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Encyclopedia > Route of administration

In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body.[1] Image File history File links Merge-arrows. ... Drug delivery is a term that refers to the delivery of a pharmaceutical compound to humans or animals. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos [1]) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms [2]. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Obviously, a substance must be transported from the site of entry to the part of the body where its action is desired to take place (even if this only means penetration through the stratum corneum into the skin). However, using the body's transport mechanisms for this purpose can be far from trivial. The pharmacokinetic properties of a drug (that is, those related to processes of uptake, distribution, and elimination) are critically influenced by the route of administration. The stratum corneum (the horny layer) is the outermost layer of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). ... Pharmacokinetics (in Greek: pharmacon meaning drug, and kinetikos meaning putting in motion) is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism. ...

Contents

Classification

Routes of administration can broadly be divided into:

  • topical: local effect, substance is applied directly where its action is desired
  • enteral: desired effect is systemic (non-local), substance is given via the digestive tract
  • parenteral: desired effect is systemic, substance is given by other routes than the digestive tract

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recognizes 111 distinct routes of administration. The following is a brief list of some routes of administration. For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... “FDA” redirects here. ...


Topical

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with local anesthetic. ... It has been suggested that Clyster be merged into this article or section. ... The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the sclera (white part of the eye) and lines the inside of the eyelids. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... The intranasal route is the route of administration of a drug through the nose, including nose drops or other medications. ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... A decongestant is a broad class of drugs designed to symptomatically treat ailments affecting the respiratory system. ...

Enteral

male human mouth The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the orifice through which an organism takes in food and water. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a plastic tube, inserted into a nostril through the nose, into the throat, down the oesophagus and into the stomach. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube that connects the stomach to the jejunum. ... Gastrostomy refers to a surgical opening into the stomach. ... ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... Four 500mg acetaminophen/paracetamol suppositories A suppository is a medicine that is inserted either into the rectum (rectal suppository) or into the vagina (vaginal suppository) where it melts. ... It has been suggested that Clyster be merged into this article or section. ...

Parenteral by injection or infusion

manish An injection is a method of putting liquid into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin long enough for the material to be forced into the body. ... An infusion pump or perfusor infuses fluids, medication or nutrients into a patients circulatory system. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), is the practice of feeding a person intravenously, circumventing the gut. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... Vasodilation is where blood vessels in the body become wider following the relaxation of the smooth muscle in the vessel wall. ... Vasospasm refers to a condition in which blood vessels spasm, leading to constriction. ... Thrombolytic drugs are used in medicine to dissolve blood clots in a procedure termed thrombolysis. ... In medicine, an embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Intra Cardiac Injections are injections which are given directly into the heart muscles or ventricles. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... CPR being performed Wikibooks First Aid has more about this subject: Basic Life Support Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency medical procedure for a victim of cardiac arrest or, in some circumstances, respiratory arrest. ... The subcutis is the layer of tissue directly underlying the cutis. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... Intraosseous infusion is the process of injection directly into the marrow of the bone. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... The dermis is a layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... For other uses, see Tattoo (disambiguation). ... Intrathecal: Delivered into the spinal canal (intrathecal space surrounding the spinal cord), as in a spinal anaesthesia. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. ...


Other parenteral

A 21mg dose Nicoderm CQ patch applied to the right arm A transdermal patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a time released dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. ... Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae), predominantly in tobacco, and in lower quantities in tomato, potato, eggplant (aubergine), and green pepper. ... For other uses, see addicted. ... Insufflation (Latin insufflatio blowing on or into) is the practice of inhaling substances into a body cavity. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Sublingual, literally under the tongue, from Latin, refers to a pharmacological route of administration in which certain drugs are entered directly into the bloodstream via absorption under the tongue. ... Nitroglycerin (also nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, or glyceryl trinitrate) is a chemical compound, a heavy, colorless, poisonous, oily, explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol. ... Look up Cheek in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Cheeks (Latin: malar) are the fleshy area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear, the skin being suspended by the chin and the jaws. ... Inhalational anaesthetics are gases or vapours possessing anaesthetic qualities. ...

Other

An epidural catheter after insertion. ... The epidural space is a part of the human spine which is very close to the spinal cord, lying just outside the dura mater. ... Of or referring to the administration of liquids directly into the eye. ...

Uses

Some routes can be used for topical as well as systemic purposes, depending on the circumstances. For example, inhalation of asthma drugs is targeted at the airways (topical effect), whereas inhalation of volatile anesthetics is targeted at the brain (systemic effect). A general anaesthetic drug is an anaesthetic (or anesthetic AE) drug that brings about a reversible loss of consciousness. ...


On the other hand, identical drugs can produce different results depending on the route of administration. For example, some drugs are not significantly absorbed into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract and their action after enteral administration is therefore different from that after parenteral administration. This can be illustrated by the action of naloxone (Narcan), an antagonist of opiates such as morphine. Naloxone counteracts opiate action in the central nervous system when given intravenously and is therefore used in the treatment of opiate overdose. The same drug, when swallowed, acts exclusively on the bowels; it is here used to treat constipation under opiate pain therapy and does not affect the pain-reducing effect of the opiate. Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of opioid overdose, for example heroin and morphine overdose. ... Scoring the poppy pod. ... Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium and the prototypical opiate. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...


Enteral routes are generally the most convenient for the patient, as no punctures or sterile procedures are necessary. Enteral medications are therefore often preferred in the treatment of chronic disease. However, some drugs can not be used enterally because their absorption in the digestive tract is low or unpredictable. Transdermal administration is a comfortable alternative; there are, however, only few drug preparations suitable for transdermal administration. An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth and reproduction of various microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses on the external surfaces of the body. ...


In acute situations, in emergency medicine and intensive care medicine, drugs are most often given intravenously. This is the most reliable route, as in acutely ill patients the absorption of substances from the tissues and from the digestive tract can often be unpredictable due to altered blood flow or bowel motility. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Intensive Care” redirects here. ...


Notes

  1. ^ In toxicology, "exposition" may often be a more appropriate term, however "administration" can be used for deliberate substance use.

See also

Pharmaceutical form is the way the drugs are deliver to patient. ... In medicine, an injection is a method of putting liquid into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe. ... Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct or vessel. ... Different bevels on hypodermic needles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ADME is an acronym in pharmacokinetics and pharmacology for Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion, and describes the disposition of a pharmaceutical compound within an animal or human body. ...

External links

  • FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Data Standards Manual: Route of Administration.
  • FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Data Standards Manual: Dosage Form.
  • MeSH Drug+Administration+Routes

  Results from FactBites:
 
Route of administration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (705 words)
The pharmacokinetic properties of a drug (that is, those related to processes of uptake, distribution, and elimination) are critically influenced by the route of administration.
Enteral routes are generally the most convenient for the patient, as no punctures or sterile procedures are necessary.
This is the most reliable route, as in acutely ill patients the absorption of substances from the tissues and from the digestive tract can often be unpredictable due to altered blood flow or bowel motility.
Administration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1575 words)
The word administration is from the Middle English administracioun, deriving from the French administration, which is itself derived from the Latin administratio: a compounding of ad ("to") and ministratio ("to give service").
Administration is both an art and a science (if an inexact one), and arguably a craft, as administrators are judged ultimately by their performance.
Administration pendente lite, where there is a dispute as to the person entitled to probate or a general grant of letters the court appoints an administrator till the question has been decided.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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