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Encyclopedia > Rough Wooing

The Anglo-Scottish Wars were a series of wars fought between England and Scotland during the sixteenth century. Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ...


After the Wars of Scottish Independence, England and Scotland had fought several times during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. In most cases, one country had attempted to take advantage of weakness or instability in the other. For example, James II of Scotland had attempted to regain Berwick during the Wars of the Roses in England. The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... James II of Scotland (October 16, 1430 – August 3, 1460) was king of Scotland from 1437 to 1460. ... The place-name Berwick may refer to: Berwick, Victoria, Australia Berwick, Sussex, England Berwick, Louisiana, United States Berwick, Maine, United States Berwick, Nova Scotia, Canada Berwick, Pennsylvania, United States Berwick-upon-Tweed, England North Berwick, East Lothian, Scotland This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... York Lancaster For other uses see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation) And here I prophesy: this brawl today, Grown to this faction in the Temple garden, Shall send, between the Red Rose and the White, A thousand souls to death and deadly night. ...

Contents


Flodden campaign

England under Henry VIII declared war on France in 1512 (as part of the larger conflict known as the War of the League of Cambrai). James IV of Scotland invaded England in fulfilment of his alliance with France (even though married to Henry's sister Margaret). Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... 1512 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants {{{combatant1}}} {{{combatant2}}} Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties {{{casualties1}}} {{{casualties2}}} The War of the League of Cambrai (1508–16), sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names,[1] was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. ... James IV (March 17, 1473 – September 9, 1513) was King of Scotland from 1488 to 1513. ...


In 1513, after preliminary raids by borderers came to grief, James's main army invaded England. His artillery quickly subdued English castles such as Norham and Wark. Unfortunately, James's overdeveloped sense of chivalry prompted him to issue a formal challenge to the English army under the Earl of Surrey and await him in position. Surrey's army manoevred around the Scottish army and attacked from the rear. In the resulting disastrous Battle of Flodden Field, James IV was killed, along with many of his nobles and gentry, the "Flower of Scotland". 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (c. ... Western side of the battlefield, looking south-south-east from the monument erected in 1910 (marked red in the key below). ...


1514 - 1523

James V of Scotland was an infant barely a year old at his father's death. Various factions among the Scottish nobles contended for power, and custody of the young King. While Henry VIII secretly encouraged some of them, English armies and some clans of nominally Scottish Border Reivers repeatedly forayed and looted in south west Scotland, to maintain pressure on Scotland. James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ... Border Reivers were raiders along the Anglo-Scottish border (Border country), for nearly three hundred years from the late 13th century to the end of the 16th century, although their heyday was perhaps in the last hundred years of their existence. ...


Eventually, after the faction of the Earl of Angus gained control, peaceful relations were restored between England and Scotland. (Part of the reason for Henry's mellowing was that the disorders he had provoked in Scotland threatened to spill south of the border.) This article needs cleanup. ...


Solway Moss campaign

When James V came of age and assumed control, he overthrew the Angus faction, and renewed Scotland's Auld Alliance with France. He married first a daughter of Francis I of France, and when she died a few months later of tuberculosis, he married Mary of Guise. Tension between England and Scotland increased once again; not least because Henry had already broken with the Roman Catholic church and embarked upon the Dissolution of the Monasteries, whereas James held to Rome and gave authority to powerful prelates such as Cardinal Beaton. The Auld Alliance was an alliance between Scotland, France, and Norway which had its origins in the Orkneyinga saga and the colonisation of Normandy. ... Francis I (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – July 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (French: le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Tuberculosis (commonly shortened to TB) is an infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (Miliary tuberculosis), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Marie de Guise (in English, Mary of Guise) (November 22, 1515 – June,1560) was the Queen Consort of James V of Scotland and the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Dissolution of the Monasteries (referred to by Roman Catholic writers as the Suppression of the Monasteries) was the formal process, taking place between 1538 and 1541, by which King Henry VIII confiscated the property of the Roman Catholic monastic institutions in England and took them to himself, as the... Cardinal David Beaton Archbishop David Cardinal Beaton (c. ...


War broke out in 1541. Once again there were preliminary border skirmishes, but when James sent a large army into England, its leadership was weak and divided and it suffered a humbling defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss. Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... Solway Moss is a moss (lowland peat bog), in Cumbria, England, lying next to the River Sark which marks the Scottish border. ...


