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Encyclopedia > Roundhead

The Roundheads was the nickname given to the supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. Their enemies, the Royalist supporters of King Charles I, were the nicknamed Cavaliers. // A nickname is a name of a person or thing other than its proper name. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Prince Rupert an archetypical cavalier For other uses, see Cavalier (disambiguation). ...


Some of the Puritans, but by no means all, wore their hair closely cropped round the head, and there was thus an obvious contrast between them and the men of courtly fashion with their long ringlets. For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Franz Hals Laughing Cavalier (in the Wallace Collection) wears a slashed doublet, wide lace collar and cuffs, and a broadbrimmed hat, 1624 Fashion in the period 1600-1650 in Western European clothing is characterized by the disappearance of the ruff in favor of broad lace or linen collars. ... A ringlet is a girls hairstyle. ...


During the war and for a time afterwards Roundhead was a term of derision - in the New Model Army it was a punishable offence to call a fellow soldier a Roundhead. The name remained in use to describe those with republican tendencies until after the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ...


Roundhead appears to have been first used as a term of derision, towards the end of 1641 when the debates in Parliament on the Bishops Exclusion Bill were causing riots at Westminster. One authority says of the crowd which gathered there: "They had the hair of their heads very few of them longer than their ears, whereupon it came to pass that those who usually with their cries attended at Westminster were by a nickname called Roundheads." Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... The Bishops Exclusion Bill was passed in the House of Common is March 1641, but was rejected in the House of Lords. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ...


John Rushworth (Historical Collections) is more precise. According to him the word was first used on 27 December 1641 by a disbanded officer named David Hide, who during a riot is reported to have drawn his sword and said he would "cut the throat of those round-headed dogs that bawled against bishops." Admiral of the Fleet Lord Jellicoe Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe (December 5, 1859- November 20, 1935) was a British Royal Navy admiral. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ...


The principle advisor to Charles II, the Earl of Clarendon (History of the Rebellion, volume IV. page 121) remarks on the matter: "and from those contestations the two terms of 'Roundhead' and 'Cavalier' grew to be received in discourse, . . . they who were looked upon as servants to the king being then called 'Cavaliers,' and the other of the rabble contemned and despised under the name of 'Roundheads.'" Charles II King of England, Scotland and Ireland Charles II (29 May 1630–6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 1609–9 December 1674) was an English historian, statesman and grandfather of two queens regnant, Mary II and Anne. ...


Richard Baxter ascribes the origin of the term to a remark made by Queen Henrietta Maria at the trial of the Earl of Strafford; referring to John Pym, she asked who the roundheaded man was. Richard Baxter Richard Baxter (November 12?, 1615 - December 8, 1691) was an English Puritan church leader, called by Dean Stanley the chief of English Protestant Schoolmen. He was born at Rowton, in Shropshire, at the house of his maternal grandfather. ... Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 - September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Maria) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert... Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford in an Armour, 1639, by Sir Anthony van Dyck. ... John Pym (1584 – December 8, 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of James I and then Charles I. Pym was born in Brymore, Somerset, into minor nobility. ...


References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclop√¶dia Britannica Eleventh Edition article "ROUNDHEAD", a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
roundhead - definition of roundhead in Encyclopedia (109 words)
The Roundheads was the nickname given to supporters of the Parliamentarian cause in the English Civil War.
The Roundheads were so nicknamed because of the relatively short plain page boy style haircuts favoured by Puritans, rather than the long ringlets of the fashionable courtly Cavaliers.
The name started as a term of abuse and in the New Model Army it was a punishable offence to call a fellow soldier a Roundhead.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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