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Encyclopedia > Roux

Roux (IPA: /ˈruː/) (pronounced somewhat like the English word "rue") is a mixture of wheat flour and fat. It is the basis of three of the mother sauces of classical French cooking: sauce béchamel, sauce velouté, and sauce espagnole. Butter, vegetable oils, or lard are common fats used. It is used as a base for gravy, other sauces, soufflés, soups and stews. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... For other uses, see Sauce (disambiguation). ... Béchamel Sauce (pronounced ), also known as white sauce, is a basic sauce that is used as the base for other sauces, such as Mornay sauce, which is Béchamel and cheese. ... A velouté sauce, like Béchamel sauce (or white sauce), is one of the classic mother sauces of French cuisine. ... In cooking, espagnole sauce is one of the mother sauces that are the basis of sauce-making in classic French cooking. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... This article is about the fat. ... For other uses, see Gravy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sauce (disambiguation). ... A soufflé is a light, fluffy, baked dish made with egg yolks and beaten egg whites combined with various other ingredients and served as a savory main dish or sweetened as a dessert. ... For other uses, see Soup (disambiguation). ... Beef Stew A stew is a common dish made of vegetables (particularly potatoes or beans), meat, poultry, or seafood cooked in some sort of broth or sauce. ...

Contents

Methods

The fat is heated in a pot or pan melting it if necessary, then the flour is added. The mixture is stirred until the flour is incorporated and then cooked until at least the point where a raw flour taste is no longer apparent or until desired color has been reached. The final results can range from the nearly white to the nearly black, depending on the length of time it is over the heat, and its intended use. The end result is a thickening and flavoring agent.


Roux is most often made with butter as the fat base but it may be made with any edible fat. In the case of meat gravies, they are often made with rendered fat from the meat. In regional American cuisine, bacon is sometimes fried to produce fat to use in the roux. Vegetable oil is often used when producing dark roux as it does not burn at high temperatures like butter will. For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... The Cuisine of the United States is characterized by the broad diversity of the possible foods, but more importantly the willingness of the country as a whole to integrate widely divergent foods. ...


When combining roux with water-based liquids, such as broth or milk, it is important that these liquids are not excessively hot. It is preferable to add room temperature or warm liquid into a moderately hot or warm roux. They should be added in small quantities to the roux while stirring, to ensure proper mixing. Otherwise, the mixture will be very lumpy, not homogeneous, and not properly thickened.


Cooks can cheat by adding a mixture of water and wheat flour to a dish which needs thickening since the heat of boiling water will release the starch from the flour, however this temperature is not high enough to eliminate the floury taste. A mixture of water and flour used in this way is colloquially known as cowboy roux since it imparts a flavor to the finished dish which a traditional haute cuisine chef would consider unacceptable. Haute cuisine (literally high cooking in French) or grande cuisine refers to the cooking of the grand restaurants and hotels of the western world. ...


Types

Light (or "white") roux provides little flavor other than a characteristic richness to a dish, and is used in French cooking and some gravies or pastries throughout the world. For example, classic Swabian (southwest German) cooking uses a darker roux for its "brown broth" (braune Brühe), which, in its simplest form, consists of nothing more than lard, flour, and water, with a bay leaf and salt for seasoning. Darker roux, sometimes referred to as "blond", "peanut-butter", or "chocolate" roux depending on the color achieved, add a distinct nutty flavor to a dish, are often made with vegetable oils, as oil has a higher smoke point and so the butter solids don't burn, and are used in Cajun and Creole cuisine for gumbos and stews. The darker the roux, the less thickening power it has; a chocolate roux has about one-fourth the thickening power, by weight, of a white roux. A very dark roux, just shy of burning and turning black, has a distinctly reddish color and is sometimes referred to as "brick" roux. For other uses, see Gravy (disambiguation). ... Basket of western-style pastries, for breakfast Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pastries For the Pastry Distributed Hash Table, see Pastry (DHT). ... Cajun cuisine originates from the French-speaking Acadian or Cajun immigrants deported by the English from Acadia in Canada to the Acadiana region of Louisiana, USA. It is what could be called a rustic cuisine — locally available ingredients predominate, and preparation is simple. ... Louisiana Creole cuisine is a style of cooking originating in Louisiana (centered on the Greater New Orleans area) that blends French, Spanish, and American influences. ... A bowl of shrimp gumbo Gumbo is a spicy, hearty stew or soup, found typically in the states on the Gulf of Mexico in the United States, and very common in the southern part of Louisiana and the Lowcountry around Charleston, South Carolina. ... Beef Stew A stew is a common dish made of vegetables (particularly potatoes or beans), meat, poultry, or seafood cooked in some sort of broth or sauce. ...


Alternatives

As an alternative to making a roux, which is high in fat and very energy-dense, to flavor gumbo, some Creole chefs have been experimenting with toasting flour without oil in a hot pan. Cornstarch mixed with water (slurry), arrowroot and other agents can be used in place of roux as well; these items do not contribute to the flavor of a dish and are just used for thickening liquids. Products treated with cornstarch Cornstarch, or cornflour, is the starch of the maize grain, commonly known as corn. ... Binomial name Maranta arundinacea L. Arrowroot, or obedience plant, (Maranta arundinacea) is a large perennial herb of genus Maranta found in rainforest habitats. ...


See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Roux
Look up Roux in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... French cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of France. ... Cajun cuisine originates from the French-speaking Acadian or Cajun immigrants deported by the English from Acadia in Canada to the Acadiana region of Louisiana, USA. It is what could be called a rustic cuisine — locally available ingredients predominate, and preparation is simple. ... A bowl of shrimp gumbo Gumbo is a spicy, hearty stew or soup, found typically in the states on the Gulf of Mexico in the United States, and very common in the southern part of Louisiana and the Lowcountry around Charleston, South Carolina. ... Beurre manié is a dough consisting of equal parts of soft butter and flour used to thicken soups and sauces. ...

External links

  • Roux recipe with photo at RealCajunRecipes.com
  • Sauce Recipes at RecipeOmnibus.com

  Results from FactBites:
 
Roux - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (629 words)
When combining roux with the water-based liquids, such as broth or milk, it is important that these liquids be added very hot and in small quantities to the roux while stirring, to ensure proper mixing.
Light (or "white") roux provides little flavor other than a characteristic richness to a dish, and are used in French cooking and some gravies or pastries throughout the world.
Darker roux, sometimes referred to as "blond", "peanut-butter", or "chocolate" roux depending on the color achieved, add a distinct nutty flavor to a dish, are often made with vegetable oils, as oil has a higher burning point than butter, and are used in Cajun and Creole cuisine for gumbos and stews.
Pierre Paul Émile Roux - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (559 words)
Roux got his baccalaureate in sciences in 1871 and started his studies in 1872 at the Medical School of Clermont-Ferrand.
Roux was now recognized as an expert in the nascent sciences of medical microbiology and immunology.
With other Pasteur’s assistants (Edmond Nocard, Louis Thuillier and Straus) Roux traveled in 1883 to Egypt to study a human cholera outbreak there, but they were unable to find the pathogen for the disease, which was later discovered in Alexandria by the German physician Robert Koch (1843-1910).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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