The Rough Wooing

The disaster caused James's health to fail and he died shortly afterwards. Once again, Scotland's monarch was an infant, this time Mary, Queen of Scots. Henry tried to pressure a divided Scotland into an alliance, and secure the marriage of Mary to his son Edward. When Cardinal Beaton gained control of the government of Scotland and renewed the alliance with France, Henry reacted in 1544 by sending an army under the Earl of Hertford, Edward's uncle, to systematically devastate and slaughter throughout southern Scotland, as a means of inducing a change of heart. Mary, Queen of Scots is the name of: Mary I of Scotland, the former queen of France and Scotland executed by her cousin Elizabeth I of England Mary, Queen of Scots (movie), a 1971 film about that queen starring Vanessa Redgrave Mary, Queen of Scots (1969 book), a 1969 book... Edward Tudor redirects here; for another (though unlikely) Edward Tudor, see a putative younger son of Henry VII of England, who, if existed, would be the uncle of this Edward Edward VI (12 October 1537–6 July 1553) was King of England and King of Ireland from 28 January 1547... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... The Most Noble Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (c. ...


Campaigning continued next year, but some Scottish factions reconciled, and won a victory at the Battle of Ancrum Moor, which temporarily halted English attacks. The Battle of Ancrum Moor was fought during an Anglo-Scottish war towards the end of the reign of Henry VIII of England. ...


Henry died in 1547. Hertford, now Protector and Duke of Somerset, renewed the attempt to enforce an alliance, and also to impose an Anglican Reformation on Scotland. He won a great victory at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, but Mary was smuggled to France to be betrothed to the Dauphin Francis. Events January 16 - Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which emerged in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, along the banks of the River Esk near Musselburgh on 10 September 1547, was the last battle to be fought between the Scottish and the English Royal armies and the first modern battle to be fought in the British Isles. ... For other uses, see Dauphin (disambiguation). ... Francis II (French: François II) (January 19, 1544 – December 5, 1560) was a King of France (1559 – 1560). ...


Fighting continued for some more years, but French troops assisted the Scots. Without lasting peace, Somerset's regime could not stand the expense of the war. He was overthrown and eventually executed.


The Reformation in Scotland

Pinkie Cleugh was the last pitched battle between England and Scotland. Beaton was murdered in 1546, and within a few years, Scotland was to be torn by a violent Reformation, while England was to undergo a counter-reformation under Queen Mary. For a while, both countries were distracted by internal troubles. Eventually, Queen Elizabeth came to rule England and restore stability. // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Mary Tudor is the name of both Mary I of England and her fathers sister, Mary Tudor (queen consort of France). ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...


Scotland remained divided. The Catholic faction under the Queen Mother, Mary of Guise, held Leith and Edinburgh. Elizabeth was able to ensure victory for the Protestant faction by using her fleet to blockade the Catholics and prevent French aid reaching them. Former Royal Yacht Britannia is permanently moored at Leith harbour. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ), Dùn Èideann () in Scottish Gaelic, is the second-largest city in Scotland and its capital city. ...


For the later part of the sixteenth century, peace was ensured by the probability that Mary's son, James VI of Scotland, who was raised as a Protestant, would become King of England on the death of Elizabeth. There was perennial trouble from Border Reivers, but Elizabeth was inclined to forgive even their depredations rather than pick a quarrel with her Protestant neighbour. James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ...


References

  • Dupuy, Ernest R. and Dupuy, Trevor N. The Encyclopedia of Military History from 3500 B.C. to the present. (revised ed.), New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1977.
  • George MacDonald Fraser, The Steel Bonnets, Harper Collins, 1971, ISBN 0002727463
  • R.L.Mackie, A History of Scotland.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Pinkie Cleugh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1098 words)
The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, along the banks of the River Esk near Musselburgh on 10 September 1547, was part of the War of the Rough Wooing.
It was the last battle to be fought between the Scottish and the English Royal armies and the first "modern" battle to be fought in the British Isles.
In the last years of his reign King Henry VIII had tried to secure an alliance with Scotland, and the marriage of the infant Mary Queen of Scots with his young son, the future Edward VI.
The Rough Wooing (1952 words)
"The ‘Rough Wooing’ is a catch-all phrase which describes the English attempt by war (hence the ‘rough’) to coerce the Scottish government into the betrothal of the Queen to the Prince of Wales, in 1547 King Edward VI (Thus the ‘Wooing’)".
French and English armies would continue to fight one another for possession of the south but the Rough Wooing was effectively over, Somerset had failed to gain Mary for his ward Edward and it would be the kingdoms of Scotland and France, not Scotland and England that would be united by the marriage of Mary.
One of the most important reasons for the failure of the Rough Wooing was that among the Scots nobility, there was very little enthusiasm for an English alliance and eventual union of the crowns, as it would have turned Scotland into another English shire.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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