manuscripts Section. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  9. ^ Historical context of the beginnings of rowing at Penn (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  10. ^ A History of Oxford College Rowing (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  11. ^ The History of the Penn Athletic Club Rowing Association (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  12. ^ Burnell, Richard (1989). Henley Royal Regatta: A celebration of 150 years. William Heinemann. ISBN 0 434 98134 6. 
  13. ^ Leander Club: Home Page
  14. ^ Der Hamburger und Germania Ruder Club
  15. ^ a b c USRowing (aspx). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  16. ^ Detroit Boat Club (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  17. ^ Harvard-yale reggata (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  18. ^ a b Virtual Library of Sports: Rowing (htnl). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  19. ^ World Rowing (html). Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  20. ^ Australian Rowing at the World Senior Championships (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  21. ^ Harvard-yale reggata (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  22. ^ Racing (html). Concept2.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  23. ^ Stéphane, Trachsler. "Records fall in Lake Geneva Tour", world rowing.com, 2006-10-30. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 
  24. ^ "Corvallis to Portland Regatta (CPR)", new world rowing.org. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 
  25. ^ Oxford City Bumping Races (html). Oxford Rowing. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  26. ^ Green Mountain Head Regatta (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-27.
  27. ^ Leander voted for women (html). REGATTA OnLine. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  28. ^ Paralympic/Adaptive (html). WorldRowing.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.

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External links

Organizations

  • FISA — The Official World Rowing Website (See International Rowing Federation).
  • The Amateur Rowing Association Governing body of rowing in the UK
  • Irish Amateur Rowing Union
  • Rowing Canada Aviron

The Fédération Internationale des Sociétés dAviron, or FISA for short, is the International Rowing Federation which is the governing body for international Rowing. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...

General

  • RegattaCentral — Regatta search and listings. Official registrar for USRowing.
  • River & Rowing Museum — Rowing Museum in Henley on Thames.
  • Friends of Rowing History - History of Rowing with emphasis on North American rowing
  • Rowiki.com — The rowing-specific wiki.
USRowing is the national governing body for the sport of rowing in the United States. ...

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Rowing is a speed and endurance sport in narrow boats (called shells or fine boats), where the athlete sits on a sliding seat above the water level and faces backwards (toward the stern), using oars to move the boat.
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